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Wolf Hall (Thomas Cromwell, #1)
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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new) - rated it 4 stars

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Thanks to Garret: here is a timeline for the upcoming Wolf Hall discussion:

Wolf Hall by Hilary Mantel Hilary Mantel Hilary Mantel

message 2: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new) - rated it 4 stars

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Background Timelines for the Monarchy, Reformation, and Cromwell:

Monarchy timeline:

1399 - Henry of Bolingbroke rebels against his cousin King Richard II in order to reclaim his rights as Duke of Lancaster. A popular revolt ensued in which Richard was deposed. Henry was crowned King Henry IV, interrupting the direct line of the House of Plantagenet and establishing the House of Lancaster on the throne.

1413 – Death of Henry IV; his son Henry V made King of England.

1422 – Death of Henry V; his son Henry VI made King of England.

1453 - Henry VI has a mental breakdown and becomes unfit to rule.

1454 - Richard, Duke of York, is regent of England while Henry VI convalesces.

1455 - Henry VI recovers. Richard of York is replaced and excluded from the Royal Council. Growing disaffection with the corruption and incompetence of Henry’s reign leads to an attempt to assert the claim of the House of York to the throne, due to Richard’s descent from Lionel of Antwerp, the second surviving son of Edward III.

1455 - War of the Roses between the House of York and the House of Lancaster for the right to the throne.

1460 - Battle of Wakefield. Richard of York is defeated and killed. However, the powerful and influential Earl of Warwick captures London for the Yorkists. In the battle of Northampton Henry VI is captured by Yorkists.

1461 - Battles of Mortimer's Cross and Towton. Richard's son, Edward of York, defeats the Lancastrians and becomes King Edward IV, establishing the House of York on the throne.

1465 - Henry VI imprisoned by Edward IV.

1466 – Warwick quarrels with Edward IV and is concerned by outside influences in the court. Warwick is defeated and flees to France.

1470 - Warwick forms an alliance with Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI. Warwick turns his support to the House of Lancaster. He defeats Edward IV and restores Henry VI.

1471 - Edward IV re-enters London with little resistance and captures Henry VI. In the Battle of Barnet he defeats and kills Warwick; Henry VI dies. With Warwick gone, Edward reclaims the throne for the House of York.

1483 – Sudden death of Edward IV. His 12 year-old son is made Edward V, King of England. Edward V’s uncle, Richard Duke of Gloucester was named Protector for the duration of Edward’s minority. A dispute over the legitimacy of Edward V causes Parliament to name Richard the rightful king. Richard holds Edward V and his younger brother Richard of York in the Tower of London. Neither child ever emerged. Richard is crowned king as Richard III.

Reformation Timeline:
1483- Birth of Martin Luther

1485 – Henry Tudor, claimant for the house of Lancaster, invades and defeats Richard III at the battle of Bosworth. Henry is crowned king as Henry VII and marries Elizabeth of York, daughter of the Yorkist king Edward IV. This marriage unites the two warring dynasties and effectively ends the Wars of the Roses.

Cromwell Timeline:
1485 – Born in Putney, near London, son of brewer and blacksmith Walter Cromwell.
1500 – Joins the French army as a mercenary.
1504 – Finds work as a banker’s clerk in Florence, later a wool trade agent in Antwerp.

1509 – Henry VIII becomes king. Marries Katherine of Aragon, widow of Prince Arthur, his elder brother. Katherine and Henry have several children but only one, Mary, survives infancy.

1509- Birth of John Calvin

1512 – Back in England, marries Elizabeth Wykys, a widow and wool merchant’s daughter.

1516- Publication of Erasmus’s New Testament in Greek with an original Latin translation.
1517- Luther’s Ninety-five Theses.
1518- Luther defends his theological views in a disputation at Heidelberg.

1521– Anne Boleyn appears at the English court.

1521- Luther excommunicated.
1521- Henry VIII awarded title Defender of the Faith by Pope Leo X for his treatise against Luther.
1522- Luther produces German translation of New Testament.
1523- King Gustavus Vasa begins a gradual process of reformation in Sweden

1523 – Made a member of parliament and is working for Cardinal Wolsey.

1525-Zurich removes images from churches and puts an end to the Catholic Mass.
1526-William Tyndale’s English translation of the New Testament.

1529 - Henry VIII dismisses Cardinal Wolsey for failing to obtain the Pope's consent to his annulment from Catherine of Aragon. Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor.

1529- Iconoclastic riots in Basle. Abolition of the Mass in Strassburg.
1530—Augsburg Confession setting down the basic principles of Lutheran Christianity.

1530 – Wolsey is arrested but dies before he can reach London. Cromwell joins the King’s council.

1531-Formation of the Schmalkald League among Protestant cities for the purpose of mutual defense against the Holy Roman Empire.

1533 - Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by Pope Clement VII; Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

1534- Act of Supremacy in England, acknowledging Henry VIII as the supreme head of the English Church.

1534 – Cromwell becomes the King’s secretary and, in effect, chief minister

1535 - Thomas More executed for refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy.

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