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Genius Intelligence (The Underground Knowledge Series, #1)
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SECRET METHODS TO INCREASE IQ > Sleep-learning (aka hypnopaedia)

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message 1: by James, Group Founder (last edited Jun 11, 2017 11:34PM) (new) - rated it 5 stars

James Morcan | 11246 comments Even at night, the Pedemont orphans’ education continues through hypnopædia, or sleep-learning. Audio courses play through headphones they wear while asleep and our orphans are able to learn new subjects like high finance or foreign languages.

Hypnopædia comes from the Greek hypnos, meaning ‘sleep’, and paideia, meaning ‘education’. Although still not conclusive, some research has shown the subconscious mind is very receptive to absorbing knowledge whilst we sleep.

There are numerous references to hypnopædia in Aldous Huxley’s 1932 dystopian novel Brave New World. Thirty years later, this unusual learning method was also mentioned in A Clockwork Orange, another dystopian novel, by Anthony Burgess. The popularity of these bestselling novels coincided with the release of positive results of preliminary studies into sleep-learning, ensuring that hypnopædia became relatively well known around the world and interest in it blossomed.

Brave New World by Aldous Huxley
Stanley Kubrick's Clockwork Orange by Stanley Kubrick

However, from the early 1960’s onwards, more in-depth scientific studies were conducted in laboratories in the US and the UK, disproving the theory that humans could learn during sleep.

Even though many students in numerous countries kept claiming they achieved better exam results after listening to audio recordings on subjects whilst asleep, official studies simply did not confirm this. As a result, hypnopædia was discredited for about 50 years and slipped into obscurity in scientific and education circles.

Only in the last few years has the potential learning method resurfaced. Recent studies are beginning to contradict earlier experiments and it may not be long before hypnopædia is proven to be a reality.

For example, on August 29, 2012, The Huffington Post ran a news article under the headline Sleep Learning May Be Possible: Study. The article mentioned a new study by researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science, which demonstrated test subjects learnt new information while asleep.

In an interrelated experiment, scientists at Illinois’ Northwestern University discovered that taking a 90-minute nap immediately after studying helps solidify knowledge in the brain. They taught new things – both physical and mental – to people and then tested them on how well they remembered and applied the knowledge taught. There were two groups involved – one whose members slept after learning and one whose members stayed awake the whole time. Those who slept in the lab after studying showed significantly better mastery of the subject matter when tested.

So hypnopædia is once again on the scientific radar and it will be interesting to see the results of future studies.

message 2: by James, Group Founder (last edited Nov 02, 2014 04:42PM) (new) - rated it 5 stars

James Morcan | 11246 comments I've been reading more recent studies that all appear to prove hypnopædia is possible...Good news for those who (like me) are sometimes too lazy to learn during waking hours!

NBC’s Today published an article about the subject on September 11, 2014 which concurred with other recent findings.

“Research is beginning to show that our brains don’t go completely offline during a doze,” the article states, “but are actually busy organizing and storing away memories of events — and may be quite open to other activities.

“In fact,” the article continues, “a new study has shown that the brain can be started on a task just as a person is dropping off to sleep and then, during slumber, take in new auditory information and then process it, according to a report published Thursday in Current Biology.”

message 3: by James, Group Founder (new) - rated it 5 stars

James Morcan | 11246 comments "Sleep learning used to be a pipe dream. Now neuroscientists say they have found ways to enhance your memory with your eyes closed." - that quote is from this BBC article on sleep learning: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20140...

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James Morcan | 11246 comments “While the child was asleep, a broadcast programme from London suddenly started to come through; and the next morning...Little Reuben woke up repeating word for word a long lecture by that curious old writer...The principle of sleep-teaching, or hypnopædia, had been discovered...The principle had been discovered; but many, many years were to elapse before that principle was usefully applied...They thought that hypnopædia could be made an instrument of intellectual education.” –Aldous Huxley, Brave New World

Brave New World by Aldous Huxley

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Lance Morcan | 2825 comments Learning while you sleep may be possible: researchers http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/healt...
Learning while you sleep may become possible as researchers have found that the brain continues processing information while the body sleeps

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James Morcan | 11246 comments WASHIHNGTON POST: Your brain can form new memories while you are asleep, neuroscientists show https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/s...

A sleeping brain can form fresh memories, according to a team of neuroscientists. The researchers played complex sounds to people while they were sleeping, and afterward the sleepers could recognize those sounds when they were awake.

The idea that humans can learn while asleep, a concept sometimes called hypnopedia, has a long and odd history. It hit a particularly strange note in 1927, when New York inventor A. B. Saliger debuted the Psycho-phone. He billed the device as an “automatic suggestion machine.” The Psycho-phone was a phonograph connected to a clock. It played wax cylinder records, which Saliger made and sold. The records had names like “Life Extension,” “Normal Weight” or “Mating.” That last one went: “I desire a mate. I radiate love … My conversation is interesting. My company is delightful. I have a strong sex appeal.”

Thousands of sleepers bought the devices, Saliger told the New Yorker in 1933. (Those included Hollywood actors, he said, though he declined to name names.) Despite his enthusiasm for the machine — Saliger himself dozed off to “Inspiration” and “Health” — the device was a bust.

