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General Studies

Alger, John I. The Quest for Victory: The History of the Principles of War. Contributions in Military History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

This unique volume is a history of the principles of war from Jomini to the present. Alger, a U.S. Army officer, provides a useful source for students of modern military thought.

Bidwell, Shelford, and Dominick Graham. Fire-Power: British Army Weapons and Theories of War, 1904-1945. Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1982.

A brilliant study of artillery and British Army organization and doctrine, Bidwell and Graham's clearly written and carefully researched account has earned high praise from scholars and soldiers.

Blumenson, Martin, and James L. Stokesbury. Masters of the Art of Command. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1975.

With emphasis on twentieth-century warfare, this work's excellent biographical chapters show how commanders at different levels functioned.

Carver, Michael, Sir, ed. The War Lords: Military Commanders of the Twentieth Century. Boston: Little, Brown, 1976.

Carver's collection of forty-three essays on leading military land, sea, and air force commanders of World Wars I and II is an excellent source of capsule biographies.

Especially inspiring is Dan Davin's essay on Lieutenant General Lord Bernard Freyberg of New Zealand.

Delbrück, Hans. History of the Art of War Within the Framework of Political History. Translated from the German by Walter J. Renfroe Jr. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1975-85.

In these four volumes, Hans Delbrück (1848-1929), a writer, military historian, and professor of history at Berlin University, discusses the art of war from ancient history to the age of Napoleon. One eminent historian has said that Delbrück's History of the Art of War is a "monument to German scholarship" for applying a new scientific method to the military records of the past. This modern English translation makes Delbrück's work available for the serious student of military history and thought.

English, John A. On Infantry. New York: Praeger, 1984.

The author, a Canadian Army officer, presents an outstanding synthesis of twentieth-century ideas and writings on the role of infantry in war. He focuses on the fundamentals of infantry operations, training, weapons, and tactics. Those interested in the characteristics of successful infantry should read this informative book.

Fuller, J. F. C. A Military History of the Western World. 3 vols. Jersey City, NJ: Da Capo Press, 1987, c1954-56.

The author, who was a British major general, military theorist, and historian, provides a narrative and analysis of warfare from earliest times to the end of World War II. A useful and quite readable reference, the volumes have been reissued in paperback.

Görlitz, Walter. History of the German General Staff, 1657-1945. Translated by Brian Battershaw. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1975, c1953.

Görlitz' study is a thorough history of the German General Staff from its origins in the 1600s to the end of World War II.

Hackett, John Winthrop, Sir. The Profession of Arms. New York: Macmillan, 1983.

General Hackett, a distinguished British soldier and scholar, eloquently explains the evolution of the military profession from ancient times to the present in this work, which was originally presented in 1962 as the Lees-Knowles lectures at Trinity College, Cambridge. His text is important for officers and has been reprinted from the Officers' Call series by the U.S. Army Center of Military History (CMH Pub 70-18).

Hastings, Max, ed. The Oxford Book of Military Anecdotes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Hastings' collection of 384 military anecdotes covers the span of history from ancient times to the Falkland Islands War of 1982. The editor, a former paratrooper, military historian, and experienced British war correspondent, collected tales that reflect the soldier's experience and emphasize the reality of war - men's efforts to kill each other. The material, some of which is humorous, can be incorporated into military history courses.

Heller, Charles E., and William A. Stofft, comps. America's First Battles, 1776-1965. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1986.

Historians and military officers contributed ten battle studies to this work: Long Island (1776), Queenston (1812), Rio Grande (1846), First Bull Run (1861), San Juan (1898), Cantigny (1918), Buna (1942), Kasserine (1943), Task Force Smith (1950), and la Drang (1965). While each study varies in readability, this is an excellent collection of American operational military histories. As Professor John Shy indicates in the surnmary chapter, these studies address recurring questions about first battles.

Howard, Michael Eliot. The Causes of Wars and Other Essays. 2d ed. enlarged. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.

This collection of articles by Britain's foremost military historian covers a wide range of subjects. Two articles are classics: "The Forgotten Dimensions of Strategy," which offers a framework for an analysis of strategy based on a study of the development of strategic doctrine and warfare over the past 200 years, and "The Use and Abuse of Military History," which explains how professional officers and academics should study military history. Also of interest are the biographical sketches of Liddell Hart and Montgomery.

_______.Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France, 1870-1871. New York: Metheun, 1981, c1961.

Michael Howard, a distinguished British soldier and eminent military historian, provides a scholarly study of the Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71.

Huston, James A. The Sinews of War: Army Logistics, 1775-1953. Army Historical Series. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army, 1966.

The history of logistics is dull reading, and this book is no exception. However, tactical operations depend on efficient logistics, and Huston provides a comprehensive history of U.S. Army logistics from the American Revolution through the Korean War.

Keegan, John. The Face of Battle.New York: Viking Press, 1976.

What is a battle like? The author of this ingenious book, a former Sandhurst instructor, seeks to answer this question for himself and for soldiers who have not been in combat. He succeeds by analyzing three battles: Agincourt (1415), Waterloo (1815), and the Somme (1916). Already a classic, this book has been required reading for field grade officers at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.

_______.The Mask of Command. New York: Viking, 1987.

This famous British military writer's latest book analyzes Alexander the Great, Wellington, Grant, and Hitler as military commanders and leaders. Keegan examines these leaders' differing command styles and evaluates the imperatives of leadership necessary for successful command prior to the nuclear age.

Kreidberg, Marvin A., and Merton G. Henry. History of Military Mobilization in the United States Army, 1775-1945. DA Pam 20-212. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1955.

The most comprehensive study of American mobilization, this volume is a detailed administrative history. While difficult to read, it is a rich source of information on a vital topic.

McElwee, William. The Art of War: Waterloo to Mons. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1974.

McElwee's study of the development of the art of warfare from the Crimean War in 1855 to World War I emphasizes how technology changed warfare.

MacGregor, Morris J. Integration of the Armed Forces, 1940-1965. Defense Studies Series. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1981.

This book describes the fall of the legal, administrative, and social barriers to the black American's full participation in the military service of the United States. Beginning with World War II and concluding with the civil rights movement of the 1960s, this thorough study covers all armed services.

Millett, Allan R. Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps. New York: Free Press/Macmillan, 1980.

Millett, a distinguished military historian and Marine Reserve colonel, presents an accurate, scholarly, critical, and complete history of the Marine Corps.

Millett, Allan Reed, and Peter Maslowski. For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America. New York: Free Press, 1984.

By far the best survey of American military history, this work covers the colonial era to the present. The selected bibliographies at the end of each chapter are helpful in providing a comprehensive survey of the literature.

Millis, Walter. Arms and Men: A Study of American Military History. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1984, cl956.

Although dated, this recently reprinted survey of American military history remains worth reading both for factual information and for the author's assessment of the relationship between civilian and military leaders.

Montross, Lynn. War Through the Ages. New York: Harper, 1960.

This is a lengthy, but easily read, encyclopedic survey of military history from the era of ancient Greece through the Korean War.

Paret, Peter, ed. Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Paret's compilation, written by expert historians, contains twenty-eight essays on strategic thought from the Renaissance to the present. These essays confirm that understanding war in history provides perspective for understanding current military thought. This valuable book carries on, but does not completely replace, the Edward Mead Earle edition originally published in 1943.

Preston, Richard Arthur, and Sydney F. Wise. Men in Arms: A History of Warfare and Its Interrelationships With Western Society. 4th ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1979.

This is an excellent survey of warfare and its relationship to society from ancient times to the present.

Ropp, Theodore. War in the Modern World. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1985, c1962.

Ropp's'study of warfare since 1415 is dated but still valuable. Often times, the footnotes are more interesting than the text.

Stallworthy, Jon, ed. The Oxford Book of War Poetry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

This marvelous collection of 259 poems arranged chronologically by conflict begins with poems from the Bible and concludes with a poem offering a dark prophecy of nuclear disaster. In between are poems by John Donne, Walt Whitman, Rudyard Kipling, Siegfried Sassoon, Allen Ginsberg, and James Fenton-writers and soldiers who offer different and differing perspectives on war.

Strachan, Hew. European Armies and the Conduct of War. Winchester, MA: Allen & Unwin, 1983.

Well written, clearly organized, and carefully researched, this first-rate survey of European military history from 1700 to the present covers both military operations and military thought.

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Swinton, Ernest Dunlop, Sir. The Defence of Duffer's Drift. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1986.

Major General Swinton, a noted English soldier and author, wrote this marvelous tactical primer as a captain shortly after he served in the Boer War. In six dreams, Swinton offers various tactical solutions to Lieutenant Backright Forethought, who is defending an imaginary piece of ground during the Boer War. Originally published in Infantry Journal (now Army) in April 1905 and now available as a reprint from the Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, this book is great for junior officers to read and discuss.

Vagts, Alfred. A History of Militarism: Civilian and Military. Rev. ed. New York: Free Press, 1959.

Vagt's thesis is that democratic, unmilitaristic societies are better at waging war than autocratic, militaristic ones, and he affirms this by analyzing the history of militarism from feudal times to 1945. Although dated (the first edition appeared in 1937), this work is significant in the historiography of Americans writing military history.

Van Creveld, Martin. Command in War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Beginning with an assessment of the "Stone Age" of command and concluding with the helicopter and the computer, Van Creveld investigates the historical evolution of command, control, and communications. He also evaluates how command worked in major battles and argues that armies which allowed their subordinate commanders considerable latitude were most successful.

Weigley, Russell Frank. History of the United States Army. Enlarged ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984, cl967.

This comprehensive history of the U.S. Army from colonial times to the present focuses on institutional history and the historic tension between professional and citizen armies. The author sees the dual American military traditions as a special strength in our democracy. Although very informative, this book is dull reading.

_______.The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy. New York: Macmillan, 1973; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.

In this history of U.S. military strategy from 1775 to the 1960s, Weigley offers considerable information and analysis. His chapters on World War II particularly show how historical precedent influenced U.S. strategy, and he sees the strategic traditions of A. T. Mahan and U. S. Grant as significant in America's conduct of World War II.

