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Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power
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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Sep 13, 2012 09:51PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod

This is the glossary for Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power. This is not a non spoiler thread so any urls and/or expansive discussion can take place here regarding this book. Additionally, this is the spot to add that additional information that may contain spoilers or any helpful urls, links, etc.

This thread is not to be used for self promotion.

Thomas Jefferson The Art of Power by Jon Meacham by Jon Meacham Jon Meacham

message 2: by Bryan (last edited Nov 06, 2012 08:09AM) (new) - rated it 3 stars

Bryan Craig Aaron Burr:


Aaron Burr was born in 1756 in Newark, New Jersey, into a family of ministers. His father was the second president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), and his grandfather was Jonathan Edwards, the famous theologian. Burr's parents died when he was a young boy, and he lived with various friends and family as a child. He went to college at Princeton in 1769 at the age of thirteen, graduating three years later.

In 1775, with the outbreak of the American Revolution, Burr joined the Army to fight against the British. He accompanied Benedict Arnold's failed expedition to try to invade Quebec, and in 1776 he became a member of General George Washington's staff. He served in the Army until 1779, when ill health forced him to resign. Burr then decided to study law, and he was admitted to the bar in New York in 1782.

After moving to New York City, Burr set up his law practice. He was elected to the state assembly of New York in 1784 and served one term. In 1789, the governor of New York chose Burr as the state attorney general, and just two years later, the state legislature appointed him to the Senate of the United States, where he served until 1797. During his tenure in the Senate, Burr became part of the Democratic-Republicans who were nominally led by Thomas Jefferson. He returned to New York after his stint in the Senate and again served in the state assembly. In 1800, the Democratic-Republicans chose Burr as the vice presidential candidate to run with Thomas Jefferson who was the presidential candidate.

During this period, voters could not differentiate their votes between President and vice president. The candidate with the most electoral votes became President and the candidate with the second most electoral votes became vice president. In the 1800 election, when the Democratic-Republican electors all voted for Jefferson and Burr, the two candidates received the same number of votes. Burr refused to concede to Jefferson, and only after thirty-six ballots in the House of Representatives did Jefferson finally prevail to become President. Needless to say, Burr's refusal to concede did not endear him to Jefferson, and he played little role in the administration. As vice president, Burr's primary responsibility was to preside over the Senate, which he did with efficiency and charm.

Burr ran for governor of New York in the 1804 election. Alexander Hamilton, a Federalist, led the opposition to Burr's candidacy and spoke out against Burr and questioned his integrity in public. For these perceived slights, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, during which he shot and killed Hamilton on July 11, 1804. After New York and New Jersey both issued warrants for his arrest, Burr went back to the District of Columbia and resumed his position as vice president, presiding over the Senate.

Jefferson did not ask Burr to run with him again in 1804, and Burr went out west after he finished his tenure. There he was involved in a scheme to provoke a war with Mexico and seize land to create his own empire. Although the details of his intrigue remain unclear, Burr was arrested on charges of treason. He was found not guilty and fled to Europe. After spending four years in Europe, Burr returned to the United States and resumed his legal practice. He died in 1836.

Aaron Burr Conspiracy to Treason by Buckner F. Melton, Jr. Buckner F. Melton, Jr.
The Treason Trials of Aaron Burr by Peter Charles Hoffer Peter Charles Hoffer
Fallen Founder The Life of Aaron Burr by Nancy Isenberg Nancy Isenberg

Bryan Craig John Adams:

a Delegate from Massachusetts and a Vice President and 2d President of the United States; born in Braintree, Mass., October 19, 1735; graduated from Harvard College in 1755; studied law; admitted to the bar in 1758 and commenced practice in Suffolk County; joined the Sons of Liberty and argued against the Stamp Act; was elected to represent Boston in the general court in 1768; Member of the Continental Congress 1774-1777; signed the Declaration of Independence and proposed George Washington, of Virginia, for General of the American Army; became a member of the Board of War, but resigned to accept appointment as commissioner to the Court of France; Minister Plenipotentiary to Holland 1782; first Minister to England 1785-1788; elected in 1788 as the first Vice President of the United States with George Washington as President; reelected in 1792 and served from April 21, 1789, to March 3, 1797; elected President of the United States and served from March 4, 1797, to March 3, 1801; delegate to the constitutional convention of Massachusetts 1820; died in Quincy, Mass., July 4, 1826; interment under the old First Congregational Church, now called the United First Parish Church.

John Adams by David McCullough David McCullough David McCullough
John Adams A Life by John Ferling John Ferling John Ferling
The Adams-Jefferson Letters The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams by Lester J. Cappon Lester J. Cappon

Bryan Craig Benjamin Rush:


a Delegate from Pennsylvania; born in Byberry Township, near Philadelphia, Pa., January 4, 1746; educated under private tutors and at a private school in Nottingham, Md.; was graduated from Princeton College in 1760; studied medicine in Philadelphia, Edinburgh, London, and Paris, and commenced practice in Philadelphia in August 1769; held several professorships in the Philadelphia Medical College; Member of the Continental Congress in 1776 and 1777; a signer of the Declaration of Independence; entered the Revolutionary Army as surgeon general of the Middle Department in April 1777; made physician general in July 1777; resigned in February 1778; resumed the practice of medicine; delegate to the Pennsylvania ratification convention, 1787; founder of the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia; president of the Philadelphia Medical Society; vice president and one of the founders of the Philadelphia Bible Society; one of the founders of Dickinson College at Carlisle, Pa.; assisted in the establishment of the Philadelphia dispensary in 1786; treasurer of the United States Mint at Philadelphia from 1799 until his death in that city April 19, 1813; interment in Christ Church Burying Ground.

