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message 1: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) Social Structure Info

In popular literature, wolf packs are often portrayed as strictly hierarchical social structures with a breeding "alpha" pair which climbs the social ladder through fighting, followed by subordinate "beta" wolves and a low ranking "omega" which bears the brunt of the pack's aggression. This terminology is based heavily on the behaviour of captive wolf packs composed of unrelated animals, which will fight and compete against each other for status. Also, as dispersal is impossible in captive situations, fights become more frequent than in natural settings. In the wild, wolf packs are little more than nuclear families whose basic social unit consists of a mated pair, followed by its offspring. Northern wolf packs tend not to be as compact or unified as those of African wild dogs and spotted hyenas, though they are not as unstable as those of coyotes. Southern wolves are more similar in social behaviour to coyotes and dingoes, living largely alone or in pairs. The average pack consists of 5–11 animals; 1–2 adults, 3–6 juveniles and 1–3 yearlings, though exceptionally large packs consisting of 42 wolves are known. Wolf packs rarely adopt other wolves into their fold, and typically kill them. In the rare cases where strange wolves are adopted, the adoptee is almost invariably a young animal of 1–3 years of age, while killed wolves are mostly fully grown. The adoption of a new member can be a lengthy process, and can consist of weeks of exploratory, non-fatal attacks in order to establish whether or not the newcomer is trustworthy. During times of ungulate abundance (migration, calving etc.), different wolf packs may temporarily join forces. Wolves as young as five months and as old as five years have been recorded to leave their packs to start their own families, though the average age is 11–24 months. Triggers for dispersal include the onset of sexual maturity and competition within the pack for food and breeding.

Reproduction and Breeding Rules

In areas with low wolf densities, wolves are generally monogamous.[72] Mated pairs usually remain together for life if one of the wolves does not die. Upon the death of one mated wolf, pairs are quickly re-established. Since males often predominate in any given wolf population, unpaired females are a rarity. Polygamy does occur, but primarily in captive situations. Multiple litters are rarely successful, due to infanticide by the pack's females. The age of first breeding in wolves depends largely on environmental factors; when food is abundant, or when wolf populations are heavily managed, wolves can rear pups at younger ages in order to exploit the newly available resources. Captive wolves have been known to breed as soon as they reach 9–10 months, while the youngest recorded breeding wolves in the wild were 2 years old. Females are capable of producing pups every year, with one litter annually being the average. Unlike coyotes, wolves never reach reproductive senescence before they die. Incest rarely occurs, though inbreeding depression has been reported to be a problem for wolves in Saskatchewan and Isle Royale.
the males do not abandon their mates to find other females to mate with as dogs do. During pregnancy, female wolves will remain in a den located away from the peripheral zone of their territories, where violent encounters with other packs are more likely. Old females usually whelp in the den of their previous litter, while younger females typically den near their birthplace. The gestation period lasts 62–75 days, with pups usually being born in the summer period. The average litter consists of 5–6 pups. Litters of 14–17 occur 1% of the time. Litter sizes tend to increase in areas where prey is abundant. Wolves bear relatively large pups in small litters compared to other canid species. Pups are born blind and deaf, and are covered in short soft grayish-brown fur. They weigh 300–500 grams at birth, and begin to see after 9–12 days. The milk canines erupt after one month. Pups first leave the den after 3 weeks. At 1.5 months of age, they are agile enough to flee from danger. Mother wolves do not leave the den for the first few weeks, relying on the fathers to provide food for them and their young. Unlike wolf mothers, the fathers do not regurgitate the pup's food, but carry them pieces from a kill. If the mother dies prior to the pups weaning period, they are suckled by the pack's other females. Pups begin to eat solid food at the age of 3–4 weeks. Pups have a fast growth rate during their first four months of life: during this period, the pup's weight can increase nearly 30 times.
The reproductive behaviour of introduced wolf packs in Yellowstone is unusual, as they often have multiple breeding females who mate with lone male wolves that encroach upon the pack territories during the mating season. These so called "Casanova wolves" are young males that, having failed to procure mates or territories after leaving their natal pack, mate with the daughters of already established breeding pairs from other packs. Unlike males from established packs, Casanova wolves do not form pair bonds with the females they mate with. Because of the great abundance of prey in Yellowstone, female wolves there can bear multiple litters in this fashion.

Denning and Sheltering Behavior

Wolves use different places for their diurnal rest; places with cover are preferred during cold, damp and windy weather, while wolves in dry, calm and warm weather readily rest in the open. During the autumn-spring period, when wolves are more active, they willingly lie out in the open, whatever their location. Actual dens are usually constructed for pups during the summer period. When building dens, females make use of natural shelters such as fissures in rocks, cliffs overhanging riverbanks and holes thickly covered by vegetation. Sometimes, the den is the appropriated burrow of smaller animals such as foxes, badgers or marmots. An appropriated den is often widened and partly remade. On rare occasions, female wolves will dig burrows themselves, which are usually small and short with 1-3 openings. Wolves do not line their denning places, a likely precaution against parasites. The den is usually constructed not more than 500 metres away from a water source. Resting places, play areas for the pups and food remains are commonly found around wolf dens. The odour of urine and rotting food emanating from the denning area often attracts scavenging birds such as magpies and ravens. As there are few convenient places for burrows, wolf dens are usually occupied by animals of the same family. Though they mostly avoid areas within human sight, wolves have been known to nest near domiciles, paved roads and railways.