Wright, Quincy. A Study of War. 2d ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

This systematic, scholarly study of war began as a comprehensive program at the University of Chicago in 1926, and the results were first published in 1942. The study is a pioneering contribution to war studies and peace research in the United States. In assembling information on armaments, the balance of power, technology, law, social organization, and attitudes about military conflict, Wright conveys his belief that war must be studied systematically to be understood.

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Ancient History

Adcock, Frank Ezra, Sir. The Greek and Macedonian Art of War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974, c1957.

This highly readable short book provides a wealth of knowledge on ancient warfare.

Anderson, John Kinloch. Military Theory and Practice in the Age of Xenophon. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970.

This volume analyzes the functioning of Greek armies of the fourth century B.C. and assesses Xenophon as a pioneer military theorist. Anderson examines all the characteristics of ancient Greek warfare during Xenophon's time. Also included are excellent photographs of vases that show Greek soldiers as they appeared during this period.

Caesar, Julius. The Civil War: Together With the Alexandrian War, the African War, and the Spanish War by Other Hands. Translated with an introduction by Jane F. Gardner. New York: Penguin Books, c1967.

Both propaganda and a soldier's tale, The Civil War describes Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon, entrance into Rome, installation of Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt, and final battles in Spain in 45 B.C. This work (together with three accounts that were most likely written by Caesar's lieutenants) covers the period of Caesar's final struggle for power and provides considerable tactical detail about his maneuvers.

_______.The Conquest of Gaul. Translated by S. A. Handford. New York: Penguin Books, 1982, c1951.

Caesar's narrative on the Gallic War, the only account actually written by a great general of antiquity about his own campaigns, provides information on Britain and its early inhabitants and also records Caesar's successful campaigns in Britain and Europe between 58 and 50 B.C. Partly written as personal propaganda, this work has much to say about Roman military history.

Engels, Donald W. Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

Engels presents an ingenious systematic study of logistics in the ancient world and brilliantly assesses how Alexander combined strategic and logistic objectives.

Ferrill, Arther. The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1986.

In examining the military reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire, Professor Ferrill shows that generals and their armies were an essential component in the decline and fall.

_______.The Origins of War: From the Stone Age to Alexander the Great. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985.

Ferrill believes that the developments that led to the tactically integrated army of Alexander the Great laid the foundation of modern warfare to the time of Napoleon. In this work, Ferrill evaluates land and naval warfare in prehistoric times, the Copper-Bronze Age in the Near East, the Iron Age in Assyria and Persia, and classical Greek warfare. Good maps, clear illustrations, and simple prose make this a valuable guide to ancient warfare.

Fuller, J. F. C. The Generalship of Alexander the Great. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981, c1960.

In this analysis of the military abilities and actions of Alexander the Great, Fuller assesses Alexander's career as a statesman and soldier, and examines his great battles, sieges, and small wars in considerable detail. Fuller believes that, while Alexander was, one of the most audacious generals in history, "the risks he accepted were seldom left to chance; they were carefully weighed and calculated probabilities."

Livy. The War With Hannibal: Books XXI-XXX of the History of Rome From Its Foundation. Translated by Aubrey De Selincourt. New York: Penguin Books, 1965.

Livy (59 B.C.-17 A.D.) vividly describes the Second Punic War (218-202 B.C.) between Rome and Carthage, and examines the Carthaginians' early success, the famous Battle of Cannae, and Rome's victory over Hannibal at Zama. Reading this book offers a classical perspective on timely military questions.

Luttwak, Edward N. The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century A.D. to the Third. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.

Luttwak, an expert on current strategy and a leading defense reformer and critic, explores Roman strategy, tactics, and military organization in this well-written work. It has been required reading in the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College's School of Advanced Military Studies.

Thucydides. The Peloponnesian War. Rev. ed. Translated by Rex Warner. New York: Penguin Books, 1954.

Thucydides, the best Greek historian of classical period, analyzes the wars between Athens and Sparta. The work has appeared in numerous editions. This classic is especially prized for showing the relationship between war and society, assessing war aims, and exploring the human factor in war.

Xenophon. The March Up Country: A Modern Translation of the Anabasis. Translated by W. H. Rouse. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1958.

If the modern soldier looks to ancient history for knowledge and perspective, Xenophon (431-345 B.C.) is an admirable guide. His immortal story of the march of the Ten Thousand from Babylon through the mountains of Armenia to the Black Sea discloses much about ancient warfare and the timeless nature of military operations and leadership.

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War in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance

Beeler, John. Warfare in Feudal Europe, 730-1200. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, c1971.

In this book, Professor Beeler shows how feudal troops were used in war and also discusses such subjects as the bases on which feudal service was exacted, the mustering and composition of armies and their subsequent operations in the field, and the quality and qualifications of their commanders. This is a vital book for understanding feudalism and its connection to medieval warfare.

Contamine, Philippe. War in the Middle Ages. New York: B. Blackwell, 1984.

The author provides an outstanding survey of warfare from the barbarian attacks on the Roman Empire in the fifth century to the formation of permanent armies at the end of the fifteenth century. Contarnine attacks the false perception that medieval warfare was a futile, unintelligent, bashing among knights. This is the best single volume on the subject.

Hibbert, Christopher. Agincourt. 2d ed. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1986.

On 14 October 1415, in this great battle of the Middle Ages, the British Army defeated a much stronger French force. In this book, Hibbert provides a readable analysis of this battle and an explanation of medieval warfare.

Hollister, C. Warren. Anglo-Saxon Military Institutions on the Eve of the Norman Conquest. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1962.

This scholarly institutional history of the organization of the late-Saxon military establishment concentrates on manpower, who served and why. Also included in this work is an excellent chapter on Anglo-Saxon tactics and strategy. Professor Hollister's volume is essential for understanding the military history of England during the Middle Ages.

Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Portable Machiavelli. Edited by Peter Bonadella and Mark Musa. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.

This collection of Machiavelli's writings includes The Prince and selections from The Art of War. Machiavelli (1469-1527) realized the importance of military strength and believed in a connection between a militia and a republican form of government. A brief, clearly written introduction to this volume gives a historical overview of Machiavelli's life and times.

Oman, Charles William Chadwick, Sir. The Art of War in the Middle Ages, A.D. 378-1515. Revised and edited by John H. Beeler. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1953.

Originally published in 1885, this short, readable book gives an account of the military aspects of medieval society. While some of Oman's analyses are no longer valid due to Contamine's book, there is still much of interest here. Especially well done are Oman's descriptions of Swiss arms, organization, tactics, and strategy from 1315 to 1515.

Smail, R. C. Crusading Warfare, 1097-1193. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

In this well-written analysis of the military achievements of the Crusaders, Small shows how the European feudal society of the eleventh and twelfth centuries was organized for war. Especially interesting are the pictures of the Crusader castles that are still in use for military purposes. Any soldier concerned about warfare in the Middle East will find this book useful.

Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Knopf, 1978.

In this fascinating and well-written work, Tuchman explores life in the Middle Ages in Western Europe. She gives vivid portraits of knights and feudal warfare.

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The Era of Frederick II and Napoleon

Barker, Thomas Mack. The Military Intellectual and Battle: Raimondo Montecuccoli and the Thirty Years' War. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1975.

Raimondo Montecuccoli (1609-80), lieutenant general and field marshal of the army of the Austrian Hapsburgs, was a master of maneuver warfare, an able military administrator, and an author of a classic study of warfare. According to an eminent scholar of seventeenth-century military thought, Montecuccoli was the first modern theorist to attempt a comprehensive analysis of war in all of its aspects. A translation of Montecuccoli's military treatise, Concerning Battle - which describes combat in the second decade of the Thirty Years' War-is the central feature of Professor Barker's book. In addition, Barker provides an introduction to Montecuccoli's life and military career and a chapter that sets his four great engagements in historical perspective.

Chandler, David G., comp. Napoleon's Marshals. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

This collection of twenty-six essays by Napoleonic scholars offers the reader both biography and military history. While the essays vary in quality, they provide considerable information on the personalities involved in Napoleonic warfare.

_______.The Art of War in the Age of Marlborough. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1976.

This detailed yet readable account of the military organization, training methods, and tactical concepts of late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century European armies examines how the regimental officer and soldier fought and maneuvered, whether in the line of battle or in siege trenches. Chandler also evaluates equipment, doctrine, and training and emphasizes cavalry, infantry, artillery, and engineering developments. This book is essential for understanding the armies that made possible the achievements of Marlborough, Prince Eugene, and Marshal Saxe between 1688 and 1748.

_______.The Campaigns of Napoleon: The Mind and Method of History's Greatest Soldier. New York: Macmillan, 1966.

The reader should not be intimidated by the thickness of this volume. Officers agree this book is eminently readable with clear and accurate descriptions of Napoleon's system of war and his battles. Especially fascinating are the explanations of Napoleonic weapons, tactics, and operations.

Duffy, Christopher. The Army of Maria Theresa: The Armed Forces of Imperial Austria, 1740-1780. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1977.

Austria was Frederick II's opponent, and this volume describes all significant aspects of the Austrian armed forces from 1740 to 1780. The author believes that the Theresian army foreshadowed some important developments of Napoleonic warfare in its use of light infantry and the employment of artillery.

_______.The Military Life of Frederick the Great. New York: Atheneum, 1986.

In this readable, scholarly assessment of Frederick's military achievements, Duffy clearly describes Frederick's strategic and tactical concepts. The book contains good maps and excellent battle analyses of Frederick's campaigns.

Firth, Charles Harding, Sir. Cromwell's Army: A History of the English Soldier During the Civil Wars, the Common wealth, and the Protectorate. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1962.

This accurate and scholarly volume explains how an efficient army evolved out of chaos during the English Civil War of 1642-60. Firth examines the creation of Cromwell's longservice professional, or New Model, army and all of its features, including infantry, cavalry, artillery, sieges, pay, logistics, discipline, and the relation of religion and politics to seventeenth-century English military history.

Frederick II, King of Prussia. Frederick the Great on the Art of War. Edited and translated by Jay Luvaas. New York: Free Press, 1966.

