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NATIVE AMERICANS > NATIVE AMERICAN WARFARE IN THE OLD NORTHWEST

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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 37666 comments Mod
This is the thread to discuss the Native American Warfare in the Old Northwest.

Native Americans

The spread of white settlements in the Old Northwest generated tension with the native inhabitants. Opposition coalesced around the Shawnee chief Tecumseh and his brother, The Prophet.

Congressional leaders voiced an increasing concern for frontier safety, in particular, John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clay of Kentucky. Suspicions grew about British involvement in Canada and their encouragement of native resistance to American expansion. In 1811, William Henry Harrison led forces at the Battle of Tippecanoe, a victory that reduced the Native American threat in the Old Northwest, but did not remove the skilled leader Tecumseh. Animosity toward Britain persisted and war fever remained undiminished.

Interaction among American settlers, native inhabitants and British influence led to a sharpening of sectional strife within the United States. The West was dominated by the War Hawks, but New England feared that war with Britain would destroy their commercial relationships and ruin their economy.


Source: United States History

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h488...


message 2: by Mark (new)

Mark Mortensen On this day June 25, back in 1876 the Battle of the Little Bighorn took place in the Black Hills. Many pieces of information will never be known and many facts regarding the battle are disputed.

In general, Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer (known as General by his men) was confidant that his 7th Cavalry, comprised of about 600 soldiers, would be able to control the Native Americans in the remote area and at the end of the day be victorious. Their surveillance however did not reveal that they would be facing roughly 4,000 Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Sioux warriors (figures vary).

George A. Custer was not the only Custer to die on June 25th. Within the 7th Cavalry Custer’s brother's Boston and Thomas would also die. Thomas, who was honored with two Medal of Honor citations during the Civil War, is not as well known.

Little Bighorn Remembered The Untold Indian Story of Custer's Last Stand by Herman J. Viola by Herman J. ViolaHerman J. Viola
A Terrible Glory Custer and the Little Bighorn - the Last Great Battle of the American West by Jim Donovan by James DonovanJames Donovan
In His Brother's Shadow The Life of Thomas Ward Custer by Roy Bird by Roy Bird
Tom Custer Ride to Glory by Carl Day by Carl Day

On a side note, George A. Custer was present at the Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, when General Lee surrendered to General Grant formally ending the Civil War. The wooden table that Grant used to pen the terms of surrender ended up being given to Custer as a souvenir. It appears that today the table is a part of Smithsonian Institution, American History collection.


message 3: by Craig (new)

Craig (Twinstuff) Custer was a brevet brigadier general during the Civil War when it was not uncommon for officers to rise in temporary rankings quite rapidly. By February, 1866 he was back down to rank of captain, but he was officially a lieutenant colonel at the time of Little Bighorn. I'd love to read a bio of Custer one day, but from what I have read about him in other books about the Indian Wars, he was fairly conceited, so I could see him not correcting his men when they called him general.


message 4: by Mark (last edited Jun 25, 2012 08:44AM) (new)

Mark Mortensen Craig wrote: "Custer was a brevet brigadier general during the Civil War when it was not uncommon for officers to rise in temporary rankings quite rapidly. By February, 1866 he was back down to rank of captain,..."

Yes, this is another amazing example as to how history is recorded (or how history is not recorded).
The two books on Capt. Thomas Ward Custer have been in publication for a few years, but they do not have sufficient ratings or reviews to tell much about their worth.


message 5: by Jerome (new)

Jerome | 3979 comments The Gods of Prophetstown: The Battle of Tippecanoe and the Holy War for the American Frontier

The Gods of Prophetstown The Battle of Tippecanoe and the Holy War for the American Frontier by Adam Jortner by Adam Jortner (no photo)

Synopsis:

It began with an eclipse. In 1806, the Shawnee leader Tenskwatawa ("The Open Door") declared himself to be in direct contact with the Master of Life, and therefore, the supreme religious authority for all Native Americans. Those who disbelieved him, he warned, "would see darkness come over the sun." William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana Territory and future American president, scoffed at Tenskwatawa. If he was truly a prophet, Harrison taunted, let him perform a miracle. And Tenskwatawa did just that, making the sun go dark at midday.

In The Gods of Prophetstown, Adam Jortner provides a gripping account of the conflict between Tenskwatawa and Harrison, who finally collided in 1811 at a place called Tippecanoe. Though largely forgotten today, their rivalry determined the future of westward expansion and shaped the War of 1812. Jortner weaves together dual biographies of the opposing leaders. In the five years between the eclipse and the battle, Tenskwatawa used his spiritual leadership to forge a political pseudo-state with his brother Tecumseh. Harrison, meanwhile, built a power base in Indiana, rigging elections and maneuvering for higher position. Rejecting received wisdom, Jortner sees nothing as preordained-Native Americans were not inexorably falling toward dispossession and destruction. Deeply rooting his account in a generation of scholarship that has revolutionized Indian history, Jortner places the religious dimension of the struggle at the fore, recreating the spiritual landscapes trod by each side. The climactic battle, he writes, was as much a clash of gods as of men.