Benjamin Rush Patriot and Physician by Alyn Brodsky Alyn Brodsky

Bryan Craig James Monroe:

a Delegate and a Senator from Virginia and 5th President of the United States; born in Westmoreland County, Va., April 28, 1758; pursued classical studies; attended William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Va., in 1776 and left to enter the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War; appointed a lieutenant in the Third Virginia Regiment, participated in numerous engagements, and was severely wounded in the Battle of Trenton; rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel; member, State assembly 1782; Member of the Continental Congress 1783-1786; resumed the study of law; admitted to the bar and engaged in practice in Fredericksburg, Va.; member, State assembly 1786; delegate to the State convention to consider the Federal Constitution in 1788; unsuccessful candidate for election to the First Congress; elected to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of William Grayson; reelected in 1791 and served from November 9, 1790, until his resignation May 27, 1794; appointed by President George Washington as Minister Plenipotentiary to France 1794-1796; Governor of Virginia 1799-1802; appointed by President Thomas Jefferson as Minister Plenipotentiary to France in 1803, and Minister Plenipotentiary to England 1803-1807, and during this period headed a diplomatic mission to Spain; returned home in 1808; member, State assembly 1810-1811; Governor of Virginia 1811; appointed Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President James Madison and served from 1811 to 1817; also served as Secretary of War 1814-1815; elected in 1816 and reelected in 1820 as President of the United States and served from March 4, 1817, to March 3, 1825; retired to his farm in Loudoun County, Va.; member and president of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829; moved to New York City in 1831, and died there July 4, 1831; interment in Marble Cemetery on Second Street, New York City; reinterred in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Va., July 4, 1858.

James Monroe The Quest for National Identity by Harry Ammon Harry Ammon
James Monroe (The American Presidents, #5) by Gary Hart Gary Hart Gary Hart
Jefferson and Monroe by Noble E. Cunningham Jr. Noble E. Cunningham Jr.

Bryan Craig Samuel Harrison Smith:

was an American journalist and newspaper publisher. He founded the National Intelligencer at Washington in 1800. Joseph Gales became his assistant in 1807 and sole proprietor in 1810. In 1813 Smith was appointed the Commissioner of the Revenue for the United States Treasury Department by President Madison, and on September 30, 1814, Secretary of the Treasury, ad interim. During the period 1809-19 he was president of the Bank of Washington and then president of the Washington branch of the Bank of the United States until the position was abolished in 1835. He was married to the author Margaret Bayard Smith, first cousin to James A. Bayard who was so influential in the 1800 presidential election.

The First Forty Years of Washington Society, Portrayed by the Family Letters of Mrs. Samuel Harrison Smith (Margaret Bayard) from the Collection of He by Margaret 1778 Smith Margaret 1778 Smith

Bryan Craig Margaret Bayard Smith:

was an American author, born in Pennsylvania to Colonel John Bubenheim Bayard and Margaret Hodge.

Her father was with George Washington at Valley Forge when she was born, the seventh of eight children. Also included in the family were three orphaned children of Col. Bayard's twin brother, Dr. James Asheton Bayard who had married Margaret Hodge's sister, Ann Hodge. One of the orphaned children was the lawyer and politician James A. Bayard. Margaret married Samuel Harrison Smith on 29 September 1800.

Her husband, Samuel Harrison Smith, was a close friend of Thomas Jefferson, who encouraged Smith to establish the newspaper National Intelligencer when the government moved from Philadelphia to Washington. Their first child Julia Harrison Smith was born in 1801 and soon after the family bought a farm, Turkey Thicket, three miles from town (now part of Catholic University). They renamed the farm Sidney. In 1804 another daughter, Susan Harrison Smith, was born. In 1810 a son, Jonathan Bayard Smith and in 1811 another daughter, Anna Maria Harrison Smith. Mrs. Smith began writing in the 1820s. A two-volume novel in 1824 called A Winter in Washington, or Memoirs of the Seymour Family. Another novel in 1825, What is Gentility? as well as contributing to several serials with essays and short stories. She also wrote several biographies including Dolly Madison. Her literary reputation, however, comes primarily from a collection of her letters and notebooks written from 1800 to 1841 and published in 1906 by Gaillard Hunt as The First Forty Years of Washington Society.

The First Forty Years of Washington Society, Portrayed by the Family Letters of Mrs. Samuel Harrison Smith (Margaret Bayard) from the Collection of He by Margaret 1778 Smith Margaret 1778 Smith

Bryan Craig Maria Cosway:

was an Italian-English artist, who exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts in London. She also worked in France, where she cultivated a large circle of friends and clients, and later in Italy.

Jefferson in Love The Love Letters Between Thomas Jefferson and Maria Cosway by John P. Kaminski John P. Kaminski
Divided Affections The Extraordinary Life Of Maria Cosway Celebrity Artist And Thomas Jefferson's Impossible Love by Carol Burnell Carol Burnell

Bryan Craig Sally Hemings:

Sally Hemings, whose given name was probably Sarah, was the daughter of Elizabeth (Betty) Hemings. According to her son, Madison Hemings, her father was Thomas Jefferson's father-in-law John Wayles. There are no known portraits of her. Sally Hemings became Thomas Jefferson's property as part of his inheritance from the Wayles estate in 1774 and came with her mother to Monticello by 1776. As a child she was probably a nursemaid to Jefferson's daughter Mary (slave girls from the age of six or eight were childminders and assistants to head nurses on southern plantations).

Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings An American Controversy by Annette Gordon-Reed The Hemingses of Monticello by Annette Gordon-Reed Annette Gordon-Reed
Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson History, Memory, and Civic Culture by Peter S. Onuf Peter S. Onuf
"Those Who Labor for My Happiness" Slavery at Thomas Jefferson's Monticello by (Cinder) Lucia Stanton (Cinder) Lucia Stanton
The Jefferson-Hemings Controversy by Scholars Commission on the Jefferson-Hem Scholars Commission on the Jefferson-Hem

Bryan Craig Shadwell:

was the birthplace of Thomas Jefferson, and the main plantation of his father, Peter Jefferson. Located in Albemarle County, Virginia, it was named after the parish in London where Jane Randolph Jefferson was born. The land was purchased from William Randolph by Peter Jefferson in 1736 for "Henry Weatherborne’s biggest bowl of Arrack punch." A year later, in 1737, Peter Jefferson built the original house on the property and in 1739, following their marriage, his wife joined him there. Thomas Jefferson was born at Shadwell in 1743, but spent only a few years of his childhood there.

The original house built by the Jefferson family was a one-and-a-half story frame dwelling, which burned in February of 1770. Archaeological work has been done on the property, and in 1991 two cellar foundations were uncovered, one of which is believed to be the site of the original main house built by Peter Jefferson.

In 1841, Col. Frank Ruffin and his wife, Cary Anne Nicholas Randolph Ruffin, built the current main house. Although located on the original "punch-bowl tract" of land, the current Shadwell residence is not located near the site of the original Jefferson house.


Bryan Craig Peter Jefferson:

"On the afternoon of February 1, 1770, Thomas Jefferson had dinner with his family at Shadwell before proceeding to Charlottesville. At some time after his departure, the house burned to the ground. A few books, his violin, and several beds were all that were saved from the blaze. As he later informed [a friend], he lost ‘every paper I had in the world, and almost every book.’" [From Thomas Jefferson: Statesman of Science, by Silvio Bedini, p. 53.] Among the items that perished were the irreplaceable journals, field notes, maps and account books bequeathed him by his father, surveyor and explorer Peter Jefferson.

Peter Jefferson was the grandson of a surveyor, and the son of a "gentleman justice" who also served as sheriff and captain of militia. At the time of his father’s death in 1731, Peter’s share of the estate consisted of two slaves, some livestock and horses, and some undeveloped land in Goochland County. He moved to that property on Fine Creek, cleared land, built a house, and planted crops. Peter became one of the first justices of the peace and then sheriff of Goochland County. His closest friend was William Randolph, and they served as magistrates and militia officers together.

They also worked to acquire land; Peter had his eye on choice acreage on the Rivanna River, but when he went to file on 1000 acres, he discovered that William had two days earlier filed on 2400 acres, including the 400 acre piece on which Peter had hoped to build a house. William, learning of Peter’s dismay, promptly sold him the 400 acres, 200 acres for cash and 200 acres in exchange for "Henry Weatherbourn’s biggest bowl of arrack punch."

Peter then married the tall and slender Jane Randolph (first cousin to William); he was 31years old, she was 19. They made their home at Fine Creek, and in the next two years became the parents of two daughters. Accompanied by some of his highly skilled slaves, Peter journeyed to his Rivanna property and began clearing the land and building his homestead. He named it "Shadwell" for the London parish in which his wife had been born. Their son Thomas was born there in 1743.

The next year, Peter was appointed surveyor of Goochland County and also became a member of the first county court in newly-formed Albemarle County.

The following year, Peter set out with Brooke, Lewis and Winslow to survey the Fairfax Line [ed. note: see pg. 13 this issue]. Sarah Hughes observes in her book, Surveyors and Statesmen: "Unlike the surveys of 1736-1737, where the chains had been laid along the banks of rivers, that of 1746 was obliged to plunge across an uninhabited and inhospitable countryside. From a spring in the Blue Ridge down into the Shenandoah Valley the way was easy; afterwards the surveyors climbed and descended range after range of the Alleghenie mountains to reach the headspring of the Potomac." Despite difficult terrain and conditions the surveyors persevered.

Joshua Fry was one of the royal commissioners on the Fairfax Line survey, and a neighbor and friend of Peter. Their friendship, by all accounts, involved a shared love of learning. A former professor of Mathematics at William & Mary College in Williamsburg, Joshua Fry moved to Albemarle County "in order to raise a fortune for his family". He was one of the first magistrates and a county militia officer in the new county, but his chief occupation was surveying. For some years he was engaged in surveying lands in Albemarle, Goochland, and surrounding counties with Peter. In 1751 they produced the famous Fry/Jefferson Map "of the Most Inhabited Parts of Virginia", and in 1752 they surveyed the "Extended Dividing Line between Virginia & North Carolina".

In June 1757 Peter Jefferson became ill and never recovered. His death on August 17th at age forty-nine stunned everyone. Of his personal possessions, his will directed that his desk, bookcases, cherished books, maps, original surveying notes and journals, surveying instruments, and his account books as Albemarle Surveyor be given to his son Thomas. The devastating fire at Shadwell destroyed them all.