But the idea that we can learn while unconscious holds more merit than gizmos named Psycho-phone suggest. In the new study, published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications, neuroscientists demonstrated that it is possible to teach acoustic lessons to sleeping people.

“We proved that you can learn during sleep, which has been a topic debated for years,” said Thomas Andrillon, an author of the study and a neuroscientist at PSL Research University in Paris. Just don't expect Andrillon's experiments to make anyone fluent in French.

Researchers in the 1950s dismantled hypnopedia's more outlandish claims. Sleepers cannot wake up with brains filled with new meaning or facts, Rand Corp. researchers reported in 1956. Instead, test subjects who listened to trivia at night woke up with “non-recall.” (Still, the Psycho-phone spirit endures, at least in the app store, where hypnopedia software claims to promote foreign languages, material wealth and martial arts mastery.)

Yet success is possible, if you're not trying to learn dictionary definitions or kung fu. In recent years, scientists have trained sleepers to make subconscious associations. In a 2014 study, Israeli neuroscientists had 66 people smell cigarette smoke coupled with foul odors while they were asleep. The test subjects avoided smoking for two weeks after the experiment.

What's more, the scientists discovered that memories of white-noise pattern formed only during certain sleep stages. When the authors played the sounds during REM and light sleep, the test subjects could remember the pattern the next morning. During the deeper non-REM sleep, playing the recording hampered recall. Patterns “presented during non-REM sleep led to worse performance, as if there were a negative form of learning,” Andrillon said.

This marked the first time that researchers had “evidence for the sleep stages involved in the formation of completely new memories,” said Jan Born, a neuroscientist at the University of Tübingen in Germany, who was not involved with the study.

In Andrillon's view, the experiment helps to reconcile two competing theories about the role of sleep in new memories: In one idea, our sleeping brains replay memories from our waking lives. As they're played back, the memories consolidate and grow stronger, written more firmly into our synapses. In the other hypothesis, sleep instead cuts away at older, weaker memories. But the ones that remain stand out, like lonely trees in a field.

The study indicates that the sleeping brain can do both, Andrillon said. They might simply occur at separate moments in the sleep cycle, strengthening fresh memories followed by culling.

A separate team of neuroscientists had suspected that the two hypotheses might be complementary. But until now they did not have any explicit experimental support. “It is a delight to see these results, since we proposed already, quite a few years ago, that the different sleep stages may have a different impact on memory,” said Lisa Genzel, a neuroscientist at Radboud University in the Netherlands. “And here they are the first to provide direct evidence for this idea.”

Not all neuroscientists were so convinced. Born, an early proponent of the idea that sleep strengthens and consolidates memories, said this study showed what happens when we form memories while asleep. The average memory — a recollection from a waking experience — might not work in the same way, he said. “I would be skeptical about inferring from this type of approach to what happens during normal sleep.”

Andrillon acknowledged the limitations of this research, including that the scientists did not directly measure synapses. “We interpret our results in the light of cellular mechanisms,” he said, meaning strengthening or weakening of synapses, “that we could not directly measure, since they require invasive recording methods that cannot be applied in humans.”

When asked whether understanding the roles of sleep cycles and memory could lead to future sleep-hacks, a la the Psycho-phone, Andrillon said, “We are in the big unknown.” But, he noted, sleep is not just about memory. Trying to hijack the recommended seven-plus hours of sleep could disrupt normal brain function. Which is to say, even if you could learn French while asleep, it might ultimately do more harm than good. “I would be very cautious about the interest in this kind of learning,” he said, “whether this is detrimental to the other functions of sleeping.”

Mario the lone bookwolf (mariothelonebookwolf) I am new so that I can ask stupid questions. Has the topic of lucid dreaming already been brought into the discussion? And it´s possibilities of combining it with sleep learning?

message 8: by James, Group Founder (new) - rated it 5 stars

James Morcan | 11246 comments Mario wrote: "I am new so that I can ask stupid questions. Has the topic of lucid dreaming already been brought into the discussion? And it´s possibilities of combining it with sleep learning?"

Nobody has mentioned that to my knowledge.

Mario the lone bookwolf (mariothelonebookwolf) This is a pity. I've been lucidly dreaming with the help of books for years. Light, as in special bright-eyed glasses, definitely invades consciousness. Unfortunately, I can not work with noises myself, because it always wakes me up.
As a hypothesis: I assume that in the lucid dream you can perceive the sounds in the same quality of consciousness as in real life. The problem is likely to be the implementation in the dream, without too strong influence. But if it works, you could learn vocabulary while living out all your imagination. The cheapest way could be to pair a sleeping goggle with sensors to a millimeter-sized earplug or a speaker near the bed.
Without that conscious perception, it will undoubtedly have an effect too. The question is whether it affects the quality of sleep and thus recovery and whether one is less productive despite sufficient sleep. And if that is worth it relative to a very vague and not precisely quantifiable benefit.

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James Morcan | 11246 comments Dr. Matthew Walker on Sleep for Enhancing Learning, Creativity, Immunity, and Glymphatic System https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bEbtf...

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