Territorial Behavior

Wolves are highly territorial animals, and generally establish territories far larger than they require to survive in order to assure a steady supply of prey. Territory size depends largely on the amount of prey available: in areas with an abundance of prey, the territories of resident wolf packs are smaller. Wolf packs travel constantly in search of prey, covering roughly 9% of their territory per day (average 25 km/d or 15 mi/d). The core of their territory is on average 35 km2 (14 sq mi), in which they spend 50% of their time. Prey density tends to be much higher in the territory's surrounding areas. Despite this higher abundance of prey, wolves tend to avoid hunting in the fringes of their territory unless desperate, due to the possibility of fatal encounters with neighboring packs. The size of their territory may increase when the pack's pups reach the age of 6 months, and thus have the same nutritional requirements as adults. The smallest territory on record was held by a pack of six wolves in northeastern Minnesota, which occupied an estimated 33 km2. The largest was held by an Alaskan pack of ten wolves encompassing a 6,272 km2 area. In some areas, wolves may shift territories during their prey's migration season.
Wolves defend their territories from other packs through a combination of scent marking, direct attacks and howling (see Communication). Scent marking is used for territorial advertisement, and involves urination, defecation and ground scratching. Scent marks are generally left every 240 metres throughout the territory on regular travelways and junctions. Such markers can last for 2–3 weeks, and are typically placed near rocks, boulders, trees or the skeletons of large animals. When scent marking and howling fail to deter strange wolf packs from entering another's territory, violent interactions can ensue. Territorial fights are among the principal causes of wolf mortality: one study on wolf mortality in Minnesota and the Denali National Park and Preserve concluded that 14–65% of wolf deaths were due to predation by other wolves. In fact, 91% of wolf fatalities occur within 3.2 km (2.0 mi) of the borders between neighboring territories. Because the consequences of trespassing can be fatal, such incursions are thought to be largely due to desperation or deliberate aggressiveness.

Diet

Wolves primarily feed on medium to large sized ungulates (sometimes 10–15 times larger than themselves), though they are not fussy eaters. Medium and small sized animals preyed on by wolves include marmots, hares, badgers, foxes, polecats, ground squirrels, mice, hamsters, voles and other rodents, as well as insectivores. They frequently eat waterfowl (particularly during their moulting period and winter, when their greasy and fatty meat helps wolves build up their fat reserves) and their eggs. When such foods are insufficient, they will prey on lizards, snakes, frogs, rarely toads and large insects. In times of scarcity, wolves will readily eat carrion, visiting cattle burial grounds and slaughter houses. Wolf packs in Astrakhan will hunt Caspian seals on the Caspian Sea coastline. Some wolf packs in Alaska and Western Canada have been observed to feed on salmon. Cannibalism is not uncommon in wolves; during harsh winters, packs often attack weak or injured wolves, and may eat the bodies of dead pack members. However, they are not known to eat their young as coyotes sometimes do. Humans are rarely, but occasionally preyed upon. Wolves will supplement their diet with fruit and vegetable matter; they willingly eat the berries of mountain ash, lily of the valley, bilberries, blueberries and cowberry. Other fruits include nightshade, apples and pears. They readily visit melon fields during the summer months. Wolves can survive without food for long periods; two weeks without food will not weaken a wolf's muscle activity.
In Eurasia, many wolf populations are forced to subsist largely on livestock and garbage in areas with dense human activity, though wild ungulates such as moose, red deer, roe deer and wild boar are still important food sources in Russia and the more mountainous regions of Eastern Europe. Other prey species include reindeer, mouflon, wisent, saiga, ibex, chamois, wild goats, fallow deer and musk deer. The prey animals of North American wolves have largely continued to occupy suitable habitats with low human density, and cases of wolves subsisting largely on garbage or livestock are exceptional. Animals commonly preyed on by North American wolves include moose, white-tailed deer, elk, mule deer, mountain sheep and caribou. In North Africa, wolves feed on various cultivated crops and vegetables and domestic animals.

If you need any further facts about wolves (communication, body language, etc.) please go to this website:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gray_wol...


Credit to Realistic Wolves RP in Lots and lots of Animals RP! group created by Silverstream.


Jade the Valiant (honeysun258) do we have to read all of this?


message 3: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) Only if you want to.


message 4: by คгเค (new)

คгเค  (fanfiction-green) It would help a little, though...