Written with profound insight and narrative verve, The Gods of Prophetstown recaptures a forgotten turning point in American history in time for the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Tippecanoe.


message 6: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 37666 comments Mod
Thank you Jerome.


message 7: by Jerome (new)

Jerome | 3979 comments Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne's Legion in the Old Northwest

Bayonets in the Wilderness Anthony Wayne's Legion in the Old Northwest by Alan D. Gaff by Alan D. Gaff (no photo)

Synopsis:

Ration shortages, disloyalty, defeat, and international meddling--such were the obstacles facing General Anthony Wayne as he sought to secure the Old Northwest Territory for white settlement in the 1790s. When President George Washington appointed Wayne to command the Legion of the United States, he granted him unlimited powers to conduct a military campaign against the Indian confederacy of the Ohio River Valley. In Bayonets in the Wilderness, Alan D. Gaff explores this long-neglected period in American history to tell the complete story of how the U.S. Army conquered the first American frontier. Wayne's successful campaign led to the creation of a standing army for the country and set the standard for future conflicts and treaties with American Indians. Countering the popular impression of Wayne as "mad," Gaff depicts him as a thoughtful, resolute, and diplomatic officer whose masterfully organized campaign brought an end to forty years of border fighting. In this detailed, definitive military history, Gaff documents the British and French influence, the famed battle at Fallen Timbers, and the Treaty of Greeneville, which ended hostilities in the region.


message 8: by Jerome (new)

Jerome | 3979 comments President Washington's Indian War: The Struggle for the Old Northwest 1790-1795

President Washington�s Indian War by Wiley Sword by Wiley Sword (no photo)

Synopsis:

Military history buffs and scholars will revel in Wiley Sword's exciting narrative, the first comprehensive history of the United States-Indian war of 1790-1795. The struggle for the Old Northwest Territory (modern-day Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Michigan) was as vicious and bitter a conflict as any war in our history. Indeed, the very survival of the new nation was in doubt.

The years from 1790 to 1795 may have been the turning point in Indian white relations on the North American continent. At this time the Indians of the Ohio country-tribes such as the Miamis, the Shawnees, and the Ottawas-engaged in a last-ditch effort to stop the settlers who were moving west into the "Black Forest" wilderness of mid America. They were aided by British agents, based in Detroit, who manipulated the Indian confederacy in an attempt to recoup some of their losses from the Revolutionary War.

Josiah Harmar and Arthur St. Clair led early disastrous campaigns, including possibly the worst defeat of a United States army at the hands of Indians. Ultimately, President George Washington assigned "Mad Anthony" Wayne to rebuild and expand the army, despite considerable domestic opposition. This is the most detailed history yet published of the battles and skirmishes, the futile treaty negotiations with the Indians, and the tribes' intrigues among themselves and with the British, leading to Wayne's final victory 'over the Indian confederacy at Fallen Timbers.

Most impressive is the extent and depth of the author's research in primary and secondary sources. With extraordinary vividness Sword recounts the battles and the life in the American and Indian encampments, quoting from diaries, letters, and statements by American officers and soldiers as well as the accounts of their enemies, such as Little Turtle of the Miamis, Blue Jacket of the Shawnees, and Joseph Brant of the Iroquois. Nor does Sword neglect the activities and life-ways of Britain's traders, agents, and haughty commandants.


message 9: by Jerome (new)

Jerome | 3979 comments An upcoming book:
Release date: October 3, 2014

The Victory with No Name: The Native American Defeat of the First American Army

The Victory with No Name The Native American Defeat of the First American Army by Colin G Calloway by Colin G Calloway (no photo)

Synopsis:

In 1791, General Arthur St. Clair led the United States army in a campaign to destroy a complex of Indian villages at the Miami River in northwestern Ohio. Almost within reach of their objective, St. Clair's 1,400 men were attacked by about one thousand Indians. The U.S. force was decimated, suffering nearly one thousand casualties in killed and wounded, while Indian casualties numbered only a few dozen. But despite the lopsided result, it wouldn't appear to carry much significance; it involved only a few thousand people, lasted less than three hours, and the outcome, which was never in doubt, was permanently reversed a mere three years later. Neither an epic struggle nor a clash that changed the course of history, the battle doesn't even have a name.

Yet, as renowned Native American historian Colin Calloway demonstrates here, St. Clair's Defeat--as it came to be known-- was hugely important for its time. It was both the biggest victory the Native Americans ever won, and, proportionately, the biggest military disaster the United States had suffered. With the British in Canada waiting in the wings for the American experiment in republicanism to fail, and some regions of the West gravitating toward alliance with Spain, the defeat threatened the very existence of the infant United States. Generating a deluge of reports, correspondence, opinions, and debates in the press, it produced the first congressional investigation in American history, while ultimately changing not only the manner in which Americans viewed, raised, organized, and paid for their armies, but the very ways in which they fought their wars.

