Here is the bestselling guide that created a new game plan for marketing in high-tech industries. Crossing the Chasm has become the bible for bringing cutting-edge products to progressively larger markets. This edition provides new insights into the realities of high-tech marketing, with special emphasis on the Internet. It's essential reading for anyone with a stake in the world's most exciting marketplace.
In 2003 I reached a simple conclusion: I knew nothing about Marketing. Having created a Marketing company during college (after owning several businesses and spending more than a year selling advertising for a newspaper) with paying customers and everything!
So, I immersed myself in learning everything possible about Marketing in the context of small privately held firms. After seven years, I can honestly say that I now know nothing about Marketing... except that I know more than 99% of the people who claim they do.
This book changed my life, and the lives of my clients. I bought it in April 1999 and skimmed it. But it was not until April 2009 that I dug in to learn its secrets. I was simply amazed.
If Marketing touches any part of your business (or personal) life, you must buy, read, and re-read this book. Until you understand the power of referenceability, may I be so bold as to suggest that you are clueless about Marketing?
A little knowledge can be a dangerous thing. This book lays out the mechanics of formulating and evolving a marketing strategy by exploring an extreme boundary case: introducing a fundamentally new product to the marketplace. The principles are relevant to all businesses everywhere. However, it would be wrong to view this book as a simple roadmap, because it is very hard to know where on the map you're starting. Do you really have something that will be regarded as a "disruptively innovative product", or is it really just an incremental advance, subject to the rules of one of Moore's later books, such as the Gorilla Game? The most basic point of this book is that the tactics that serve you well at one stage will sink you in the next, so you better orient yourself properly before shouting and writing big checks.
That warning aside, this book belongs on the shelf next to other hallowed volumed of condensed wisdom like The Art of War, The Prince, and How to Shit in the Woods -- All illuminating, and all easily misused.
It was to the point, usable, concise and competent. Exactly what I would want in a book I'm reading for work. It's a rather short book, but still it took me over half a year to finish!
It was pretty good:
- a well-articulated model describing high-tech marketing on various stages of its adoption life cycle; - clear implications of adopting such a model were presented and well-organized; - the author gave examples of real-world products and how the model applies to them; - there were instructions and concrete steps to take to make use of this model and applying it to your own case.
So overall I liked it and would recommend it.
The only reason I'm giving it 4 stars is that it took me so long to finish it. The product I'm working on, I realized, is pretty mature, so I wasn't compelled to read this book quickly and had to push myself to go on.
Lots and lots of opinions, directions, and instructions with very few reasons and evidence (let alone science) to back it up. The stories and anecdotes that are mentioned to back up points are cherry picked. Research on the credibility, track record, and net worth of the author only made my skepticism increase. I cant say his directions are wrong. But I wasn't convinced they were right. I'm sure many other people have failed to even consider these components before rushing to implement on his advice (considering how famous the book is), which I think is a dangerous error.
I wasn't really sure if this was going to be for me (and the latest edition is form 1998, so, it might have been a bit dated) but this was actually a great surprise. The idea of the chasms when marketing products, specially in tech, really resonates with what happens in the market and we can compile a huge list of companies and products that have died somewhere along the way while trying to cross one of the chasms to become a mainstream product.
The book defines markets as groups that can refer to themselves, since you can't really hope a doctor will refer and have many friends in architecture, so the main goal is to be able to create a presence in a market where people can refer and talk about your product among themselves as you can't possibly pay for marketing for every single person there.
The charms are defined as innovators, the first market, where you excite the people most interested in whatever new thing you have (think about the first geeks buying smart home appliances). These people are mostly interested in the novelty of your stuff and will try to direct the product, they're extremely helpful in trying to come up with an actual product at the end but focusing too much on them will pull you in many different directions, so while it's important to have them on your side, you can't just follow them blindly otherwise you won't be getting anywhere.
Then you have the early adopters. These are the people influenced by the innovators you have, they're also interested in the improvement but they will be less engaging than the innovators. These people are less prone to bugs, errors or support requirements but they're the start of your upward race collecting more customers and building a better product that could possibly find it's way to the mainstream market.
Then we have the great chasm to reach the skeptics mainstream customers, this is where stuff gets really hard and you'll really need to up your game as the people here are pragmatists and conservatives. They don't want to invest money in something new just because it's shiny, they need a good reason and a working product, some prototype that requires a lot of handholding from an unknown company won't do it here, you must have already sorted out most of the kinks in your product and you need to be ready to own the market.