Dr. Luvaas' edition provides a thorough and complete account of Frederick's generalship and military thought.

Griffith, Paddy, ed. Wellington-Commander: The Iron Duke's Generalship. Strettington, Chichester, Sussex, England: Anthony Bird Publications in Association With the Wellington Museum, 1985; Winchester, MA: Faber and Faber,1986.

Napoleon's great opponent was the Duke of Wellington, who fought the French on the Peninsula and at the Battle of Waterloo. This illustrated book about Wellington's generalship contains brief essays by leading British military historians and is an excellent introduction to the work of the Wellington scholar Michael Glover. The three parts of this book cover Wellington and strategy, Wellington and Waterloo, and Wellington and tactics.

Grimmelshausen, Hans Jakob Christoph von. The Adventurous Simplicissimus: Being the Description of the Life of a Vagabond Named Melchior Sternfels von Fuchshaim. Translated by A. T. S. Goodrick. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, c1962.

This volume offers a graphic view of seventeenth-century campaign life as seen by the cannon fodder. For a complete picture of warfare in the seventeenth century, this book should be read in conjunction with Montecuccoli's Concerning Battle (in Barker's The Military Intellectual and Battle), which gives a good introduction to the problems and techniques of warfare during this period.

Rothenberg, Gunther Erich. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,1978.

A concise, accurate, and readable overview of Napoleonic warfare, Rothenberg's work is an excellent supplement to David Chandler's The Campaigns of Napoleon.

Saxe, Maurice, Comte de. Reveries, or Memoirs Upon the Art of War.... 1757. Reprint. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971.

Maurice, Comte de Saxe (1696-1750), a victorious French field marshal, wrote some rules and reflections on the art of warfare as practiced during the first half of the eighteenth century. Straightforward and precise, his discussions of all aspects of soldiering are of historical interest and are valuable for their perspective on timeless military problems.

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Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Indexed paperback edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, c1976.

Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) is generally viewed as the greatest writer on the art of war, and this masterpiece, although unfinished at the time of his death, is the most systematic study of war. Nuclear strategist Bernard Brodie said of Clausewitz' study, "His is not simply the greatest, but the only great book about war." Reading and understanding Clausewitz is not easy, but it can be rewarding and relevant. This is the only translation worth reading, and the index in the paperback edition is useful.

Howard, Michael Eliot. Clausewitz. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

In this brief and brilliant work, which is both a biography and a guide to Clausewitz' thoughts and influence, Howard reminds us that, above all, Clausewitz was a professional soldier writing for his colleagues and not for a professor teaching at a university.

Paret, Peter. Clausewitz and the State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Paret, a noted military historian, has written a complex, comprehensive, and definitive study of Clausewitz and his theories.

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U.S. Civil War

Beringer, Richard E., et al. Why the South Lost the Civil War. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986.

This study offers serious students an interpretation of why the South lost the Civil War. The authors, all history professors, believe the Confederacy succumbed to internal rather than external causes.

Catton, Bruce. A Stillness at Appomattox. New York: Washington Square Press/Simon & Schuster, 1970, c1953.

Written with vigor, clarity, and warmth, Catton's work describes the last year of the Civil War, including the Battle of the Wilderness and the siege of Petersburg. This is the third volume in the author's trilogy about the war. It is preceded by Mr. Lincoln's Army and Glory Road. Catton's Civil War volumes are simply magnificent.

_______.The Coming Fury (vol. 1), Terrible Swift Sword (vol, 2), and Never Call Retreat (vol. 3). Centennial History of the Civil War series. New York: Doubleday, 1961-65.

Catton was America's leading Civil War writer, and all of his books are worth reading. These volumes provide an exciting account of the Civil War from the Union perspective.

Coddington, Edwin B. The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study in Command. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1984, c1968.

For those seeking a thorough examination of the Battle of Gettysburg, this book provides a comprehensive battle analysis and evaluates command during the entire campaign leading to the battle.

Foote, Shelby. The Civil War, a Narrative. 3 vols. New York: Random House, 1958-74.

A Mississippian, novelist, World War II field artillery captain, and master narrator of men and battles, Shelby Foote captures the flavor of the times and examines the war as a whole, including all the major campaigns. While the three volumes contain nearly 3,000 pages of text, they are beautifully written and easily read.

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command. 3 vols. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1942-44; New York: Scribner, 1986.

Once very popular with U.S. military officers, this readable narrative is a composite biography of Confederate generals and a masterful study of command and war. Freeman takes great care to preserve some Confederate legends.

Fuller, J. F. C. Grant and Lee: A Study in Personality and Generalship. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982, cl933.

Major General Fuller examines the influence of personality on generalship. He broke with the then-conventional view that Grant was a butcher and Lee one of the world's greatest generals.

Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983.

Emphasizing strategy and logistics, these two history professors have produced a thorough, comprehensive analysis of the Civil War from the viewpoint of the high-level commanders on both sides. Also included is an excellent appendix on how to study military operations.

Henderson, George Francis Robert. Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War. Abridged by E. B. Long. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1968, c1962.

Written in 1898 by a famous British officer and military historian, this book is the classic analysis of the great Confederate general and was required reading for generations of British officers.

Luvaas, Jay, and Harold W. Nelson. The U.S. Army War College Guide to the Battle of Antietam: The Maryland Campaign in 1862. Carlisle, PA: South Mountain Press, 1987.

The authors, who teach at the U.S. Army War College, provide a valuable tool for conducting a staff ride of Antietam, covering the Battles of South Mountain, Crampton's Gap, Harpers Ferry, and Antietam. If you have the opportunity to conduct your own staff ride at this well-preserved battlefield located near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and Washington, D.C., you should first read Landscape Turned Red by Stephen Sears, then examine the Center of Military History pamphlet, The Staff Ride (CMH Pub 70-21) by Dr. William Glenn Robertson of the Combat Studies Institute, and finally, go to the field with this guide. Luvaas and Nelson have also written a similar guide to Gettysburg.

McPherson, James. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York: Knopf, 1982.

McPherson, in the best one-volume survey of the war, examines political, military, social, and economic aspects of the Civil War.

Sears, Stephen W. Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam. New Haven, CT: Ticknor and Fields, 1983; New York: Warner Books, 1985.

In this recent, splendid battle analysis, Sears provides gripping reading about a battlefield you will want to visit.

Shaara, Michael. The Killer Angels. New York: McKay, 1974; New York: Ballantine Books, 1980.

This historical novel of the Battle of Gettysburg is accurate, easy to read, and a much-discussed book at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College (and for reasons other than it being required reading). Featured in this memorable war novel are Confederate General James Longstreet and the hero of Little Round Top, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain.

Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and His Generals. New York: Random House, 1967, c1952.

Williams, one, of America's greatest professors of history, presents the controversial thesis that President Lincoln was an outstanding commander in chief whose strategic vision brought victory to the Union. The author also shows how Lincoln developed a modern command system for the United States. Students admire this book for its keen analysis bright narrative.

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The British Empire

Barnett, Correlli. Britain and Her Army, 1509-1970: A Military, Political, and Social Survey. New York: William Morrow, 1970.

Beginning with the reign of King Henry V111, Barnett's work explores the history of the British Army as an institution and fighting force. The volume also examines the influence of war on modern British history as well as specific topics such as recruitment, logistics, the regimental system, equipment, and the social background of officers and men.

Farwell, Byron. Mr. Kipling's Army: All the Queen's Men. New York: W. W. Norton, 1987, c1980.

Farwell provides an amusing look at professional officers and other ranks in the British Army as it was in the days of Queen, Victoria and Edward VII. Focusing on militarylife, Farwell's work describes the regimental system, the relationship between officers and men, and the activities of and attitudes held by both on- and off-duty military men. Filled with charming personal anecdotes, this volume captures the idiosyncrasies of Britain's pre-World War I army.

_______.Queen Victoria's Little Wars. New York: W. W. Norton, 1985, c1973.

The conquests of British imperialism produced a series of "small wars" in remote places during the nineteenth century. From India to Africa, from China to the Crimea, the British Army and the army of the Honorable East India Company built and maintained the British Empire, and their exploits from 1837 to 1900 are ably described here.

Fraser, George M. Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1942. New York: New American Library, 1984, c1969.

Flashman, Fraser's ficticious creation, is a British officer who loves adventure, beautiful women, strong drink, and avoiding personal harm. Indeed, he is a well-decorated coward! With considerable historical accuracy, Fraser describes Flashman's service in the imperial wars of the nineteenth century, in the U.S. Civil War, in the Indian mutiny, with Custer at Little Big Horn, and in other likely and unlikely battles. Other entertaining novels in this series include Flash for Freedom, flashman and the Redskins, Royal Flash, Flashman at the Charge, and Flashman and the Dragon.

Hibbert, Christopher. The Great Mutiny: India, 1857. New York: Penguin Books, 1980, c1978.

In this excellent narrative history of the Indian uprising of 1857, the author examines the causes and results of the mutiny and provides lively descriptions of key events and personalities.

Morris, Donald R. The Washing of the Spears: The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986, c1965.

Morris describes the Zulu nation from its rise, with the combining of the native clans led by Shaka, to its fall under the guns of the British Army by 1878. The Zulus produced a formidable military force, and this excellent account studies all aspects of the Zulus and the defeat they inflicted on the British at Isandhlwana. Brilliantly done is Morris' explanation of British heroism at Rorke's Drift, where defenders received the most Victoria Crosses ever awarded for a single engagement.

Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. New York: Random House, 1979.

In this well-written narrative, which covers the Boer War between the Boers of South Africa and the British from 1899 to 1902, Pakenham discusses the causes of the war, the blunders of the British generals, and the political and military results.

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World War I

Barnett, Correlli. The Swordbearers: Supreme Command in the First World War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975, c1963.

In his highly readable and perceptive study of the younger von Moltke, Admiral Jellicoe, General Petain, and General Ludendorff, Barnett takes the reader inside the decision-making cycles of the World War I commanders.

Blunden, Edmund. Undertones of War. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, c1965.

A classic chronicle of World War I trench life by a British infantry lieutenant who became a famous poet and author, this is the best personal memoir of World War I-a masterpiece.