Bryan Craig Jefferson-Frye Map:


The Fry-Jefferson map, first published in 1753, was the definitive map of Virginia in the eighteenth century. Created by two of the colony's most accomplished surveyors, Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, A Map of the Inhabited Part of Virginia containing the whole Province of Maryland, with Part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina included their completed border survey for the western bounds of the Northern Neck and a portion of the Virginia–North Carolina dividing line. For the first time the entire Virginia river system was properly delineated, and the northeast-southwest orientation of the Appalachian Mountains was fully displayed. Published in eight known editions, or states, the map was widely copied, and served as an important resource for mapmakers like Lewis Evans and John Mitchell, whose Map of the British and French Dominions in North America (1755) was used to determine the boundaries of the United States as established in the Treaty of Paris (1783). John Henry also relied heavily on the Fry-Jefferson map as he plotted county boundaries in his New and Accurate Map of Virginia (1770), and Thomas Jefferson, Peter Jefferson's son, used his father's map to compile A Map of the country between Albemarle Sounds, and Lake Erie, which accompanied his Notes on the State of Virginia (written 1781)


message 13: by Bryan (last edited Nov 19, 2012 07:41AM) (new) - rated it 3 stars

Bryan Craig College of William & Mary:

The College of William & Mary is the second-oldest college in America. The original plans for the College date back to 1618—decades before Harvard—but were derailed by an “Indian uprising.” We couldn’t make this stuff up.

On February 8, 1693, King William III and Queen Mary II of England signed the charter for a “perpetual College of Divinity, Philosophy, Languages, and other good Arts and Sciences” to be founded in the Virginia Colony. And William & Mary was born.

Workers began construction on the Sir Christopher Wren Building, then known simply as the College Building in 1695, before the town of Williamsburg even existed. Over the next two centuries, the Wren Building would burn on three separate occasions, each time being re-built inside the original walls. That makes the Wren the oldest college building in America, and possibly the most flammable.

The College has been called “the Alma Mater of a Nation” because of its close ties to America’s founding fathers. A 17-year-old George Washington received his surveyor's license through the College and would return as its first American chancellor. Thomas Jefferson received his undergraduate education here, as did presidents John Tyler and James Monroe.

William & Mary is famous for its firsts: the first U.S. institution with a Royal Charter, the first Greek-letter society (Phi Beta Kappa, founded in 1776), the first student honor code and the first law school in America.


Bryan Craig Memorandum Books:

An invaluable resource to scholars, Jefferson's Memorandum Book contains notations of his purchases spanning 59 years. This particular page includes record of payment for land; for books; for heating stoves constructed by Henry Foxall; for malt for the recently renewed brewing efforts; for an annuity to John Hemmings; and, for services in recovering James Hubbard, a slave who ran away on at least two occasions.

Jefferson's Memorandum Books Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767-1826 by Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson

Bryan Craig George Washington:

a Delegate from Virginia and first President of the United States; born at “Wakefield,” near Popes Creek, Westmoreland County, Va., February 22, 1732; raised in Westmoreland County, Fairfax County and King George County; attended local schools and engaged in land surveying; appointed adjutant general of a military district in Virginia with the rank of major in 1752; in November 1753 was sent by Lieutenant Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, to conduct business with the French Army in the Ohio Valley; in 1754 was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel and served in the French and Indian war, becoming aide-de-camp to General Braddock in 1755; appointed as commander in chief of Virginia forces in 1755; resigned his commission in December 1758 and returned to the management of his estate at Mount Vernon in 1759; served as a justice of the peace 1760-1774, and as a member of the Virginia house of burgesses 1758-1774; delegate to the Williamsburg convention of August 1774; Member of the First and Second Continental Congresses in 1774 and 1775; unanimously chosen June 15, 1775, as commander in chief of all the forces raised or to be raised; commanded the Continental armies throughout the war for independence; resigned his commission December 23, 1783, and returned to private life at Mount Vernon; was delegate to, and president of, the Federal Convention in Philadelphia in 1787; unanimously elected as the first President of the United States, being inaugurated April 30, 1789, in New York City; unanimously reelected in 1792 and served until March 3, 1797, declining a renomination; again appointed as lieutenant general and commander of the United States Army July 3, 1798, and served until his death on December 14, 1799, in Mount Vernon, Va.; interment in the vault at Mount Vernon.

Washington A Life by Ron Chernow Ron Chernow Ron Chernow

Bryan Craig William Small:

William Small, born in Scotland in 1734 and educated at Marischal College in Aberdeen, was appointed professor of natural philosophy at William and Mary in 1758. In Virginia he became Jefferson's mentor, often taking him to meet the colony's elite.

In 1764 - after competing unsuccessfully for the presidency of the College - Small returned to England to buy scientific equipment for the struggling College. He never again braved the Atlantic. Later opened a medical practice in Birmingham.

Armed with a letter of introduction from the premier American scientist Benjamin Franklin, he was elected a member of the prestigious Lunar Society, a discussion club of prominent industrialists and scientists that claimed the membership of such luminaries as James Watt and Joseph Priestley. It was only natural that Small would join such a distinguished group. A committed son of the Enlightenment, Small had a bright, energetic mind with far-reaching interests in math, chemistry, medicine and other disciplines that had the power to dispel myth and improve the lot of common citizens.

As a William and Mary professor, he had inaugurated a society similar to the Birmingham group to foster the growth of science in the colony, one that was sponsored by Francis Fauquier, the acting royal governor of Virginia (1758-68) and that influenced the young Jefferson.

With the inspiration of the Lunar Society, Small seemed destined for some great scientific achievement, like Priestley's discovery of oxygen or Watt's development of the steam engine. But Small's promising career was cut short by his early death at age 41 from complications of malaria contracted during his days at William and Mary. A letter and three cases of Madeira sent as a tribute by Jefferson to his former professor arrived six months after Small's burial.


Bryan Craig George Wythe:

George Wythe was one of the very most distinguished men of his age, yet due to his modesty and quiet dignity, we learn little about him from the history books. He was born in Elizabeth County Virginia, in 1726, of a wealthy agricultural family. His father died when George was three, but his mother, who was extraordinarily well educated for a woman of that day, tutored him in the classics in a manner that would take him far indeed. His mother died when he was still a teenager and his oldest brother, who took no interest in George, inherited the family property. George entered the college of William and Mary but was unable to keep up with the fees. He dropped out and then managed to secure a study of law at the office of a Stephen Dewey. His studies were so successful that he was admitted to the bar in Spottsylvania County in 1746, at the age of 20.

