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Marx's Concept of Man Marx's Concept of Man by Erich Fromm
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“Among the many forms of alienation, the most frequent one is alienation in language. If I express a feeling with a word, let us say, if I say "I love you," the word is meant to be an indication of the reality which exists within myself, the power of my loving. The word "love" is meant to be a symbol of the fact love, but as soon as it is spoken it tends to assume a life of its own, it becomes a reality. I am under the illusion that the saying of the word is the equivalent of the experience, and soon I say the word and feel nothing, except the thought of love which the word expresses. The alienation of language shows the whole complexity of alienation. Language is one of the most precious human achievements; to avoid alienation by not speaking would be foolish -- yet one must be always aware of the danger of the spoken word, that it threatens to substitute itself for the living experience. The same holds true for all other achievements of man; ideas, art, any kind of man-made objects. They are man's creations; they are valuable aids for life, yet each one of them is also a trap, a temptation to confuse life with things, experience with artifacts, feeling with surrender and submission.”
Erich Fromm, Marx's Concept of Man
“This popular picture of Marx's 'materialism' - his anti-spiritual tendency, his wish for uniformity and subordination - is utterly false. Marx's aim was that of the spiritual emancipation of man, of his liberation from the chains of economic determination, of restituting him in his human wholeness, of enabling him to find unity and harmony with his fellow man and with nature. Marx's philosophy was, in secular, nontheistic language, a new and radical step forward in the tradition of prophetic Messianism; it was aimed at the full realization of individualism, the very aim which has guided Western thinking from the Renaissance and the Reformation far into the nineteenth century.”
Erich Fromm, Marx's Concept of Man
“Ao relacionar-se com o mundo objetivo, por intermédio de suas faculdades, o mundo exterior torna-se real para o homem, e de fato é só o “amor” que faz o homem verdadeiramente crer na realidade do mundo objetivo a ele extrínseco. Sujeito e objeto não podem ser separados . “O olho transformou-se em olho humano quando seu objeto se converteu em um objeto humano, social, criado pelo homem e a este destinado... Eles [os sentidos] se relacionam com a coisa devido a esta, mas a coisa em si mesma é uma relação humana objetiva para si própria e para o homem, e vice-versa. A necessidade e o gozo perderam, assim, seu caráter egoísta, e a natureza perdeu sua mera utilidade pelo fato de sua utilização ter-se transformado em utilização humana. (Com efeito, só posso relacionar-me de maneira humana com uma coisa quando esta se relaciona de maneira humana com o homem)”
Esta última afirmação é quase exatamente a mesma feita no pensamento do budismo Zen, assim como por Goethe. De fato o pensamento de Goethe, Hegel e Marx se acha intimamente ligado ao do Zen. O que há de comum neles é a ideia do homem superar a cisão entre sujeito e objeto; o objeto é um objeto, mas no entanto cessa de ser objeto , e nesta nova abordagem o homeme se funde com o objeto, conquanto ele e o objeto continuem a ser dois. O homem ao relacionar-se humanamente com o mundo objetivo, supera a alienação de si mesmo.”
Erich Fromm, Marx's Concept of Man
“في عملية تتطور الوجود يتم تحقق الجوهر, وفي نفس الوقت يعني الوجود عودة إلي الجوهر. يكون العالم مُغرَّباً وغير حقيقي طالما أن الإنسان لم يدمر موضوعية العالم الباردة, ولم يدرك ذاته وعالمه فيما وراء الأشكال الثابتة للأشياء والقوانين. فعندما يحصل الإنسان في النهاية علي وعي الذات فإنه لا يكون فقط في طريقه لمعرفة حقيقة ذاته بل وحقيقة العالم أيضاً. كما انه من خلال الإدراك يقوم الفعل, أي أن الإنسان سيحاول وضع الحقيقة في الفعل ويُصَيِّر العالم ما هو جوهرياً فيه أي تحديد وعي الذات للإنسان”
Erich Fromm, Marx's Concept of Man
“إن عبثية النظرة القائلة بأن ماركس وضع الدافع نحو الفائدة المادية في مركز المحرك الأعمق في الإنسان, تصبح أكثر وضوحاً عندما يضع المرء في اعتباره أن ماركـس قد بيّن في كتاباته وبشكل واضـح جداً آراءَه حول الدوافع الإنسانية. حيث فرّق بين الدوافع الثابتة التي تتواجد في كل الظروف والتي لا تساهم الشروط الاجتماعية سوي في إعطائها شكلاً واتجاهاً جديدين والداوفع النسبية التي تعود بأصولها تحديداً إلي نوع معين من التنظيم الاجتماعي. لقد افترض ماركس بأن الجنس والحاجة إلي الغذاء تنطوي تحت إطار فئة الدوافع الثابتة إلا أنه لم يرد إلي خاطره أبداً اعتبار الميل للكسب الاقتصادي الأكبر كدافع ثابت. إن مجمل نقد ماركس للرأسمالية نابع من كونها جعلت مصلحة الإنسان في المال والكسب المادي هي محركه الرئيسي, كما أن مفهومه للاشتراكية هو بدقة مفهوم لمجتمع تنتفي فيه المصلحة المادية كمصلحة مهيمنة”
Erich Fromm, Marx's Concept of Man