Coffman, Edward M. The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986, c1968.

In this excellent text and reference, Professor Coffman, a distinguished military historian, provides a thorough evaluation of all aspects of U.S. military participation in World War I.

Forester, C. S. The General. Annapolis, MD: Nautical & Aviation Publishing Co., 1987, c1936.

Both an entertaining work of fiction by a literary master and a criticism of British World War I generalship, this novel has gained worldwide attention.

Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Fussell's study of the history and literature of World War I shows how the modern form of literary understanding originated in World War I. This is a book to read and reread - a great achievement!

Horne, Alistair. The Price of Glory: Verdun 1916. New York: Penguin, 1962.

This moving study explains Verdun where 700,000 men fell in a ten-month battle.

Junger, Ernst. Storm of Steel: From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop Officer on the Western Front. Translated by Basil Creighton. New York: Howard Fertig, 1975, c1929.

In this gripping book, Junger, a German infantry lieutenant in World War I, describes the experience of combat and provides interesting vignettes on life at the front, the heat of battle, and small-unit leadership.

Lawrence, T. E. Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph. New York: Penguin Books, 1976, c1935.

A unique account of the revolt in Arabia against the Turks during World War I by its most famous participant, Thomas Edward Lawrence (1888-1935), this book reminds one that maneuver warfare in the desert was far different from the stagnant trench warfare on the Western Front.

Liddell Hart, Basil Henry. The Real War, 1914-1918. Boston: Little, Brown, 1964, c1930.

Liddell Hart, the great military writer and veteran of the trenches, wrote this comprehensive study of World War I, which many still consider the classic one-volume history of the war. The book discusses the origins of the war, the opposing forces, and war plans, and covers chronologically all major campaigns in all theaters of the war.

MacDonald, Lyn. Somme. London: Michael Joseph, 1983.

A look at the Battle of the Somme in July 1916 as seen by British soldiers and officers, this somewhat disjointed, but still informative, book is critical-and deservedly so-of the British commander Sir Douglas Haig.

Middlebrook, Martin. The First Day on the Somme, 1 July 1916. New York: Norton, 1972.

On 1 July 1916, the British Army suffered over 57,000 casualties, making it the most terrible day in its history. In this classic account, the author tells what happened and why by using ten soldiers who fought on the Somme as representatives of the British Army.

Miller, Steven E., ed. Military Strategy and the Origins of the First World War: An International Security Reader. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.

First published in International Security, this collection of six scholarly articles evaluates the offensive doctrines of the major European armies in 1914. In the most important article written for officers today, the distinguished British military historian Michael Howard describes what European armies believed about the nature of warfare prior to World War I.

Moorehead, Alan. Gallipoli. New York: Ballantine Books, 1982, cl956.

In a powerful study of the sea-land effort in 1915 to defeat Turkey in World War I, Moorehead examines all aspects of the campaign. This book should be required reading for all commanders.

Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on the Western Front. New York: Fawcett, 1987, c1929.

Considered to be the classic novel of World War I, this book has been read by millions of people. Remarque records the experiences of young German soldiers confronting the horrors of war.

Rommel, Erwin. Attacks. Rev. ed. Vienna, VA: Athena Press, 1979.

Originally published as Infantry Attacks, Field Marshal Rommel's work about World War I was of extreme interest to officers of other armies. General George S. Patton, for one, read and admired this book.

Sassoon, Siegfried Lorraine. Memoirs of an Infantry Officer. Winchester, MA: Faber and Faber, 1965, c1930.

Eloquent and witty, Sassoon's great English memoirs of World War I combine fiction and his own experiences to produce a work of great literary merit that shows the contrasts and horrors of World War I. While Sassoon was in reserve during the Battle of Arras, he wrote about "listening to the noise (of Military History being manufactured regardless of expense) and waiting for the latest rumors." This is the middle volume of a trilogy.

Silkin, Jon. The Penguin Book of First World War Poetry. 2d ed. New York: Penguin, 1981.

To better understand trench warfare, consider reading this fine collection of the best World War I poetry.

Smythe, Donald. Pershing: General of the Armies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

In Father Smythe's scholarly account of Pershing's activities in World War I, he provides much information about the American Expeditionary Forces.

Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of World War 1. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1981.

Stokesbury, in a lively and ironic writing style, offers the best brief account of the Great War.

Stone, Norman. The Eastern Front, 1914-1917.New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975.

Stone, a professor at Cambridge University, presents a thorough history of the lesser-known World War I eastern campaigns of Russia, Germany, and Austro-Hungary, and examines army organization, tactics, conscription, logistics, and strategy. For information on the Eastern Front in World War I, this is the book to consult.

Travers, Timothy. The Killing Ground: The British Army, the Western Front and the Emergence of Modern Warfare, 1900-1918. Winchester, MA: Allen & Unwin, 1987.

Travers' first-rate new study of World War I analyzes the evolution of a style of warfare that resulted in massive losses. Using recently available personal papers, the author brilliantly evaluates British command, with emphasis on Douglas Haig, and sees a connection between Haig's command style and his staff college training. In this work, Travers specifically criticizes the British official history of the war.

Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim. The Gans of August. New York: Ballantine, 1985, c1962.

Excellent writing and splendid research combine in this great narrative of the causes and opening days of World War I, but Tuchman's thesis is debatable.

Winter, Denis. Death's Men: Soldiers of the Great War. New York: Penguin Books, 1985, c1979.

In this clearly written book, Winter, a British history teacher, describes life in the trenches and the horror of World War I combat. He also provides information on routine army life on the Western Front, including diet, health, and fatigue duty.

Wynne, Graeme Chamley. If Germany Attacks: The Battle in Depth in the West. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976,cl940.

This book describes the evolution of German tactical doctrine on the Western Front from 1915 to 1917 and should be of interest to soldiers concerned about how war changes tactical doctrine.

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J.F.C. Fuller and B.H. Liddell Hart

Bond, Brian. Liddell Hart: A Study of His Military Thought. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1977.

A careful analysis of Liddell Hart's thought and writings by a friend and pupil, this work is not a biography.

Fuller, J. F. C. Generalship - Its Diseases and Their Cure: A Study of the Personal Factor in Command. 1936. Reprint. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1987.

J. F. C. Fuller (1878-1966) was one of Great Britain's foremost military thinkers. He graduated from Sandhurst in and went on to a military career marked by brilliant, unorthodox thought. Fuller was an early advocate of armored warfare, and he retired as a major general. This short book, long a favorite with U.S. Army Command and General Staff College students, explains Fuller's attributes for successful generalship and is highly critical of British generalship, in World War I.

Larson, Robert H. The British Army and the Theory of Armored Warfare, 1918-1940. Newark: University of Delaware Press, distributed by Associated University Presses, Cranbury, NJ, 1984.

Professor Larson's prize-winning book traces the development of the controversy surrounding armored warfare through the interwar years. Well written and thorough, his comprehensive study highlights the different ideas of Fuller and Liddell Hart and describes the British experiments with tanks in the 1930s.

Liddell Hart, Basil Henry, Sir. Strategy. 2d rev. ed. New York: New American Library, 1974, c1967.

In this survey of world military history, Liddell Hart, the "Captain who taught Generals," emphasizes his theory of the indirect approach. As Britain's most famous military journalist, his theories and writings have influenced many armed forces.

Luvaas, Jay, ed. The Education of an Army: British Military Thought, 1815-1940. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

This collection of essays examines British leaders, strategists, and writers who influenced the growth and development of the British military from Napoleonic warfare to the beginning of World War II. The chapters on Fuller and Liddell Hart provide an excellent introduction to their life, thought, and significance. Professor Luvaas knew Liddell Hart and helped catalog his papers.

Macksey, Kenneth. The Tank Pioneers. New York: Jane's, 1981.

Macksey provides an interesting evaluation of the development of armor during the interwar period. He focuses on personalities but also includes studies of doctrine and technology.

Trythall, Anthony John. 'Boney' Fuller: Soldier, Strategist, and Writer, 1878-1966. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1977.

This is a splendid biography of the life and work of a creative military thinker.

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World War II

Blumenson, Martin. The Patton Papers. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972-74.

These two volumes delve into Patton's thoughts and actions and help the reader to understand him. Blumenson's excellent notes place Patton's words in perspective.

Collins, Joseph Lawton. Lightning Joe: An Autobiography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.

General Collins is considered one of the greatest U.S. Army division and corps commanders of World War II. This autobiography ably describes his military career from West Point and his early Army service to his tenure as chief of staff during the Korean War. The chapters on World War II are particularly valuable for providing a commander's perspective.

D'Este, Carlo. Decision in Normandy. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1983.

The author, a retired lieutenant colonel, provides a carefully researched and detailed description of the World War II Normandy campaign. D'Este is critical of General Montgomery for not admitting that he changed his original plan.

Doughty, Robert Allan. The Seeds of Disaster: The Development of French Army Doctrine, 1919-1939. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1985.

This prize-winning study of French military doctrine by the chairman of the West Point History Department illustrates the difficulty of formulating an effective doctrine and the vital role doctrine plays in modern armies. Doughty shows that France was defeated in the early days of World War II more by its own historical experience, geography, and political and military institutions than by German military excellence.

Dower, John W. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986.

A study of race hate and the conduct of World War II in Asia, this imaginative book looks at the war through both Western and Japanese eyes. - Dower acknowledges that, in the course of the war in Asia, racism, dehumanization, technological change, and exterminationist policies became interlocked in unprecedented ways.

Garfield, Brian Wynne. The Thousand-Mile War: World War II in Alaska and the Aleutians. New York: Ballantine Books, 1969.

The only campaign of World War II fought on the United States' own North American soil took place amid the harsh climatic conditions of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands chain in 1942-43. The battles for Dutch Harbor, Kiska, and Attu involved extensive joint operations. This highly readable history of the campaign describes both Japanese and American commanders and actions.

Greenfield, Kent Roberts, ed. Command Decisions. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army, 1960.

