So this review covers like 2/3 of the book. I'm getting kinda lazy at the end here. I got bored so I skimmed the actual weight loss advice at the end. This book is probably the best non-fiction I've read so far. The first 2/3 of the book is mostly about things you shouldn't do to lose weight / weight loss myths and it's like reading plot twist after plot twist because it's all bad news. If you are actually reading this to lose weight the last 1/3 explains how to do it. (Which is by fasting.) Fun book.
LOSE WEIGHT BY FASTING. THAT'S THE ADVICE. FOR A FEW HOURS AT A TIME. THAT'S HOW TO LOWER YOUR SET POINT FOR THE AMOUNT OF FOOD YOU NEED.
"Insulin, not calories, causes weight gain. It’s not (and never was) a matter of restricting calories. It’s a matter of reducing insulin."
All foods, not just carbohydrates, stimulate insulin. Thus, all foods can cause weight gain. (It's because of incretins secreted in the stomach and small intestines which increase insulin.)
Also because all foods stimulate insulin, more calories usually equal more insulin because you eat more so calories don't directly cause weight gain, but it's related though the increasing amount of insulin you are getting with more food (calories). (That's the conclusion I came to from reading this.)
1. Cut back sugars and starchy foods. 2. No snacking.
Of the sugars----> specifically Fructose is bad. Also Sucrose if really bad too.
DO NOT EAT MANY SMALL MEALS IN A DAY TO LOSE WEIGHT (Will keep your insulin level elevated for a long period of time with no cool down leading to insulin resistance).
EATING BREAKFAST DOES NOT HELP YOU LOSE WEIGHT. (Only eat breakfast when you are actually hungry.)
"If you want to avoid weight gain, remove all added sugars from your diet. Don’t replace them with artificial sweeteners—as we’ll see in the next chapter, those are equally bad." (I thought everyone knew artificial sweeteners were stupid, but I'm just putting this here for people reading.) It's because artificial sweeteners still raise insulin (which is the real thing causing weight gain). Artificial sweeteners also increase cravings because it senses sweetness without calories causing overcompensation with increased appetite and cravings.
Ok I'm taking notes on this book because I know I'm not going to remember later. I'm going to keep adding until I'm done. Also I skipped the intro because who cares.
"70% of your tendency to gain weight is determined by your parentage. Obesity is overwhelmingly inherited."
"Caloric intake and expenditure are intimately dependent variables. Decreasing Calories In triggers a decrease in Calories Out. A 30 percent reduction in caloric intake results in a 30 percent decrease in caloric expenditure. The end result is minimal weight loss."
(Reducing calories does not help you lose weight because then your body will just use less calories instead.)
Reducing calories does not work because your Metabolism Lowers as your Calorie intake Lowers.
Vise versa for: (increase calories, increase metabolism)
As you gain weight your body has a higher set point for the amount of calories you need. (obese people have higher insulin levels.) Eating less does not result in lasting weight loss because as you gain weight your set point for the amount of calories your body needs increases.
What is important is learning how to reduce your set point. (I did not get to this part yet on how to do this.)
Insulin causes Obesity.
"Obese patients tend to have a higher fasting insulin level, as well as an exaggerated insulin response to food."
The longer you are obese the more insulin resistant get are so you need to produce more insulin to make your body obtain energy at the same level (making you fatter).
"So we know that insulin causes insulin resistance. But insulin resistance also causes high insulin—a classic vicious or self-reinforcing, cycle. The higher the insulin levels, the greater the insulin resistance. The greater the resistance, the higher the levels. The cycle keeps going around and around, one element reinforcing the other, until insulin is driven up to extremes. The longer the cycle continues, the worse it becomes—that’s why obesity is so time dependent. People who are stuck in this vicious cycle for decades develop significant insulin resistance. That resistance leads to high insulin levels that are independent of that person’s diet. Even if you were to change your diet, the resistance would still keep your insulin levels high. If your insulin levels stay high, then your body set weight stays high. The thermostat is set high, and your weight will be drawn irresistibly upward. The fat get fatter. The longer you are obese, the harder it is to eradicate."
Low-fat diet does not work for long term. Lowering calories does not work for long term. low-carb diet does not work long term. Just because carbs raises insulin does not mean it makes people fat. ex: People in china eating a lot of rice(carbs) are not getting fat.