Everyone who came into contact with him was impressed. He was appointed clerk to the Committee which formed the rules of conduct and elections in the House of Burgesses in 1746. In 1753 the Royal Governor of Virginia made him Attorney General, to fill the shoes of Peyton Randolph while he traveled to England. In 1755 Wythe was elected to represent Williamsburg at the House of Burgesses. At that time, his oldest brother died, and he inherited the family farm. Wythe served in the House of Burgesses until it was dissolved, on the eve of the revolution.

His most valuable contribution to the new nation was his involvement in education. This began in 1761 when he was elected to the Board of Visitors at the College of William and Mary. Eight years later the man who could never gain a degree for want of the money to do it with, became America's first Professor of Law. His students included Thomas Jefferson, Henry Clay, James Monroe, John Marshal, and several dozen other distinguished public servants. He taught for twenty years and admitted to no greater love than that of forming young minds.

In 1775 Wythe was elected to attend the Continental Congress. He served for two years, voted in favor of the Resolution, and for the Declaration. In 1776 he was called back to Virginia in order to help form the new government. He was elected Speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1777. The following year he was made one of the three Chancellors of the State of Virginia, a post that he served in for the rest of his life. George Wythe was revered as a man on great honor and integrity. He was a republican in all things, and a quiet abolitionist. He freed his slaves and made provisions for their support until they could earn a living for themselves. This ended in tragedy-and that tragedy would cost Wythe his own life. A young member of his family, on discovering that Wythe had conditionally willed part of the family property to his slaves, decided to enlarge his own share by poisoning them with arsenic. He incidentally murdered George Wythe in the process. Wythe died on June 8, 1806 at the age of 80.


Bryan Craig Francis Fauquier:

Francis Fauquier served as lieutenant governor of Virginia from 1758 until his death in 1768 and during the terms of two absentee governors, John Campbell, fourth earl of Loudoun, and Sir Jeffery Amherst. Born and educated in London, Fauquier was influential in business and the arts before coming to Virginia. Beginning in the midst of the French and Indian War (1754–1763), his administration was fraught with unusual difficulties. He struggled to establish defenses against Indian raids on the frontier and to recruit and supply Virginia regiments to supplement British expeditionary forces; he worked for a compromise between colonials and English merchants over the issue of paper money; and he maintained a strong grip upon the government in the midst of the Stamp Act crisis and revelations of irregularities in the Treasurer's Office following the death of Speaker John Robinson (1705–1766). Influenced by the Enlightenment, Fauquier had a good relationship with Virginia's colonial leaders and generally promoted education. Before his death, he stipulated that the families of his slaves not be split up upon his death.


Bryan Craig Payton Randolph:

Peyton Randolph was born into an eminent Virginia family and educated, in the tradition of the time, in England. He Graduated Oxford University with honors and returned to Virginia to study law. He joined the Virginia Bar and was later made Attorney General of the colony. Randolph was also a military leader in the defense of the colony against Indian attack during the French and Indian War. At the end of the war he was elected to the House of Burgesses, where he often presided. He was the House leader when •Patrick Henry made his stand against the Stamp act, and later when the House was dissolved by the governor for its resolutions against parliamentary aggression to Massachusetts. He left his seat in the House of Burgesses to attend the first Continental Congress in 1774, was elected President of the congress by unanimous vote and so became the first President of the united colonies. He was again elected President the following session but, his health failing, he resigned the office 14 days later. He resumed a seat in the congress the following September but died that October in Philadelphia.

Peyton Randolph, 1721 1775 One Who Presided by John J. Reardon John J. Reardon

Bryan Craig Albemarle County:

Albemarle County was formed in 1744 by an act of the General Assembly. Its original land area included today's counties of Amherst, Buckingham, Fluvanna, and Nelson, much of Appomattox and part of Campbell. Albemarle County assumed its present boundaries in 1777. It was named in honor of William Ann Keppel, second Earl of Albemarle, who was then governor of the colony. The first county seat was located in Scottsville. In 1761, however, county government was moved to Charlottesville, which was established as a town in 1762 and established as a city on 1888.


message 21: by Joanne (new) - added it

Joanne | 647 comments Bryan wrote: "Sally Hemings:

Sally Hemings, whose given name was probably Sarah, was the daughter of Elizabeth (Betty) Hemings. According to her son, Madison Hemings, her father was Thomas Jefferson's father-in..."

I highly recommend Cinder Stanton's collected work in "Those Who Labor For My Happiness." The essays are arranged in chronological order, reflecting Stanton's growth as a scholar and her ever expanding view of Jefferson and slavery.

"Those Who Labor for My Happiness" Slavery at Thomas Jefferson's Monticello by (Cinder) Lucia Stanton by (Cinder) Lucia Stanton

Bryan Craig I second that, Joanne.

message 23: by Joanne (new) - added it

Joanne | 647 comments Bryan wrote: "George Wythe:

George Wythe was one of the very most distinguished men of his age, yet due to his modesty and quiet dignity, we learn little about him from the history books. He was born in Eliza..."

George Wythe is a fascinating character in his own right, beyond his influence on Thomas Jefferson. For more about his curious death, consider reading "I am Murdered."