To do this the book offers segmentation, preparing a D Day operation to attack a very specific market that you can corner and own, since being the top brass in such market makes these pragmatists and conservatives much more likely to buy from you. This requires focus and forfeiting embrace everything solutions (that wouldn't work, anyway) and will give you much better results.
The book then goes about pricing (and it's a great discussion, like how much money you need to be making to have an actual sales force and product price point), partnerships and other stuff involved.
All in all it offers a great perspective and techniques to break into markets, develop products and growing. It's small, direct and focused, definitely recommended.
I didn't know much about marketing, so this gets 5 stars
The book adressed a lot of issues relevant to my current company directly.
First of all, the chasm model applies in B2B scenarios. This is not a b2c marketing book even if some ideas do apply.
What I found interesting was that this book provides this model describing 5 different types of customers. Then we find ways in which to address these customers, the proper timings, the proper sales pitches, the product pricing, the competitors, the strategic partnerships, the development team, and even the compensation appropriate for the team, in order to attack each of the 4 market segments (1 market segment, or psychographic, as the author calls it, being pretty unapproachable).
For me it would be an honest 4.5, as I didn't see a lot of references to more formal papers, but just to a few other books, and I don't want to just trust the author's wisdom on this, even if the book seems full of good ideas, and great explanations, and showcases nice ways of thinking about problems.
I recommend this to anyone living in a capitalist system, seriosly....But more seriously indeed, this is very good for developers that work in product companies. All of the marketing, sales and management stuff will make a hell of a lot more sense after this book! For marketing and sales people I'm not sure what to recommend, but the book does claim to create a common vocabulary for the different departments of an organization, so dunno, maybe try it, marketing/sales/management folks!
Also, if anyone knows a good B2C marketing or sales book, feel free to recommend!
This book gives a fresh and powerful set of tools to help navigate the stages of product life, as well as covering honestly some of the hard decisions that must be made. A great book for those interested in making their technology sustainable and more than just a passing fad.
These are among the dozens of passages of greatest interest and value to me:
Page 8 Most important lesson of crossing the chasm Page 25 discovering the chasm Page 39 last paragraph, what technology enthusiast want Page 49 last paragraph targeting a small pond / market Page 50 bowling pin analogy Page 54 pragmatics or early majority Page 78 fighting your way into the mainstream and the D-day strategy Page 85 big fish, small pond Page 88 Apple's Mac niche strategy Page 105 target the point of attack Page 110 target customer characterization Page 113 sample scenario Page 120 scoring scenarios / customer target's Page 124 second last paragraph on focus on product not competition Page 126 target market selection process checklist Page 160 whole product strategy Page 184 what is your claim Page 186 example claims do exercise Page 201 avoid human contact businesses Page 222 adopt a make money from day 1 mindset
Hmmm. I’m not sure I would have read this unless it had been chosen as the uk it book club pick, not really my bag (you know what I’m like with any non-fiction really). But it wasn’t dreadful, in fact I quite enjoyed the first few scene setting chapters, particularly where the book had been updated and referenced some recent company examples. It was ok.
It's a classic... and the point it makes is solid (more or less, that the skills needed to make an innovative product for early adopters are very different from those to make a mass market whole product).
That said it's very dated, and most of the advice pertains to large products. The paradigm it establishes has no room for crowdfunding, or for companies like 37signals that don't hardsell anyone. It's a very sales-driven viewpoint on things for a corporate world that's very focused on the bottom line.
I'm sure much of it still applies, but it talks about the parts of the world that I strive not to interact with all that much.
A very good book about transitioning between marketing and selling from early-adopters to mainstream customers. This transition is called chasm as it doesn’t happen smoothly. There need to be fundamental changes how the company markets and sells it’s product. Mainstream customers need other mainstream customers to recommend your product. That’s right there is the chasm. The solution is to solve niche issues and then expand as you have references from mainstream customers. For example you have document management solution and you start selling it to pharmaceutical companies so they can easily manage their patent application documents.
Classic & a-must-get-familiar-with for all interested in building high-tech product. Why "a-must-get-familiar-with" but not "a-must-read"? Because the concept presented is very interesting & vital, but the book itself is at most average. The parts worth the greatest attention are 0-20% & 50-60%, the rest is a bit boring & repetitive, but fortunately not outdated (latest edition was updated in early 2010s).