Many of the authors of the "green books," the U.S. Army's official history of World War II, contributed to this study of twenty-one key military operational and strategic decisions of World War II. The essays cover all the vital military decisions, including the Germany-first strategy, Overlord versus the Mediterranean, the ninety-division gamble, the launching of Operation Market-Garden, and the use of the atomic bomb.

Hamilton, Nigel. Monty: The Making of a General, 1887-1942. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.

_______.Master of the Battlefield: Monty's War Years, 1942-1944. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983.

_______.Monty: Final Years of the Field-Marshal, 1944-1976. New York: McGraw-Hill, c1986.

You do not have to admire Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery of El Alamein to appreciate this monumental work, which is the authorized biography of Britain's most famous World War II general Hamilton provides a wealth of information about Montgomery's military career and personal life, in which Monty emerges as a master trainer of men, a great and controversial man, and an eccentric person. In assessing Montgomery's planning and execution of Operations Anvil and Market-Garden, Hamilton is not objective, for he sees no failings by Montgomery! Still, these volumes are a valuable source for understanding the British way of war in World War II.

Hastings, Max. Overlord: D-Day and the Battle for Normandy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.

Hastings gives an accurate, readable, and current account of D day.

Heller, Joseph. Catch 22. New York: Simon and Schuster, c1961.

No author better portrays the irony of war and the frustrations of military bureaucracy than Heller as he describes the antiheroics of members of the World War II Army Air Forces. The title earned a place in the dictionary and our vocabulary. The anniversary of Catch 22's first publication was recently commemorated with a symposium at the U.S. Air Force Academy.

Holmes, Wilfred Jay. Double-Edged Secrets: U.S. Naval Intelligence Operations in the Pacific During World War II. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1979.

Captain Holmes of the Combat Intelligence Unit gives an exciting and informative firsthand account of Ultra naval intelligence gathering in the Pacific during World War II.

Horne, Alistair. To Lose a Battle: France 1940. New York: Penguin, 1979.

This is a fascinating analysis of the French defeat at the beginning of World War II.

James, Dorris Clayton. The Years of MacArthur. 3 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970-85.

Forget William Manchester's popular account; this is the biography of MacArthur.

Leinbaugh, Harold P., and John D. Campbell. The Men of Company K: The Autobiography of a World War II Rifle Company. New York: Morrow, 1985; New York: Bantam Books, 1987.

In this easily read paperback, these two officers tell the story of the men and actions of Company K which landed on Omaha Beach with the 84th Division on 2 November 1944 and fought to the Elbe. Written from today's perspective, this book, which is essential reading for future combat leaders, shows the influence World War II had on a few American soldiers and the realities of war.

Lewin, Ronald. Ultra Goes to War: The First Account of World War II's Greatest Secret Based on Official Documents. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

In this overview of Ultra, Lewin tells a fascinating story of the most secret World War II intelligence-gathering operation.

MacDonald, Charles Brown. A Time for Trumpets: The Untold Story of the Battle of the Bulge. New York: Morrow, 1984; New York: Bantam Books, 1985.

This book provides a detailed account of the Battle of the Bulge, December 1944, written by a veteran of the battle and an excellent historian. MacDonald features small-unit actions as well as descriptions of events on the strategic level. The section on eliminating the bulge is not as complete as other portions of the book.

Mellenthin, Friedrich Wilhelm von. Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the Second World War. Edited by L. C. Turner. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982, c1956.

German Major General von Mellenthin, who commanded armored forces in Poland, France, the Balkans, North Africa, Russia, and the Western Front, provides considerable tactical information in his postwar account of his actions in World War II. Keep in mind that this volume was compiled after the war and, in part, was designed to please Western admirers of the German General Staff.

Myrer, Anton. Once an Eagle. New York: Berkley Books, 1981,cl968.

Here is one man's saga and the story of an officer's life in the U.S. Army from World War I, through World War II, and up to the Indochina conflict. This entertaining, well-written, lengthy novel is informative about the contradictions of officership in the interwar and World War II Army.

Pitt, Barrie. The Crucible of War. 3 vols. London: Macmillan, 1986.

Originally issued in 1980 in a hardbound two-volume set, this complete history of the desert war from 1939 to 1942 has been reissued in a three-volume paperbound version titled Wavell's Command, Auchinleck's Command, and Montgomery and Alamein. All major military operations, battles, and commanders are covered in depth.

Pogue, Forrest C. George C. Marshall. 4 vols. New York: Viking, 1963-87.

Pogue knew and interviewed Marshall for this comprehensive, complete, and coherent biography of twentieth century America's greatest soldier and patriot.

Prange, Gordon William. At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.

This long, but eminently readable, volume published after a lifetime of research by the author is the complete story of the Japanese surprise attack at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Especially fascinating are descriptions of Japanese training, planning, and preparations for the raid.

Ryan, Cornelius. A Bridge Too Far. New York: Pocket Books, 1984, c1974.

This highly readable and gripping account of Operation Market-Garden, the greatest airborne operation in history, covers all levels of war. The book was the basis for the movie. Other books by Ryan are The Longest Day. June 6, 1944 (1959) and The Last Battle (1975).

Sajer, Guy. The Forgotten Soldier. New York: Ballantine Books, 1967; London: Sphere Books, 1986.

A soldier who served in the German Army on the Eastern Front provides a chilling description of warfare.

Slim, William Slim, 1st Viscount. Defeat Into Victory. New York: MacKay, 1961; London: Papermac, 1986.

Of utmost value to officers and highly praised by U.S. Army Command and General Staff College students, this book is Field Marshal Slim's personal account of the fight against Japan in Burma during World War II.

Spector, Ronald H. Eagle Against the Sun: The American War With Japan. New York: Free Press, 1985.

Spector's is an excellent, readable, well-researched account of the war in the Pacific.

Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of World War II. New York: Morrow, 1980.

This is the best and most readable one-volume account of the war, and it contains a good bibliography.

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United States Army in World War II (series). Washington, DC: Historical Division/Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army, 1947.

Known as the "green books" because of the color of their binding, this series of seventy-five volumes is the official history of the U.S. Army in World War II and was written by professional historians who employed high scholarly standards. The volumes are divided into twelve subseries: The War Department (8 vols.), Army Ground Forces (2 vols.), Army Service Forces (1 vol.), The Western Hemisphere (2 vols.), The War in the Pacific (11 vols.), Mediterranean Theater of Operations (4 vols.), European Theater of Operations (9 vols.), The Middle East Theater (1 vol.), The China-Burma-India Theater (3 vols.), The Technical Services (22 vols.), Special Studies (9 vols.), and Pictorial Record (3 vols.). Included in this series is a wealth of information about strategic, operational, tactical, and administrative aspects of the U.S. Army and World War II.

Waugh, Evelyn. Men at Arms. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979.

_______.Officers and Gentlemen. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979.

_______.The End of the Battle.Boston: Little, Brown, 1979.

These three humorous and symbolic novels by a famous British author depict military life during World War II as seen through the activities and thoughts of the hero, Guy Crouchback. He sees in war the hope of personal revitalization. If you like British fiction, you will want to read and reread these classic works.

Weigley, Russell Frank. Eisenhower's Lieutenants: The Campaign of France and Germany, 1944-1945. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.

Professor Weigley's thesis in this book is that the U.S. Army fighting in Europe during World War II was an army of mobility not designed to generate the sustained combat power called for by its strategy. Weigley evaluates U.S. strategy, operations, and tactics from the Normandy invasion to the halt at the Elbe River. He concludes that the U.S. Army was victorious because it had enough material resources to exhaust the enemy without fighting either a decisive battle of annihilation or exploiting its mobility to support an indirect approach.

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Korean War

Appleman, Roy Edgar. East of Chosin: Entrapment and Breakout in Korea, 1950. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1987.

Appleman, a retired U.S. Army officer and expert on the Korean War, has written an excellent tactical and operational account about the 3,000 soldiers from the U.S. Army's 7th Infantry Division who fought a Korean War battle on the eastern side of the Chosin Reservoir in subzero weather.

Fehrenbach, T. R. This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness. New York: Macmillan, 1963.

A popular history of the Korean War written from the perspective of the small ground unit, this book relates numerous company-size actions and provides an excellent view of the Korean War at the tactical level.

Knox, Donald. The Korean War: Pusan to Chosin, an Oral History. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985.

Using the words of American soldiers obtained by the author in oral interviews, this book describes the first six months of combat in Korea in 1950.

Marshall, S. L. A. Pork Chop Hill: The American Fighting Man in Action -Korea, Spring, 1953. New York: Jove Publications, 1986, c1956.

S. L. A. Marshall, author, newspaper correspondent, and brigadier general, chronicles small-unit actions of the night war in Korea. His vivid tactical detail of ridgeline combat is a tribute to the American soldier of the Korean War.

Michener, James A. The Bridges at Toko-Ri. New York: Random House, 1953.

Michener, the famous American novelist who served in the Navy in the South Pacific during World War II, provides an elegant, brief, and tightly written novel about naval aviators and their mission to destroy enemy bridges during the Korean War.

Ridgway, Matthew B. The Korean War. New York: Da Capo Press, 1986, c1967.

General Matthew B. Ridgway, who was commander of the Eighth Army and later supreme commander of the United Nations force in Korea, explains how he rebuilt his army and led it to conduct successful operations. He offers a careful analysis of General MacArthur's dismissal, which he felt was absolutely necessary, and concludes the book with a discussion of the lessons of the Korean War as applied to U.S. involvement in Vietnam.

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Modern Warfare

Blaufarb, Douglas S. The Counterinsurgency Era: U.S. Doctrine and Performance, 1950 to the Present. New York: Free Press, c1977.

The author was a CIA operative from 1950 to 1970 and an analyst for the Rand Corporation. He uses his knowledge and extensive research to analyze whether the United States, with all its management skill and technology, can make a positive difference in countering an insurgency in a poorly governed nation. Concentrating on foreign policy doctrine and military strategy, this book uses case studies of the 1960s to understand U.S. actions in Vietnam.

Horne, Alistair. A Savage War of Peace: Algeria, 1954-1962. New York: Viking, 1977.