I Am Murdered George Wythe, Thomas Jefferson, and the Killing That Shocked a New Nation by Bruce Chadwick by Bruce Chadwick

message 24: by Shelly♥ (last edited Nov 21, 2012 05:31AM) (new) - rated it 5 stars

Shelly♥ (shellysjournal) I have read:

Madison and Jefferson by Andrew Burstein byAndrew Burstein

It's excellent as far as the portrayal of the "Virginia Experience" for Jefferson - what that meant and really exploring Madison's role in his life.

message 25: by Vivien (new)

Vivien | 10 comments Bryan: How awesome that you take the time to give us pictures and facts about the people that are mentioned in the book. I find that extremely helpful! I really appreciate your efforts. I happen to be a visual person and I love associating a name with a picture.

Bryan Craig Great, Vivien, my pleasure. I also think it helps to put a face to the words. Thanks for the kind comments.

Bryan Craig Dr. Thomas Walker:

Thomas Walker was born in King and Queen County, the son of Dr. Thomas Walker, Sr. and Susanna Peachy Walker. He studied medicine at William and Mary and was one of the most prominent physicians in Albemarle County. In 1741, he married Mildred Thornton Meriwether, the widow of Nicholas Meriwether, II, and through her, obtained the property known as “Castle Hill,” an estate of 15,000 acres. In the 1742 Personal Property Tax List of Albemarle County, Thomas Walker is listed as having 86 slaves, 93 cattle, 22 cattle, and two carriages. (Cappon) In addition to practicing medicine, Dr. Walker explored portions of Southwest Virginia and into Kentucky, naming the Cumberland Mountains and River. He served as commissary of Virginia troops under General Braddock during the French and Indian War and later was asked to negotiate with Native Americans of New York and Pennsylvania. He was elected to the House of Burgesses for Hanover, Louisa, and Albemarle County (Albemarle and Louisa Counties were formed from parts of Hanover County) and surveyed the Virginia-North Carolina border. Dr. Walker was a trustee for Albemarle County in 1763, charged with the task of selling lots in the new county seat, Charlottesville. He was appointed guardian to the young Thomas Jefferson after the death of his father, Peter Jefferson.

Bryan Craig Francis Alberti:

was a musician from Faenza, Italy who taught music to Thomas Jefferson and his family.

Thomas Jefferson and Music by Helen Cripe Helen Cripe

message 30: by Bryan (last edited Nov 26, 2012 08:39AM) (new) - rated it 3 stars

Bryan Craig Townshend Acts:

Taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea were applied with the design of raising £40,000 a year for the administration of the colonies. The result was the resurrection of colonial hostilities created by the Stamp Act.

Reaction assumed revolutionary proportions in Boston, in the summer of 1768, when customs officials impounded a sloop owned by John Hancock, for violations of the trade regulations. Crowds mobbed the customs office, forcing the officials to retire to a British Warship in the Harbor. Troops from England and Nova Scotia marched in to occupy Boston on October 1, 1768. Bostonians offered no resistance. Rather they changed their tactics. They established non-importation agreements that quickly spread throughout the colonies. British trade soon dried up and the powerful merchants of Britain once again interceded on behalf of the colonies.


Bryan Craig First Structure at Monticello (South Pavilion):

The South Pavilion was the first brick building completed as part Jefferson's plans for the Monticello mountaintop. It is a two-story structure built into the hillside. Its lower level originally contained a kitchen that opened onto a yard extending down slope to Mulberry Row. In 1772, Jefferson and his new wife Martha lived in the small, plastered room on the second floor of the South Pavilion until the main house was complete enough to inhabit. Later that year, their eldest daughter, Martha, was born here. In 1808, the pavilion was reworked in accordance with Jefferson's revised design for Monticello.


Bryan Craig Shadwell Library:

Jefferson inherited his first library from his father, Peter Jefferson, when the latter died in 1757. On 1 February 1770, a fire destroyed almost all of the books in Jefferson’s home at Shadwell. It is not known if Jefferson kept a list of the books he had in his Shadwell Library at the time of the fire. If he did, it would very likely have been destroyed along with all of his personal papers. Here is a reconstructed list of books that Jefferson either inherited, acquired, or was familiar with and hence very likely owned at Shadwell.


message 33: by G (new) - rated it 4 stars

G Hodges (glh1) | 901 comments Clementina Rind - I was curious as to why she would print Jefferson's Summary so readily (as described by Meacham) and found this link. She seems like an interesting woman.

message 34: by Joanne (last edited Nov 26, 2012 05:17PM) (new) - added it

Joanne | 647 comments G wrote: " Clementina Rind - I was curious as to why she would print Jefferson's Summary so readily (as described by Meacham) and found this link. She seems like an interesting woman.


Thanks for the link to the page about Clementina Rind!

message 35: by Joanne (new) - added it

Joanne | 647 comments For more about the "Virginia Gazette" and a look as some of the issues published by Clementina Rind, see this webstie maintained by Colonial Williamsburg:

Bryan Craig Thanks, G and Joanne. It is very cool that she was the first female printer in Virginia.

message 37: by Bryan (last edited Nov 27, 2012 07:05AM) (new) - rated it 3 stars

Bryan Craig Martha Wayles Skelton:

When Thomas Jefferson came courting, Martha Wayles Skelton at 22 was already a widow, an heiress, and a mother whose firstborn son would die in early childhood. Family tradition says that she was accomplished and beautiful--with slender figure, hazel eyes, and auburn hair--and wooed by many. Perhaps a mutual love of music cemented the romance; Jefferson played the violin, and one of the furnishings he ordered for the home he was building at Monticello was a "forte-piano" for his bride.