Eating small meals many times a day is NOT good for you. It keeps you in the insulin dominant state for longer. Which makes it easier for insulin resistance to develop. (Sleeping keeps you in the insulin deficient state.)
Breakfast is stupid. I KNEW IT GODDAMMIT! I'm never hungry at breakfast and this book says when you wake up your body already gives you energy without it. (For the most part. If you are hungry at this time the book says you should eat.)
"To put it simply, you cannot eat more to weigh less, even if the food you’re eating more of is as healthy as vegetables." (Replace eating unhealthy food with vegetables NOT ADD eating vegetables to lose weight.)
"Giving insulin for type 2 diabetes will worsen, not improve, the disease. But can lowering insulin levels cure type 2 diabetes? Absolutely. But the many misunderstandings about type 2 diabetes would require another book to clarify."
Yeah as I was reading this book I was like... wait then why is insulin given for type 2 shouldn't insulin only be given for type 1 diabetes. So insulin really is bad for type 2.
Highly refined carbohydrates causes obesity. (ex: sugar, flour)
"Calories do not drive weight gain, and thus reducing them will not lead to weight loss."
How to lose weight (reduce sugar, reduce snacking):
Reducing sugar and refined carbohydrates will reduce insulin. Reducing snacking frequency prevents persistent high insulin levels, a key component of insulin resistance. These strategies lower insulin levels—the crucial, central problem of obesity.
"Bags of jellybeans and other candies were proudly proclaiming themselves to be fat free. The fact that they were virtually 100 percent sugar didn’t seem to bother anybody. Sugar consumption rose steadily from 1977 to 2000, paralleled by the rising obesity rates."
"Sugar, more than any other refined carbohydrate, seems to be particularly fattening and leads to type 2 diabetes."
"FRUCTOSE: THE MOST DANGEROUS SUGAR" " high-fructose corn syrup"
HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP IS APPARENTLY VERY BAD:
"fructose produces only a mild rise in insulin levels compared to glucose, which led many people to regard fructose as a more benign form of sweetener. Fructose is also the main sugar in fruit, adding to its halo. An all-natural fruit sugar that doesn’t raise blood sugars? Sounded pretty healthy. A wolf in sheep’s clothing? You bet your life. The difference between glucose and fructose will very literally kill you."
(Natural fructose from fruit does not add that much to the diet like high fructose corn syrup so it's not that bad. It's the extremely high proportion of fructose the corn syrup is adding to the diet that is causing obesity.)
"Whereas almost every cell in the body can use glucose for energy, no cell has the ability to use fructose."
"The glucose group showed no change in insulin sensitivity. The fructose group, however, showed a 25 percent worsening of their insulin sensitivity—after just seven days!"
"The fructose, but not the glucose group, developed pre-diabetes by eight weeks. Insulin levels as well as measures of insulin resistance were significantly higher in the fructose group."
"Sucrose, a fifty-fifty mix of glucose and fructose, therefore plays a dual role in obesity. Glucose is a refined carbohydrate that directly stimulates insulin. Fructose overconsumption causes fatty liver, which directly produces insulin resistance."
"Sucrose stimulates insulin production both in the short term and in the long term. In this way, sucrose is twice as bad as glucose."
"Sugars are not simply empty calories or refined carbohydrates. They are far more dangerous than that, as they stimulate both insulin and insulin resistance. The extra fattening effect of sugar is due to the stimulation of insulin resistance from fructose, which festers for years or even decades before it becomes obvious." (Sucrose is also the really bad sugar.)
"Carbohydrates are not inherently fattening. Their toxicity lies in way they are processed."
"we now predominantly eat refined grains as our carbohydrate of choice." (refined carbohydrates are the bad ones)
"The key to understanding fiber’s effect is to realize that it is not as a nutrient, but as an anti-nutrient—where its benefit lies. Fiber has the ability to reduce absorption and digestion. Fiber subtracts rather than adds." (Fiber is the "antidote" to carbohydrates the "poison".)
"It is no coincidence that virtually all plant foods, in their natural, unrefined state, contain fiber. Mother Nature has pre-packaged the “antidote” with the “poison.”"