Another slice of advice: this is a _marketing_ book. Vast background on the subject is not required, but you have to keep that in mind: be warned.
The first half of this book is gold. It kicks off with the diffusion of innovations theory and a characterization of innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. It goes through lots of concrete strategy on how to market to each of these groups, how different they are, and why there is a tricky chasm between the two early adopter groups and everyone else. The lessons here go beyond marketing a product and are just as useful in other contexts, such as how to convince people at your own company to do something. The writing is clear, keeps jargon to a minimum, and has lots of good analogies and even a few good jokes.
As you get into the second half of the book, it runs out of steam. Or, to be fair, perhaps it just wasn't what I was looking for. It starts to go into detailed tactics, and at this level of detail, the book really shows its age. Many of the companies and technologies it uses as examples are long gone. Worse yet, some of the advice doesn't make sense any more. For example, the book describes the Internet as an up and coming technology you might want to pay attention to. The book also shies away from any sort of data or talking to real customers in favor of intuition and experience. This may be the right decision in some scenarios, but with the data access and analysis we have today, it's not always a good trade-off.
In short, well worth reading the first few parts to wrap your head around the different customer segments and how your marketing tactics have to change as you capture more of the market, but consider skipping the rest.
Some good quotes from the book:
Innovators pursue new technology products aggressively. They sometimes seek them out even before a formal marketing program has been launched. This is because technology is a central interest in their life, regardless of what function it is performing.
Early adopters, like innovators, buy into new product concepts very early in their life cycle, but unlike innovators, they are not technologists. Rather they are people who find it easy to imagine, understand, and appreciate the benefits of a new technology, and to relate these potential benefits to their other concerns. [...] The early majority share some of the early adopter’s ability to relate to technology, but ultimately they are driven by a strong sense of practicality. They know that many of these newfangled inventions end up as passing fads, so they are content to wait and see how other people are making out before they buy in themselves. [...] The late majority shares all the concerns of the early majority, plus one major additional one: Whereas people in the early majority are comfortable with their ability to handle a technology product, should they finally decide to purchase it, members of the late majority are not. As a result, they wait until something has become an established standard, and even then they want to see lots of support and tend to buy, therefore, from large, well-established companies. [...] Finally there are the laggards. These people simply don’t want anything to do with new technology, for any of a variety of reasons, some personal and some economic. The only time they ever buy a technological product is when it is buried so deep inside another product—the way, say, that a microprocessor is designed into the braking system of a new car—that they don’t even know it is there.
What the early adopter is buying [...] is some kind of change agent. By being the first to implement this change in their industry, the early adopters expect to get a jump on the competition, whether from lower product costs, faster time to market, more complete customer service, or some other comparable business advantage. They expect a radical discontinuity between the old ways and the new, and they are prepared to champion this cause against entrenched resistance. Being the first, they also are prepared to bear with the inevitable bugs and glitches that accompany any innovation just coming to market.
By contrast, the early majority want to buy a productivity improvement for existing operations. They are looking to minimize the discontinuity with the old ways. They want evolution, not revolution. They want technology to enhance, not overthrow, the established ways of doing business. And above all, they do not want to debug somebody else’s product. By the time they adopt it, they want it to work properly and to integrate appropriately with their existing technology base.
Marketing professionals insist on market segmentation because they know no meaningful marketing program can be implemented across a set of customers who do not reference each other. The reason for this is simply leverage. No company can afford to pay for every marketing contact made. Every program must rely on some ongoing chain-reaction effects—what is usually called word of mouth. The more self-referencing the market and the more tightly bounded its communications channels, the greater the opportunity for such effects.
When pragmatists buy, they care about the company they are buying from, the quality of the product they are buying, the infrastructure of supporting products and system interfaces, and the reliability of the service they are going to get. In other words, they are planning on living with this decision personally for a long time to come. (By contrast, the visionaries are more likely to be planning on implementing the great new order and then using that as a springboard to their next great career step upward.) Because pragmatists are in it for the long haul, and because they control the bulk of the dollars in the marketplace, the rewards for building relationships of trust with them are very much worth the effort.
Most companies fail to cross the chasm because, confronted with the immensity of opportunity represented by a mainstream market, they lose their focus, chasing every opportunity that presents itself, but finding themselves unable to deliver a salable proposition to any true pragmatist buyer. The D-Day strategy keeps everyone on point—if we don’t take Normandy, we don’t have to worry about how we’re going to take Paris.