The best volume on the Algerian war of independence, this well-written work takes both sides into account and illustrates the doctrines of both insurgency and counterinsurgency.

Kitson, Frank. Low Intensity Operations: Subversion, Insurgency, Peace Keeping. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1971.

Kitson, a British Army general who served in Kenya, Malaya, Cyprus, and Northern Ireland, understands insurgency and briefly explains the basic fundamentals for success in low-intensity operations consistent with British doctrine. While the book's aim was to draw British soldiers' attention to the subject, the author provides considerable information on civil-military relations, insurgent tactics, and peacekeeping operations.

Langley, Lester D. The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934. 2d ed. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1985, c1983.

Langley's lively study examines the U.S. occupations of Cuba, the Nicaraguan activities of 1910-12, the seizure of Veracruz, the occupations of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, and the Sandino War of 1927-31. He argues that, during Caribbean interventions, U.S. military actions were as important in shaping events as civilian-made policies. This timely volume is important for gaining a historical perspective about U.S. military activities in Latin America.

Larteguy, Jean. The Centurions. New York: Dutton, 1961.

Larteguy's classic novel about Indochina and the Algerian war-the first in his series of novels-should be required reading for officers and is fan to read besides. The book was made into the movie The Lost Command.

Trinquier, Roger. Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency. New York: Praeger, 1964.

In this work, Roger Trinquier, a French colonial infantryman from 1931 to 1961 with extensive service in Indochina and Algeria, explicitly states his concepts of the strategy and tactics of fighting an enemy in a revolutionary war. His controversial methods of warfare helped win the Battle of Algiers. This book has attained notoriety among students who study insurgency and counterinsurgency.

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Del Vecchio, John M. The 13th Valley. New York: Bantam Books, 1982.

A fine novel on the Vietnam War, this book contains great characterizations and excellent descriptions of smallunit infantry operations, but it has too much philosophy.

Dung, Van Tien. Our Great Spring Victory: An Account of the Liberation of South Vietnam. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1977.

The commander of the 1975 North Vietnamese military campaign wrote a battle diary that was first published as a series of newspaper articles. This translation is an account of the North Vietnamese victory, with information on military strategy and the coordination between the leadership in Hanoi and generals in the field.

Edelman, Bernard, ed. Dear America: Letters Home From Vietnam. New York: W. W. Norton Co., 1985.

Edelman's collection of letters written by soldiers in Vietnam provides an intimate view of life and death in a combat zone. Readers are privileged to share the private thoughts of soldiers writing home and gain some unique insights about those caught up in the long, unpopular war.

Fall, Bernard B. Hell in a Very Small Place: The Siege of Dien Bien Phu. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1966.

Fall, who was killed in Vietnam, used his expertise, access to French files, and interviews of participants to produce this detailed and engrossing account of the French defeat by the Vietminh at Dien Bien Phu after a 56-day siege in 1954. His descriptions of air sorties, land defenses, airdrops, and French military planning are masterfully done. Fall has been criticized for his pro-French views.

_______.Street Without Joy. 4th ed. New York: Schocken Books, 1972, c1964.

The author, who was a foremost authority on conflict and nationalism in Southeast Asia, vividly describes the French actions in Indochina and the growing U.S. involvement. His writings are helpful for those studying guerrilla tactics and operations.

_______.The Two Vietnams, a Political and Military Analysis, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985, c1963.

This study describes Vietnam's physical setting and traces the history of both North and South Vietnam. Though dated, this book is still a valuable guide to the problems of Vietnam prior to fall-scale U.S. involvement. Also included are biographies of North Vietnamese leaders.

Giap, Vo Nguyen. People's War, People's Army: The Viet Cong Insurrection Manual for Underdeveloped Countries. New York: Praeger, 1962.

Vo Nguyen Giap, defense minister and commander of the North Vietnamese Army, presents the North Vietnamese way of war as a guide to "just wars of national liberation." Even though this collection of material is propagandistic and disorganized, it still explains why and how the North Vietnamese conducted their insurgency. This is a classic description of modern warfare.

Herrington, Stuart A. Silence Was a Weapon: The Vietnam War in the Villages. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1982.

This U.S. Army officer, who is still on active duty, provides an outstanding personal account of his attempt to gain popular support for the defense of a South Vietnamese village.

Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: A History. New York: Viking Press, 1983.

Karnow gives an accurate, balanced history of the Vietnam War. This volume is used as a text for the Vietnam War elective course at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.

Krepinevich, Andrew F. The Army and Vietnam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.

The author, a U.S. Army officer with a doctorate in international relations, offers an incisive analysis of the development and failure of U.S. military policy in Vietnam from 1954 to 1973. Krepinevich makes it clear that conventional war doctrine accompanied by massive use of firepower will not defeat an insurgency. This book is essential for any officer who wants to speak knowledgeably about the Vietnam War.

McDonough, James R. Platoon Leader. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1985; New York: Bantam, 1986.

A U.S. Military Academy graduate relates his experiences as a platoon leader with the 173d Airborne Brigade in 1972-73.

Mangold, Tom, and John Penycate. The Tunnels of Cu Chi. New York: Random House, 1985.

This exciting account of the underground tunnel war in Vietnam is readable, balanced, and accurate. The authors use firsthand accounts from participants on all sides who fought over and used the tunnel networks of the Cu Chi district near Saigon.

Mason, Robert. Chickenhawk. New York: Penguin, 1983.

Mason, a warrant officer helicopter pilot, contributes a vivid and fascinating account of his tour in Vietnam in 1965-66.

Palmer, Bruce. The 25-Year War: America's Military Role in Vietnam. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1984.

This work contains a U.S. Army general's personal perspective on the high-level aspects of the Vietnam War.

Pike, Douglas Eugene. PAVN: People's Army of Vietnam. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1986.

In this work, Douglas Pike, the American authority on the history of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and Vietnamese communism, discusses the history and heritage of the PAVN and its organization, administration, political leadership, and strategy. Pike explains how a small, underdeveloped, poverty-ridden country created the third largest military force in the world. Included in this volume are biographical summaries of PAVN leaders.

Race, Jeffrey. War Comes to Long An: Revolutionary Conflict in a Vietnamese Province. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1972.

This is an instructive study for understanding why the Communist-guided revolutionary social movement succeeded in a Vietnamese province and why the U.S.-South Vietnamese counterrevolutionary initiative consistently failed. Race uses firsthand information, but his perspective is balanced; he lets his extensive research speak for itself.

Spector, Ronald H. Advice and Support: The Early Years, 1941-1960. United States Army in Vietnam, Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1983.

Setting high standards of scholarship, balance, and readability, this first volume in the U.S. Army's official history of the Vietnam War describes the activities of the Army in Vietnam during World War II, military advice and assistance to the French government during the postwar years, and the adviser program that developed between 1954 and 1960.

Webb, James H. Fields of Fire. New York: Bantam Books, 1979.

A former Marine captain, now secretary of the Navy, wrote this splendid novel and combat narrative of the Vietnam War. Webb vividly depicts the diverse characters of a Marine platoon, grunts who slogged their war through months of warfare in rice paddies and jungles. The tragedy, irony, and camaraderie of war are ably depicted here.

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Falkland Islands War

Ethell, Jeffrey, and Alfred Price. Air War South Atlantic. New York: Macmillan, 1983.

Based on personal interviews with British and Argentine pilots and other officers, the authors describe all the air actions that occurred in the Falkland Islands conflict in the spring of 1982. Even though repetitious and detailed, this study is valuable.

Hastings, Max, and Simon Jenkins. The Battle for the Falklands. New York: Norton, 1983.

Two journalists who are military experts present a thorough, accurate, and readable account of the Falkland Islands War.

Jolly, Rick. The Red and Green Life Machine: Diary of the Falklands Field Hospital. London: Century Publishing Co., 1983.

Surgeon Commander Jolly's personal account of the medical aspects of the Falklands War is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of the war.

McManners, Hugh. Falklands Commando. London: Kimber, 1984.

In this Royal Artillery captain's memoir of the Falkland Islands campaign, McManners describes his daily routines and provides a personal view of a soldier aboard ships and in battle. Because of his assignment with the 148 Commando Forward Observation Battery of the Royal Artillery, whose main purpose was to control naval gunfire, he personally witnessed many significant actions in this campaign.

Middlebrook, Martin. Operation Corporate: The Story of the Falklands War, 1982. New York: Viking, 1986.

A master British military historian turns his attention to Great Britain's most recent major military conflict. The result is a readable and well-researched account of the Falklands War in which he explains the war's origins, mobilization, air warfare, the sinking of the Belgrano, and the problems of the Royal Navy in providing an effective antimissile defense for its ships. Using quotations from participants, he also evaluates the land battles.

Thompson, Julian. No Picnic: 3 Commando Brigade in the South Atlantic, 1982. London: Leo Cooper, 1985.

In his personal narrative and campaign description focusing on operations, General Thompson, commanding officer of 3 Commando Brigade, Royal Marines, describes the actions of his unit from initial alert to the battles for Goose Green and Port Stanley in the Falklands.

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Arab-Israeli Wars

Adan, Avraham (Bren). On the Banks of the Suez: An Israeli General's Personal Account of the Yom Kippur War. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1980.

General Adan, in this memoir and lively account of his experiences as an armored division commander along the Suez Canal in the 1973 October War, criticizes Ariel Sharon as both commander and strategist. Armor officers will find this book particularly valuable.

Gal, Reuven. A Portrait of the Israeli Soldier. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Gal, a veteran of twenty-three years' service and for five years chief psychologist of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF), describes how the IDF functions and how the Israeli Army trains and motivates its soldiers. Included in this book are chapters on wornen in the IDF, basic training, leadership, battle stress, ethics, and problems.

Gur, Mordechai. The Battle for Jerusalem. New York: Popular Library, 1978, c1974.

General Gur's "you-are-there" type of book presents an exciting personal account of the battle for Jerusalem during the 1967 Middle East War. Gur is great at description but is rarely analytical.

Herzog, Chaim. The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East. New York: Random House, 1982.