Thanks Shay! Now I'm a mod! XD


message 5: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) You're my assistant now, minion! Now make thee a samwich!


message 6: by คгเค (new)

คгเค  (fanfiction-green) Eh... *hides*

Okay, master! *makes sandwich*


message 7: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) I'm kidding Aria. It's a joke.


message 8: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) *takes samwhich* OMNOMNOMNOM. Now get me toast!


message 9: by คгเค (new)

คгเค  (fanfiction-green) Lol! Ik, I'm going along with it!


message 10: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) ShayA-Hi! wrote: "*takes samwhich* OMNOMNOMNOM. Now get me toast!"


message 11: by Madhins (new)

Madhins         (hinsy) Did someone say toast? O.o

GIVE MEH SOME THAT TOAST!!!


message 12: by คгเค (new)

คгเค  (fanfiction-green) ShayA-Hi! wrote: "ShayA-Hi! wrote: "*takes samwhich* OMNOMNOMNOM. Now get me toast!""

Okay! Okay! *makes toast*


message 13: by Madhins (new)

Madhins         (hinsy) *steals toast* ONOM.


message 14: by คгเค (new)

คгเค  (fanfiction-green) *runs away* make your own toast! Ahhhhh!


message 15: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) *slaps Hims* She's MY assistant. get your own. *steals toast* MINE.


message 16: by Madhins (new)

Madhins         (hinsy) Yes, Master Shay.


message 17: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) *pats head* Good, Madhins.


message 18: by Madhins (new)

Madhins         (hinsy) >.>


message 19: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) I'm kidding.


message 20: by Madhins (new)

Madhins         (hinsy) Lol, Ik.


message 21: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) :P But of course.


message 22: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) *pats Lauren's head* *bites toast* I would, but I ate it all. Ask my assistant for some.


message 23: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) Be nice to my assistant!


message 24: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) Ask Silver. I'm your assistant in the other wolf group.


message 25: by [deleted user] (new)

I shall be no one's assistant! I shall be my own....No, better yet, my charries will be my employees!


message 26: by Jade the Valiant (new)

Jade the Valiant (honeysun258) ShayA-Hi! wrote: "You're my assistant now, minion! Now make thee a samwich!"

Isn't that from a Suite Life of Zach and Cody episode? Where Zach got this new 'magic' wand and he is Multak, and Mr. Mosbey is Zango Darkblade?


message 27: by [deleted user] (new)

I used to love that show....but then they decided to dump them on a cruise ship.....


message 28: by Jade the Valiant (new)

Jade the Valiant (honeysun258) yeah...but that's a good series too. Plus on Disney XD and late at night on Disney Channel, they show the old shows they have kept, like that, but no Kim Possible, Lilo and Stitch the Series, the Little Mermaid Series, the Tarzan Series(wasn't my fav but oh well), the Aladdin Series and The House of Mouse. WAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

I MISS TOON DISNEY!!!!!!!!!!!WWWWWWWAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH!!!!!!!!


message 29: by คгเค (new)

คгเค  (fanfiction-green) See you guys, I'm going for the week now, I may get on from time to time, but not much. Alright, cyas!


message 30: by Jade the Valiant (last edited Jun 28, 2011 06:55PM) (new)

Jade the Valiant (honeysun258) bye we'll miss you. and where are you going?


message 31: by Jade the Valiant (new)

Jade the Valiant (honeysun258) acctualy I think there's another new episode coming out. I think though. not positive.


message 32: by Jade the Valiant (new)

Jade the Valiant (honeysun258) bye


message 33: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) Toon Disney was awesome!


message 34: by Maryam (new)

Maryam Now I'm feeling sad that Toon Disney is gone reading all of your posts and I've never any seen any of it! No cable...


message 35: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) Aw! Poor Joe...you really missed out.


message 36: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) I'm sorry, Joe. I'm really sorry.


message 37: by Shayla (last edited Jun 29, 2011 10:23AM) (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) On the bright side...MY TEPIG EVOLVED.


message 38: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) I play pokemon, yes. Tepig is a pokemon in the new Black and White games.


message 40: by [deleted user] (new)

I used to love Pokemon as a child. I recently found my Platinum game I never managed to finish, and I just have to beat the Elite Four. I hate them.....I end up shutting the D.S lid (It doesn't shut down, just pauses it, I guess) and then when I go to play it a year later, I'm mad, because I was looking forward to making poffins, but instead I have to freaking battle annoying people.

I have all three of that one series, Pearl, Diamond, and Platinum. Pearl is my main one, which my level 100 fire monkey thingy. I forgot the name. Because when I was nine I nicknamed it Charstar. Like one of the leaders from warriors.


message 41: by [deleted user] (new)

3DS looks cool....but I already have my trusty lite.


message 42: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) Silverstream/THE X-MEN FREAK! wrote: "3DS looks cool....but I already have my trusty lite."

I agree with you! I don't want the 3DS. it's a remake and seems like a ripoff with all they say that it has on it. I will stick to my lite.


message 43: by [deleted user] (new)

I want to see one of my friends if they get one before getting my own. It doesn't really look like it would work.


message 44: by Shayla (new)

Shayla (shaylaalexander) I, again, agree with Silver on that.


message 45: by Jade the Valiant (new)

Jade the Valiant (honeysun258) yeah. totally agree. 'cause now for the movie theaters, when they say this is real 3D, it's not. before it was real 3D, but now it's just a movie that you need 3D glasses with.


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