Positioning is the single largest influence on the buying decision. It serves as a kind of buyers’ shorthand, shaping not only their final choice but even the way they evaluate alternatives leading up to that choice. In other words, evaluations are often simply rationalizations of pre-established positioning.
Here there is one fundamental key to success: When most people think of positioning in this way, they are thinking about how to make their products easier to sell. But the correct goal is to make them easier to buy.
инновациями, прерывающими привычный порядок вещей, илипрерывающими инновациями. Противоположный термин — инновации, не прерывающие привычный порядок вещей, илинепрерывающие инновации — относится к обычной модернизации продуктов, не требующей изменений
Первый разрыв — между новаторами и ранними последователями. Этот разрыв возникает, когда продукт новейшей технологии не может быть сразу же использован как нечто не только принципиально новое, но и существенно полезное, расширяющее наши возможности. На примере эсперанто. Энтузиаст обожает этот язык за архитектуру, но больше никто не может даже понять, где его использовать.
маркетинг: это действия, направленные на создание, расширение, удержание и защиту рынков.
Если два человека приобретают один и тот же товар по одной и той же причине, но при этом не имеют никакой возможности посмотреть друг на друга, они не являются членами одного и того же рынка
Суть в том, что, в отличие от технологических энтузиастов, провидец извлекает пользу не из технологии самой по себе, а из прорыва, которого она позволяет добиться.
В основе реформирования лежит принцип: победа в маркетинге чаще всего означает, что вы — самая большая рыба в пруду. Но если мы очень малы, тогда нужно искать маленький пруд.
Ранние последователи обычно приходят с заказом к вам сами, как правило они основываются на мнении первых гиков.
Захват плацдарма и попадание в первую цель запускает динамику последовательного принятия технологии, что открывает перед ней новые рыночные возможности, отчасти за счет продвижения решения от одной ниши к другой, отчасти за счет передачи информации из уст в уста клиентами смежных ниш.
Один — поражение первой цели, захват плацдарма, преодоление пропасти.
Второй момент — планирование выхода на смежные сегменты рынка, где ваше первоначальное нишевое предложение может найти применение.
Теория пропасти гласит: «Действуйте локально,затем глобально».
условиях недостатка или вообще отсутствия необходимой информации.
Но спешу предупредить: преодолеть пропасть на потребительском рынке чрезвычайно сложно. Почти все случаи удачного преодоления пропасти, происходили в корпоративной среде, где экономические и технические ресурсы позволяют решить проблемы, связанные с обслуживание�� незрелого продукта
День из жизни (до): Место действия или ситуация, Желательный результат, Неудавшаяся попытка, Мешающие факторы, Экономические последствия.
День из жизни (после): Новый подход, Позитивные факторы, Экономические плюсы
набросок плана стратегии развития рынка:
Каждый пункт включает в себя факторы, важные для преодоления пропасти: • целевой покупатель; • решающий фактор покупки; • готовое решение; • партнеры и союзники; • дистрибуция; • ценообразование; • конкуренция; • позиционирование; • следующий целевой клиент.
Обработка сценариев заключается в оценке каждого сценария по этим факторам. Процесс проходит в два этапа. На первом этапе все сценарии оцениваются по четырем главным факторам рыночной привлекательности
Имейте в виду, что лучшими сценариями будут т��, что подразумевают законченное решение.
Главное - за год стать стандартом де факто на выбранном рынке. Для этого нужно в течении первого года получить не менее половины заказов на выбранном рынке. Поэтому не нужно сразу стремиться выйти на самый богатый сегмент.
1. Составьте библиотеку сценариев 2. Назначьте подкомитет для выбора целевого рынка. Сократите число его членов до минимума. 3. Пронумеруйте и распечатайте сценарии, каждый на отдельной странице 4. Каждый член подкомитета должен самостоятельно оценить все сценарии по убивающим идею факторам
Необходимо отсеять все лишние варианты, должен остаться минимум
Единственное важнейшее различие между ранним и основным рынком заключается в том, что на первом согласны взяться за превращение товара в целостный продукт (в обмен на опережение конкурентов), а на последнем — нет. Неспособность понять этот факт стала причиной неудач многих хайтек-предприятий.
Тактические альянсы преследуют одну-единственную цель: ускорить формирование инфраструктуры целостного продукта в пределах конкретного сегмента рынка.