Herzog's excellent one-volume account of Israel at war analyzes the War of Independence, the Sinai Campaign of 1956, the 1967 Six-Day War, the war of attrition, the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Entebbe operation, and the invasion of Lebanon.

Kahalani, Avigdor. The Heights of Courage: A Tank Leader's War on the Golan. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984.

This Israeli tank battalion commander's account of battles on the Golan Heights during the 1973 Yom Kippur War is must reading for armor officers. Using tapes of battlefield communications, Kahalani provides a personal view of men at war and shows how they overcame initial defeat. The foreword is by General Donn A. Starry, former commandant of the U.S. Army Armor School. General Kahalani attended the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in 1978.

Luttwak, Edward N., and Daniel Horowitz. The Israeli Army, 1948-1973. New York: University Press of America, 1984.

Luttwak and Horowitz focus on the men and ideas that shaped Israel's defense forces.

Shazly, Saad el. The Crossing of the Suez. San Francisco, CA.: American Mideast Research, 1980.

In his memoir of the 1973 October War, the Egyptian chief of staff presents a detailed and critical examination of a significant military operation.

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The Nuclear Age

Brodie, Bernard. Strategy in the Missile Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959.

America's foremost nuclear strategist presents an analysis and synthesis of the major strategic ideas of the atomic age. This book is directed to military officers and political leaders.

_______.War and Politics. New York: Macmillan, 1973.

This excellent collection of essays by a brilliant nuclear strategic thinker provides a good introduction to Brodie's thought and writings.

Kahn, Herman. On Thermonuclear War. 2d ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961.

Kahn's study is a heavy book on a heavy subject by a heavy author. Containing a series of lectures based on work done at the Rand Corporation, this dated and difficult to read book is historically important for setting the parameters for debates on nuclear warfare.

Kaplan, Fred M. The Wizards of Armageddon. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983.

In this very readable story of the strategists of the nuclear age, Kaplan weaves together the work of strategic thinkers, military officers, and defense officials. He also evaluates the birth and work of the Rand Corporation.

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The Moral Effect of Combat

Ardant du Picq, Charles Jean Jacques Joseph. Battle Studies: Ancient and Modern, Battle. New York: Macmillan, 1921; Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Co., c1946; New York: AMS Press, 198?.

Ardant du Picq (1821-70), a graduate of the French military academy who served France in the Crimea, Syria, and Algeria, was mortally wounded while leading his regiment near Metz at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War. During his lifetime, Ardant du Picq studied both ancient and modern warfare and concluded that success in battle is a matter of morale. In this classic study of the moral effect of combat, he provides an excellent analysis of the human reaction to the mental and physical demands of combat.

Ellis, John. Eye-Deep in Hell: Trench Warfare in World War I. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.

Ellis creates a real sense of what trench warfare was like in World War I.

_______.The Sharp End: The Fighting Man in World War II. New York: Scribners, 1980.

This choppy but informative study describes the effect of combat on the individual soldier in World War II.

Gray, Jesse Glenn. The Warriors: Reflections on Men in Battle. New York: Harper and Row, 1970, c1959.

In telling what war means to him, Gray, a World War II combat veteran, asks and answers timeless questions about the test of combat.

Kellett, Anthony. Combat Motivation: The Behaviour of Soldiers in Battle. Boston: Kluwer, 1982.

A sociological study by a Canadian, this work is dry reading but contains many gems of insightful analysis.

Leed, Eric J. No Man's Land: Combat and Identity in World War I. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

The author examines the traumatic experience of combat in the trenches.

Linderman, Gerald F. Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War. New York: Free Press, 1987.

Based on extensive original research, this book is a marvelous and sensitive study of the attitudes, beliefs, and values of Civil War soldiers on both sides. Linderman separates the romantic myths of the Civil War from the harsh and brutal realities of that war and conveys a message about combat that today's officers will find valuable.

MacDonald, Charles Brown. Company Commander. New York: Bantam Books, 1978, c1947.

The author, a U.S. Army captain and infantry company commander, wrote this personal, authentic story about leading men in combat against the Germans during World War II. This is a classic of men in battle and small-unit leadership.

Marshall, S. L. A. Men Against Fire: The Problem of Battle Command in Future War. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1978, c1947.

First published in 1947, this book highlights General Marshall's perception of soldiers in combat based on his own experiences in two world wars and on extensive interviews of combat troops. This book is essential reading for all commanders from platoon to division. Questionable, however, are Marshall's statistics on ratios of fire.

Moran, Charles McMoran Wilson, Baron. The Anatomy of Courage. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1967.

Based on Lord Moran's experiences as a medical officer on the Western Front during World War I and as Prime Minister Winston Churchill's physician during World War II, this classic volume explores how soldiers overcome fear. While Lord Moran writes from the British point of view, he understands courage and how a soldier displays it.

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Russian and Soviet Military History

Bialer, Seweryn, ed. Stalin and His Generals: Soviet Military Memoirs of World War II. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984, c1969.

Professor Bialer has compiled a significant source of information on the World War II Soviet Army and its officers. This volume includes translated selections from the memoirs of forty-five leading Soviet Army officers that describe command relationships with Joseph Stalin. Bialer also includes excellent editorial introductions and explanatory annotations.

Curtiss, John Shelton. The Russian Army Under Nicholas I, 1825-1855. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1965.

This detailed, scholarly book describes early Russian campaigns against the Persians, Turks, and Poles; assesses Nicholas as a commander; and discusses the structure, equipment, training, and life of Russian Army soldiers. Also included is an account of the Crimean War.

Davies, Norman. White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War, 1919-20. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1972.

The Polish-Soviet War of 1919-20 was an independent Polish enterprise that brought Poland independence for twenty years. This volume examines the military, political, and diplomatic events of the Polish-Soviet War and reviews their significance. Also included is a chapter that analyzes the August 1920 Battle of Warsaw.

Erickson, John. The Road to Berlin: Continuing the History of Stalin's War With Germany. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1983.

This comprehensive account of warfare on the Eastern Front in World War II (1943-45) contains 640 pages of text and is a first-rate study.

_______.The Road to Stalingrad: Stalin's War With Germany. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1983, c1975.

This thorough, detailed, and well-written book shows why Erickson is the world-recognized expert on the Soviet military in World War II.

_______.The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History, 1918-1941. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984, c1962.

Erickson presents an excellent study of Soviet Army command from the Russian Revolution to World War II. The chapters on Frunze (the Soviet Clausewitz) are essential for an understanding of Soviet military thought.

Glantz, David M. August Storm: Soviet Tactical and Operational Combat in Manchuria, 1945. Leavenworth Papers no. 8. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1983.

Colonel Glantz, a former instructor at the U.S. Army War College and an expert on World War II Soviet military history, provides detailed case studies of various levels of Soviet command that illustrate the state of Soviet military art in 1945. The Soviets have found it useful to study this campaign.

_______.August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria. Leavenworth Papers no. 7. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1983.

In this work, the author provides an informative study of the Soviets' rapid campaign against Japan. This volume is useful for students of Soviet offensive military doctrine.

Grossman, Vasily. Life and Fate: A Novel. Translated by Robert Chandler. New York: Harper & Row, 1985, C1980.

Vasily Grossman (1905-64), a novelist and Soviet war correspondent during World War II personally witnessed the defense of Stalingrad, the capture of Berlin, and the horrors of the Holocaust. In this epic novel, which was banned in the Soviet Union, he vividly portrays his experiences. U.S. Army Soviet foreign area officers recommend this work for its unique account of life in the Soviet military and society during World War II.

Keep, John L. H. Soldiers of the Tsar: Army and Society in Russia, 1462-1874. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Professor Keep, in this well-researched and clearly written work, outlines the development of the Russian Army from its medieval origins to the introduction of universal military service in 1874. He devotes particular attention to such themes as the evolution of the service state, recruitment, army life, the officer corps, financial difficulties, and the military in politics.

Lehovich, Dimitry V. White Against Red: The Life of General Anton Deniken. New York: Norton, 1974.

This detailed biography of a leader of the White Army's opposition to the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War was written by a veteran of Deniken's army. Readable and informative, this volume examines military tactics and operations, as well as political considerations.

Suvorov, Viktor. Inside the Soviet Army. New York: Macmillan, 1982; New York: Berkley Publishing Group, 1985.

A former Soviet officer who defected to the West provides a fascinating account of the Soviet Army, including its doctrine, weapons, and tactics. This highly controversial and opinionated book should be read with caution, particularly the sections on high-level command and organization.

Wildman, Allan K. The End of the Russian Imperial Army: The Old Army and the Soldiers Revolt (March-April 1917). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980.

In this work, Professor Wildman focuses on the role of the Russian Army in the 1917 Revolution. He examines the czar's army during the early 1900s and then concentrates on the soldiers' mutiny. Emphasis is on the World War I Russian soldiers' perception of the revolution and the resultant actions.

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East Asian Military History

Allen, Louis. Singapore, 1941-1942. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1977.

Allen gives an account of the well-prepared and well executed light infantry thrust by the Imperial Japanese Army in Malaya in 1942. Also provided is information about the British view of World War II in Asia.

Chassin, Lionel Max. The Communist Conquest of China: A History of the Civil War, 1945-1949. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965.

Chassin's work is an excellent source of information on military operations during the Chinese Civil War.

Dorn, Frank. The Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1941: From Marco Polo Bridge to Pearl Harbor. New York: Macmillan, 1974.

Dorn, who served on General Joseph "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell's staff, presents some firsthand knowledge about the immense, but often ignored, campaigns waged by the Japanese in China during the Greater East Asian War.

Drea, Edward J. Nomonhan: Japanese-Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939. Leavenworth Papers no. 2. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, January 1981.

Before World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) developed an offensive tactical doctrine designed to allow its infantry forces to fight successfully against a superior foe, the Soviet Union. A battle test of that doctrine's effectiveness occurred from June through August 1939 along the Outer Mongolian-Manchurian border. This essay follows the daily operations of the IJA infantry units that were in constant contact with Soviet forces.

Dreyer, Edward L., and Frank Algerton Kierman. Chinese Ways in Warfare. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974.