They were married on New Year's Day, 1772, at the bride's plantation home "The Forest," near Williamsburg. When they finally reached Monticello in a late January snowstorm to find no fire, no food, and the servants asleep, they toasted their new home with a leftover half-bottle of wine and "song and merriment and laughter." That night, on their own mountaintop, the love of Thomas Jefferson and his bride seemed strong enough to endure any adversity.

The birth of their daughter Martha in September increased their happiness. Within ten years the family gained five more children. Of them all, only two lived to grow up: Martha, called Patsy, and Mary, called Maria or Polly.

The physical strain of frequent pregnancies weakened Martha Jefferson so gravely that her husband curtailed his political activities to stay near her. He served in Virginia's House of Delegates and as governor, but he refused an appointment by the Continental Congress as a commissioner to France. Just after New Year's Day, 1781, a British invasion forced Martha to flee the capital in Richmond with a baby girl a few weeks old--who died in April. In June the family barely escaped an enemy raid on Monticello. She bore another daughter the following May, and never regained a fair measure of strength. Jefferson wrote on May 20 that her condition was dangerous. After months of tending her devotedly, he noted in his account book for September 6, "My dear wife died this day at 11:45 A.M."

Apparently he never brought himself to record their life together; in a memoir he referred to ten years "in unchequered happiness." Half a century later his daughter Martha remembered his sorrow: "the violence of his this day I not describe to myself." For three weeks he had shut himself in his room, pacing back and forth until exhausted. Slowly that first anguish spent itself. In November he agreed to serve as commissioner to France, eventually taking "Patsy" with him in 1784 and send for "Polly" later.


message 38: by Joanne (new) - added it

Joanne | 647 comments Bryan wrote: "Thanks, G and Joanne. It is very cool that she was the first female printer in Virginia."

Agreed. Very cool!

message 39: by Joanne (last edited Nov 27, 2012 07:13AM) (new) - added it

Joanne | 647 comments Bryan wrote: "Martha Wayles Skelton:

When Thomas Jefferson came courting, Martha Wayles Skelton at 22 was already a widow, an heiress, and a mother whose firstborn son would die in early childhood. Family tradi..."

In the course of documenting the Hemings family, Annette Gordon-Reed writes extensively about John Wayles and the home life of his daughter, Martha, prior to her marriages. John Wayles is a fascinating man whose life and death profoundly influenced the fortunes and, perhaps, misfortunes of Thomas Jefferson.

The Hemingses of Monticello by Annette Gordon-Reed by Annette Gordon-Reed

message 40: by Bryan (last edited Nov 27, 2012 07:16AM) (new) - rated it 3 stars

Bryan Craig Indeed, Joanne, thanks for sharing this. This book is an important work, and if you read Stanton's books, you will get a great picture of slavery at Monticello.

The Hemingses of Monticello by Annette Gordon-Reed Annette Gordon-Reed

Lucia Stanton

message 41: by Jill (last edited Nov 27, 2012 10:10AM) (new) - rated it 3 stars

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) A Summary View of the Rights of British America" (with footnotes) can be found at the link below;

message 42: by Joanne (new) - added it

Joanne | 647 comments Jill wrote: "A Summary View of the Rights of British America" (with footnotes) can be found at the link below;


Thanks, Jill. It's always good to go back to the primary resource.

Bryan Craig Thanks, Jill.

message 44: by Jill (new) - rated it 3 stars

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) It is surely an interesting document.

Bryan Craig Martha "Patsy" Jefferson Randolph:

Martha Jefferson Randolph, known as "Patsy" in her youth, was the eldest child of Thomas Jefferson and Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson. Educated in Philadelphia and Paris during the 1780s, she married her third cousin Thomas Mann Randolph, in 1790. The couple had 11 living children, whom Martha instructed at home. Closely following and supporting her father's career, Martha served as "first lady" from 1802-3 and 1805-6 in the President's House, or the White House, earning a reputation for her intellectual abilities. After Jefferson's retirement, Martha and her children spent their time primarily at Monticello, even while Thomas Mann Randolph served in Richmond as Governor. The financial difficulties of both her father and husband were a continual strain on Martha. After Jefferson's death in 1826, she was forced to sell Monticello and move to Tufton to live with her eldest son, Thomas Jefferson Randolph. Martha reconciled with her estranged husband shortly before his death in 1828 and lived out the rest of her life with her children in Boston, Washington, D.C., and at her Edgehill estate in Albemarle County. Upon her death, she was buried alongside her husband and father at Monticello.


message 46: by Bryan (last edited Nov 29, 2012 08:38AM) (new) - rated it 3 stars

Bryan Craig James Hemings:

A son of Elizabeth Hemings, James Hemings was nineteen years old when Jefferson decided to take him to France for the "particular purpose" of learning French cookery. Hemings spent the next three years as an apprentice to a variety of French caterers and cooks before taking charge of the kitchen in Jefferson's residence on the Champs-Elys'es. His creations were served to authors and scientists, and a succession of European aristocrats from the Duc de La Rochefoucauld to the Princess Lubomirska.

Despite being legally free while in France, Hemings returned to the United States and took charge of Jefferson's kitchen in Philadelphia. Here again, his status as a slave in a state where slavery was illegal was in doubt, and in 1793 he and Jefferson struck a deal: James would be granted his freedom after he had returned to Monticello to train another slave in "the art of cookery."

In 1796, having fulfilled his end of the bargain, James left Monticello as a free man. His brother Peter Hemings took his place as the next head cook at Monticello. In 1801, the newly elected Jefferson tried to get James Hemings, then working in a Baltimore tavern, to come to Washington to serve as presidential chef. For unknown reasons, Hemings declined this post, although he spent that summer running the kitchen at Monticello. A month after his return to Baltimore, word reached Jefferson that Hemings had died, an apparent suicide.