хорошая программа тактических альянсов для ускорения развития инфраструктуры этого продукта
См "Резюме: советы по управлению целостным продуктом"
гораздо чаще это происходит потому, что мы неверно истолковываем реальные запросы наших целевых клиентов или нам не хватает духу взять на себя ответственность и сделать все, чтобы они поняли свои запросы
В общем, прагматики не хотят покупать, пока не могут сравнить.
Ключ к успеху — концентрация на интересах и ценностях прагматиков, а не провидцев.
В хайтек-маркетинге есть четыре критерия ценности продукта: технология, продукт, рынок и компания.
См Рис. 6.1. Компас конкурентного позиционирования
Для доверия обязательна конкуренция/альтернатива. Она 2 типов: рыночная и. продуктовая
Потенциальные клиенты не могут купить то, чего не могут назвать (энтузиастам)
Клиенты не будут покупать, пока не узнают, кто и с какой целью будет пользоваться продуктом. (провидцам)
Клиенты не могут знать, чего ожидать от продукта и сколько за него платить, пока не смогут сравнить его с другими продуктами (прагматику)
Клиенты не будут чувствовать себя уверенно при покупке продукта, пока не убедятся, что он поставляется незыблемой компанией, которая останется на рынке и будет продолжать инвестировать в данную продуктовую категорию (консерватору)
Для ____ (целевые покупатели только сегмента-плацдарма) • Кем недовольны ____ (нынешняя рыночная альтернатива) • Наш продукт является ____ (новая категория продуктов) • Он обеспечивает ____ (ключевое качество, решающее существующую проблему) • В отличие от ____(продуктовая альтернатива) • Мы собрали воедино ____ (ключевые качества целостного продукта, предназначенного для вашего конкретного применения).
После преодоления пропасти пионеры должны стать колонистами.
Однако, чтобы действительно оставить пропасть позади, нужно прекратить работы на заказ и сконцентрировать все усилия на выведении на рынок целостного продукта, добиться того, чтобы продукт удовлетворял стандартам, соблюдения которых требует рынок.
в период преодоления пропасти две новые роли.
Первую из них можно назвать менеджер по целевому рыночному сегменту, а вторую —менеджер по целостному продукту
Исследование и разработка целостных продуктов — новая область знаний.
It’s ok. Kind of annoying with the consistent references to the authors other book.
Interesting theory I guess. Having worked at a handful of startups, I don’t really see it. Every day feels like an existential crisis. This seems like a narratively driven framework that helps this dude sell consulting. I guess it’s useful as a high level concept.
My first marketing book ever, and it was far from a disaster. The book includes many interesting concepts, albeit repeated abundantly for maximal retention. Optimal read for people looking to pull their startup out of their baby shoes into adolescence.
Đang làm đúng ngành và đúng nghề cảm giác như được đọc Bible luôn :'( chắc đè các sếp ra đọc mỗi người một quyển... p.s: sách nói nhiều về chiến lược nên ng đọc cũng nên ở tầm cứng, manager trở lên thì có ích hơn, nhiều ví dụ hơi khó hiểu chút nhưng trong này có nhiều case B2B SaaS nên mình thích
[Summary] Successfully getting lead users is different from successfully entering mainstream market.
Traditional technological product adoption cycle has a huge flaw on its premise. It assumes that the adoption of the product will automatically diffuse from early users (technologist and visionary users) to followers (early majority, late majority, and laggard). In fact, we should concern about the different set of paradigm in which we use to attract and communicate with both group. Early users will put their focus on technological breakthrough, aiming to achieve superior competitive advantage while taking higher risk. following users, except laggard, will focus more on stability of product innovation to ensure that they will not burn their money for the waste.
A large chasm, the major obstacle to achieve mainstream market, occurs between visionary users and early majority. To deal with this, we need to 1) focus our product on niche target market (Remember : being large fish in the small pond is much better than being small fish in the large pond 2) position our product to be a part of existing market, but differentiate it from existing products 3) align core product within supportive value ecosystem (managing it as whole product) 4) set a reasonable price (using value-based or distribution-based pricing) and carefully manage the product through a set of well-selected distribution channels (ranging from salespersons to retail stores).
I began this book exploring a product to launch and finished it working in the business services industry. This juxtaposition helped me make sense of Moore's analysis and see its limitations.
For high-tech, or most new products, Moore is spot on. There is an adoption curve and the key challenge for success in these kinds of ventures is moving from early adopters to the mainstream. His strategy (summed as 'focus') is the way to conquer this challenge.