This collection of campaign case studies shows how wars were fought in China from 500 B.C. to 1556 A.D.

Mao, Zedong. Selected Military Writings. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1972, 1966.

This collection contains many of Mao's most significant essays on the theory and practice of war, especially the "people's war."

Peattie, Mark R. Ishiwara Kanji and Japan's Confrontation With the West. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Peattie's biography of Ishiwara Kanji provides rare insights into the mentality of the Japanese military leadership on the eve of World War II. Ishiwara Kanji was one of the chief Kwantung Army plotters in 1931.

Powell, Ralph L. The Rise of Chinese Military Power, 1895-1912. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1955.

Powell describes Chinese efforts to establish modern military forces and the impact that the creation of such forces had on Chinese society and government.

Presseisen, Ernst Leopold. Before Aggression: Europeans Prepare the Japanese Army. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1965.

In this scholarly volume that studies the institutional underpinnings of the Imperial Army, Presseisen describes Japan's modern military establishment in the decades of its formation.

Sheridan, James E. Chinese Warlord: The Career of Feng Yu-hsiang. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1966.

During the first half of the twentieth century, China was beset by regional conflicts as military leaders used their forces to compete for greater power. This study describes one of China's most famous and successful warlords and analyzes what warlordism meant for China.

Snow, Edgar. Red Star Over China. New York: Grove Press, 1968, c1937.

The author, a young American journalist who spent seven years in China, provides the classic account of Yenan China and the promise and excitement of the Chinese Communist movement. Edgar Snow knew Mao Zedong and wrote the first connected history of Mao, his colleagues, and their revolution.

Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Translated by Samuel B. Griffith. New York: Oxford University Press, c1963.

Even though this preeminent book in Chinese military literature dates from the fourth century B.C., many of Sun Tzu's ideas on military conflict appear remarkably modern. This book was a source for some of Mao Zedong's military theories.

Turnbull, Stephen R. The Samurai: A Military History. 1977. Reprint. Cincinnati, OH: Seven Hills Books, 1983.

This volume is a comprehensive and readable account of warfare in Japan up to the modern era.

Warner, Denis Ashton, and Peggy Warner. The Tide at Sunrise: A History of the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905. New York: Charter House, 1974.

The Warners provide a clear and thorough description of the events and circumstances of land warfare in the Russo-Japanese War.

Whitson, William W. The Chinese High Command: A History of Communist Military Politics, 1927-71. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973.

This is an excellent study of the growth of Communist military power in China and the importance of the personal bonds formed by men who shared the hardships and dangers of combat for many years.

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Sea Power

Blair, Clay. Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan. Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott, 1975.

This book is a lengthy, readable, popular account of U.S. submarine operations against Japan in World War II.

Brodie, Bernard. A Guide to Naval Strategy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton. University Press, 1958, c1942.

Brodie's primer explains the basic concepts of naval strategy and was used as a textbook in Navy officer training schools and as required reading aboard ship. First titled A Layman's Guide to Naval Strategy, the book remains a useful introduction to sea power.

Gorshkov, Sergei Georgievich. Red Star Rising at Sea. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1974.

This work originally appeared in 1972-73 as a series of eleven articles titled "Navies in War and Peace" in Morskoi Sbornik [Naval Digest], the official journal of the Soviet Navy. In 1974, the articles, each with a commentary by a senior U.S. naval officer, appeared in English in the United States Naval Institute Proceedings. Especially significant is Admiral Gorshkov's explanation of the reasons behind the rise of Soviet naval power during his tenure as commander in chief of the Soviet Navy from 1956 to 1986.

_______.The Sea Power of the State. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1979.

In this translation from Russian, Admiral Gorshkov explains why the Soviet Union as a world superpower requires a large modern navy. Prominent naval analysts disagree as to whether this book is a statement of doctrine or one of advocacy.

Hagan, Kenneth, ed. In Peace and War: Interpretations of American Naval History, 1775-1984. 2d ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Hagan's collection of eighteen scholarly articles by different authors surveys U.S. naval history since the American Revolution. Especially helpful are the lists of additional readings at the end of each article. This is a useful work for discovering current trends in naval history research and writing.

Karsten, Peter. The Naval Aristocracy: The Golden Age of Annapolis and the Emergence of Modern American Navalism. New York: Free Press, 1972.

This controversial but scholarly social history offers a critical appraisal of the U.S. Navy officer corps and its development from 1845 to 1925.

Mahan, Alfred Thayer. The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783. New York: Hill and Wang, 1957, c1890.

Mahan's object in writing this book was to estimate the effect of sea power on the course of history and the prosperity of nations. Admiral Mahan (1840-1914) had a direct and profound influence on the theory of sea power and naval strategy, and this book served as the basis for his rise to fame. While much of the work is no longer relevant, it is worth reading for historical background and for the questions Mahan raised about the utility of sea power.

Marder, Arthur Jacob. From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow: The Royal Navy in the Fisher Era, 1904-1919. 5 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1961-70.

Marder has produced a scholarly, multivolume study on the Royal Navy from 1904 to 1919 that covers the service of Admiral Sir John Fisher, who became First Sea Lord in 1904. This era of naval history included the launching of H.M.S. Dreadhought in 1906, the outbreak of World War I, the U-boat campaigns, the convoy system, and the 1918 raid on Zeebrugge. According to Marder, Admiral Fisher had the six essentials of a great military leader: guts, charm, ruthlessness, vision, strength, and brains. This is a masterful study of a remarkable man and a significant period of British naval history.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. 15 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1947-62.

A massive study written by America's most famous modem naval historian, this history is essential for a study of specific operations. Morison, however, failed to consider the strategic impact of differences in British and American war aims and the importance of interservice rivalries. This series was synopsized in The Two-Ocean War.

Reynolds, Clark G. The Fast Carriers: The Forging of an Air Navy. Huntington, NY: R. E. Krieger, 1978, c1968.

Reynolds provides a thorough and accurate history of World War II naval aviation.

Seager, Robert.Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Man and His Letters. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1977.

This is a complete, accurate, and readable biography of Mahan.

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Air Power

Douhet, Giulio. The Command of the Air. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1983.

Written by a famous Italian officer and originally published in 1921, this work is the classic statement about the absolute value of strategic air power.

Futrell Robert Frank. Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: A History of Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907-1964. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University, 1971.

Concentrating on institutional thought and the organizational framework of the Air Force, Futrell provides a detailed and well-documented intellectual history of the U.S. Air Force.

Hastings, Max. Bomber Command. New York: Dial Press, 1971.

A thorough and accurate history of the bomber command's air offensive against Germany in World War II, this book focuses on high-level decision making and the actions of six typical line squadrons. Hastings emphasizes the high human cost of the British strategic bombing campaign and assesses the differences between the ambitious objectives of air power enthusiasts and their abilities.

Hurley, Alfred F. Billy Mitchell, Crusader for Air Power. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975.

This Air Force officer provides the best balanced and accurate biography of Mitchell.

Kennett, Lee B. A History of Strategic Bombing. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982.

In this brief, well-written survey of strategic bombing from its balloon origins to World War II, Professor Kennett demonstrates that the history of aviation is the story of machines and men as well as the interaction between the two.

Kohn, Richard H., and Joseph P. Harahan, eds. Air Superiority in World War II and Korea: An Interview With Gen. James Ferguson, Gen. Robert M. Lee, Gen. William Momyer, and Lt. Gen. Elwood P. Quesada. USAF Warrior Studies. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, United States Air Force, 1983.

Based on the World War II and Korean War experiences of four Air Force general officers, this oral interview focuses on a crucial first element in all air operations: air superiority. This is one of several historical studies from the Office of Air Force History in support of Project Warrior, a program that promotes the continuing study of military history. Other works in the series include William H. Tunner, Over the Hump (1985 reprint of a 1964 work); Wayne Thompson, ed., Air Leadership: Proceedings of a Conference at Bolling Air Force Base, April 13-14, 1984 (1986); Richard P. Hallion, The Literature of Aeronautics, Astronautics, and Air Power (1984); U.S. Air Force, Office of Air Force History, Condensed Analysis of the Ninth Air Force in the European Theater of Operations (1984 reprint of a 1946 work); John L. Frisbee, Makers of the United States Air Force (1987); Earle E. Partridge, Air Interdiction in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam: An Interview With Earle E. Partridge, Jacob E. Smart, and John W. Vogt, Jr. (1986); and Charles A. Ravenstein, The Organization and Lineage of the United States Air Force (1986).

Middlebrook, Martin. The. Nuremberg Raid, 30-31 March 1944. New York: William Morrow, 1974.

Middlebrook vividly describes the bombing raid that cost the Royal Air Force its heaviest losses. He explains why 96 out of 799 bombers were lost and provides fascinating details about this raid and the strategic bomber offensive. Middlebrook's other works on World War II bombing operations are The Battle of Hamburg: Allied Bomber Forces Against a German City in 1943 (New York: Scribner, 1981) and The Schweinfurt-Regensburg Mission (New York: Scribner, 1983).

Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of Air Power. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1986.

Lively writing and a broad scope make this an excellent survey of the military use of airplanes from the Wright brothers to the Falkland Islands War.

Winter, Denis. The First of the Few: Fighter Pilots of the First World War. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983, cl982.

Using memoirs, diaries, and official reports, Winter describes the service of British World War I pilots from their enlistment to demobilization. He explains how pilots trained, how maintenance on aircraft was performed, and how pilots physically and emotionally dealt with aerial combat.

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The Press

Braestrup, Peter. Big Story: How the American Press and Television Reported and Interpreted the Crisis of Tet 1968 in Vietnam and Washington. 2 vols. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983, c1977.

Braestrup writes a thorough, accurate, readable study of the Tet 1968 offensive and the U.S. press.

Knightley, Phillip. The First Casualty: From the Crimea to Vietnam-The War Correspondent as Hero, Propagandist, and Myth Maker. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975.

An outstanding narrative history of war correspondents, Knightley's account is excellent reading that provides valuable historical perspective.

Sims, Robert B. The Pentagon Reporters. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1983.

In this handy information source, Sims identifies and describes current (1982) media defense correspondents.

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