The Hemingses of Monticello by Annette Gordon-Reed Annette Gordon-Reed
Free Some Day The African American Families Of Monticello by Lucia Stanton Lucia Stanton

message 47: by Bryan (last edited Nov 29, 2012 08:39AM) (new) - rated it 3 stars

Bryan Craig John Hemings:

John Hemmings (1776-1833) was a slave and joiner at Monticello. He was the son of the slave Betty Hemings and, it was said, Joseph Neilson, one of the white housejoiners Jefferson hired in the 1770s. Hemmings started his working life as an "out-carpenter," felling trees and hewing logs, building fences and barns, and helping to construct the log slave dwellings on Mulberry Row.

The Hemingses of Monticello by Annette Gordon-Reed Annette Gordon-Reed
Free Some Day The African American Families Of Monticello by Lucia Stanton Lucia Stanton

Bryan Craig Boston Port Act:

AN ACT to discontinue, in such manner, and for or such time as are therein mentioned, the landing and discharging, lading or shipping, of goods, wares, and merchandise, at the town, and within the harbour, of Boston, in the province of Massachuset's Bay, in North America.

WHEREAS dangerous commotions and insurrections have been fomented and raised in the town of Boston, in the province of Massachuset's Bay, in New England, by divers ill affected persons, to the subversion of his Majesty's government, and to the utter destruction of the publick peace, and good order of the said town; in which commotions and insurrections certain valuable cargoes of teas, being the property of the East India Company, and on board certain' vessels Iying within the bay or harbour of Boston, were seized and destroyed: And whereas, in the present condition of the said town and harbour, the commerce of his Majesty's subjects cannot be safely carried on there, nor the customs payable to his Majesty duly collected; and it is therefore expedient that the officers of his Majesty's customs should be forthwith removed from the said town: ... be it enacted ..., That from and after June 1, 1774, it shall not be lawful for any person or persons whatsoever to lade, put, or cause to procure to be laden or put, off or from any quay, wharf, or other place, within the said town of Boston, or in or upon any part of the shore of the bay, commonly called The Harbour of Boston, between a certain headland or point called Nahant Point, on the eastern side of the entrance into the said bay, and a certain other headland or point called Alderton Point, on the western side of the entrance into the said bay, or in or upon any island, creek, landing place, bank, or other place, within the said bay or headlands, into any ship, vessel, lighter, boat, or bottom, any goods, wares, or merchandise whatsoever, to be transported or carried into any other country, province, or place whatsoever, or into any other part of the said province of the Massachuset's Bay, in New England; or to take up, discharge, or lay on land, ... within the said town, or in or upon any of the places aforesaid, out of any boat, ... any goods, wares, or merchandise whatsoever, to be brought from any other country, province, or place, or any other part of the said province of the Massachuset's Bay in New England, upon pain of the forfeiture of the said goods, ... merchandise, and of the said boat, ... and of the guns, ammunition, tackle, furniture, and stores, in or belonging to the same: And if any such goods, ... shall, within the said town, or in any the places aforesaid, be laden or taken in from the shore into any barge, ... to be carried on board any ship or vessel outward bound to any other country or province, ... or to be laden into such barge, ... from or out of any ship or vessel coming in ... from any other country, such barge, ... shall be forfeited and lost....

X. Provided also, and it is hereby declared and enacted, That nothing herein contained shall extend, or be construed, to enable his Majesty to appoint such port, harbour, creeks, quays, wharfs, places, or officers, in the said town of Boston, or in the said bay or islands, until it shall sufficiently appear to his Majesty that full satisfaction hath been made by or on behalf of the inhabitants of the said town of Boston to the united company of merchants of England trading to the East Indies, for the damage sustained by the said company by the destruction of their goods sent to the said town of Boston, on board certain ships or vessels as aforesaid; and until it shall be certified to his Majesty, in council, by the governor, or lieutenant governor, of the said province, that reasonable satisfaction hath been made to the officers of his Majesty's revenue, and others, who suffered by the riots and insurrections above mentioned, in the months of November and December, in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy three, and in the month of January, in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy four.


Bryan Craig John Walker:

a Delegate and a Senator from Virginia; born at “Castle Hill,” near Cobham, Albemarle County, Va., February 13, 1744; received private schooling and graduated from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., in 1764; moved to “Belvoir,” Albemarle County, and engaged in planting; commissioned with his father to make special terms with the Indians at Fort Pitt, Pa., so as to retain their friendship during the Revolutionary War; served as an aide to General George Washington in 1777 with the rank of colonel; Delegate to the Continental Congress 1780; studied law; admitted to the bar and commenced the practice of law; appointed to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of William Grayson and served from March 31 to November 9, 1790, when a successor was elected; was not a candidate for reelection; resumed his agricultural pursuits; died near Madison Mills, Orange County, Va., December 2, 1809; interment in the family cemetery on the Belvoir estate near Cismont, Va.


message 50: by Joanne (last edited Nov 29, 2012 08:50AM) (new) - added it

Joanne | 647 comments Bryan wrote: "Martha "Patsy" Jefferson Randolph:

Martha Jefferson Randolph, known as "Patsy" in her youth, was the eldest child of Thomas Jefferson and Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson. Educated in Philadelph..."

Recently, I read and enjoyed the first full biography of Martha Jefferson Randolph. Author Cynthia Kierner certainly drives home how TJ's heirs were burdened by his enormous debt.

Martha Jefferson Randolph, Daughter of Monticello Her Life and Times by Cynthia A. Kierner by Cynthia A. Kierner

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