For services, I'm not as sure. My business is defined as singular events: consultation meetings, coaching sessions, and drafting language for others to deliver. While his advice (narrow focus leads to strong results) does not yet resonate with me. I'm still at the stage of figuring out what I do best and what customers need most. Frankly, most small service businesses (singular self-employed ventures) stay in this stage. Here we tinker, bring others in to solve tough problems. We never reach a 'mainstream.' And we shouldn't: when you can mass-produce professional services, you lose the real value created.
All that said, Moore was an entertaining and refreshing read: high-tech (and new product) folks must take him in.
This is certainly one of the most insightful business books i have ever read. It is of biblical importance to anyone in the technology business, especially operating in a B2B scenario.
Apart from a cogent theoretical framework, it provides high practical, and actionable advice on how to move from one segment to the next in a technology adoption life cycle. It has certainly shown me the wrong assumptions we have made in our own business, and why.
The book helps consultants create a concrete service offering to start-up clients who need advice on their go-to-market and organizational strategy.
Full five stars on this book. I look forward to meeting Geoffrey Moore sometime to pay him my compliments for this great piece of work
Every MBA that I know has since told me that this is a classic, and I can see why. I never knew where the concept of early adopters and the technology adoption life cycle came from. The book is well written, has a compelling concept -- the "chasm" that must be crossed from visionaries and innovators to mainstream use in tech companies and that this crossing requires completely different techniques and types of people -- and is SHORT. I love short business books.
Thanks to Will, my sculptor/alternative energy consulting/visionary friend for recommending this. It has all sorts of interesting implications, well outside of just the tech world for areas as diverse as community building and a career as an artist.
I have never stopped to think about how a company gets from an early product into the mainstream, even tho I have been working in tech for ages. Have experienced the chasm so many times, but this is the first time I hear the word itself and had no clue that this is a normal growth process, and there is a logical explanation for what is happening. There are too many eye-opening ideas, including (but not limited to) product lifetime stages, target audiences segmentation, tips on how to cross the chasm, and to my surprise – dealing with early startup employees vs product ownership. I don't think the world will ever be the same again. Work in a startup? Read it. Building a startup? Well, you should have already read it.
I picked this up thinking it was a mountaineering book, based on the title. Turns out it’s actually about marketing high-tech products in a B2B context.
I thought this was really well written. I’ve had it recommended by a number of lecturers and I can see why. The main idea is that breaking into mainstream markets is best achieved by first narrowing the firm’s focus to a specific segment where the product can be established as the clear leader.
Although the subject matter gets a little dry, Moore’s attempts at jokes keep things entertaining. He also writes in a way that shows the broad applicability of his ideas (outside high-tech B2B selling).
Geoffrey reviews the prevailing High-Tech Marketing Model presenting solid reflections of a chasm period of little to no growth when moving from a market of visionaries to pragmatists. He not only presents tactics on how to prepare a strategy for crossing the chasm (target customers, whole product development, partners & allies, competition and positioning), but also comes with valuable insights on how to manage the company's finances and people through this period of transition.
This entire review has been hidden because of spoilers.
I think this a great fundamentals book for any technologist or product manager (not mutually exclusive) to read. There are some really evergreen pointers on developing markets, product positioning and more. It's clear that a lot of product strategy books drew inspiration from Crossing the Chasm. One drawback is that there are some outdated references and examples, but most are still relevant.
Поставлю с натяжкой 5, потому что книга несколько устарела и процентов 20-30 можно смело не читать. Однако, основная идея изложена великолепно. Начните с ниши, это повысит ваши шансы на успех. Идея простая, но крайне полезная. Ниша должна быть как можно меньше, чтобы занять на ней доминирующее положение. Но достаточно крупной, чтобы там было достаточно денег для вашего существования.
The basis for reform is the principle that winning at marketing more often than not means being the biggest fish in the pond. If we are very small, then we must search out a very small pond indeed.
Классная модель жизненного цикла технологической компании вдогонку, которая лучше позволяет понять на чем фокусироваться.
That’s it. That’s the strategy. Replicate D Day, and win entry to the mainstream. Cross the chasm by targeting a very specific niche market where you can dominate from the outset, force your competitors out of that market niche, and then use it as a base for broader operations.
Отлично определен рынок: это группа людей, которые советуют друг другу продукты.
that markets—particularly high-tech markets—are made up of people who reference each other during the buying decision.