Emphasizing the extent to which the battle has been overlooked in history, Calloway illustrates how this moment of great victory by American Indians became an aberration in the national story and a blank spot in the national memory. Calloway shows that St. Clair's army proved no match for the highly motivated and well-led Native American force that shattered not only the American army but the ill-founded assumption that Indians stood no chance against European methods and models of warfare. An engaging and enlightening read for American history enthusiasts and scholars alike, The Victory with No Name brings this significant moment in American history back to light.


message 10: by Bryan (new)

Bryan Craig President Washington's Indian War: The Struggle for the Old Northwest, 1790-1795

President Washington�s Indian War by Wiley Sword by Wiley Sword (no photo)

Synopsis:

Military history buffs and scholars will revel in Wiley Sword's exciting narrative, the first comprehensive history of the United States-Indian war of 1790-1795. The struggle for the Old Northwest Territory (modern-day Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Michigan) was as vicious and bitter a conflict as any war in our history. Indeed, the very survival of the new nation was in doubt.

The years from 1790 to 1795 may have been the turning point in Indian white relations on the North American continent. At this time the Indians of the Ohio country-tribes such as the Miamis, the Shawnees, and the Ottawas-engaged in a last-ditch effort to stop the settlers who were moving west into the "Black Forest" wilderness of mid America. They were aided by British agents, based in Detroit, who manipulated the Indian confederacy in an attempt to recoup some of their losses from the Revolutionary War.

Josiah Harmar and Arthur St. Clair led early disastrous campaigns, including possibly the worst defeat of a United States army at the hands of Indians. Ultimately, President George Washington assigned "Mad Anthony" Wayne to rebuild and expand the army, despite considerable domestic opposition. This is the most detailed history yet published of the battles and skirmishes, the futile treaty negotiations with the Indians, and the tribes' intrigues among themselves and with the British, leading to Wayne's final victory 'over the Indian confederacy at Fallen Timbers.

Most impressive is the extent and depth of the author's research in primary and secondary sources. With extraordinary vividness Sword recounts the battles and the life in the American and Indian encampments, quoting from diaries, letters, and statements by American officers and soldiers as well as the accounts of their enemies, such as Little Turtle of the Miamis, Blue Jacket of the Shawnees, and Joseph Brant of the Iroquois.


message 11: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 37666 comments Mod
Thank you Bryan for keeping up the Native American threads and folder.


message 12: by Jerome (new)

Jerome | 3979 comments Tecumseh: A Life

Tecumseh A Life by John Sugden by John Sugden (no photo)

Synopsis:

If Sitting Bull is the most famous Indian, Tecumseh is the most revered. Although Tecumseh literature exceeds that devoted to any other Native American, this is the first reliable biography--thirty years in the making--of the shadowy figure who created a loose confederacy of diverse Indian tribes that exted from the Ohio territory northeast to New York, south into the Florida peninsula, westward to Nebraska, and north into Canada.

A warrior as well as a diplomat, the great Shawnee chief was a man of passionate ambitions. Spurred by commitment and served by a formidable battery of personal qualities that made him the principal organizer and the driving force of confederacy, Tecumseh kept the embers of resistence alive against a federal government that talked cooperation but practiced genocide following the Revolutionary War.

Tecumseh does not stand for one tribe or nation, but for all Native Americans. Despite his failed attempt at solidarity, he remains the ultimate symbol of eavor and courage, unity and fraternity.


message 13: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 37666 comments Mod
Thank you Jerome.


message 14: by Teri (new)

Teri (teriboop) The Battle of Tippecanoe and the Battle of New Orleans

The Battle of Tippecanoe and the Battle of New Orleans The History of the Battles that Led William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson to the Presidency by Charles River Editors by Charles River Editors (no photo)

Synopsis:

The Battle of Tippecanoe, fought on November 7, 1811 near present-day Lafayette, Indiana, involved forces of fewer than 2,000 Native American warriors and white soldiers, and only about 300 men were killed or wounded on both sides. Given those numbers, it’s apparent that the battle was far from being a Saratoga or a Gettysburg in terms of its scale or significance as an historical turning point, yet it was one of the most important battles in shaping American history during the early 19th century. The battle also involved an epic confrontation between two important American figures: William Henry Harrison, who would become the 9th president of the United States by running on his success in the battle, and the Shawnee war chief Tecumseh, arguably the most famous Native American leader in American history.

The initial Native American attack struck the southern point of Harrison's defensive perimeter around 4:30 a.m. on November 7, 1811, and almost immediately the warriors rushed in among the American defenders manning that sector. Soldiers defending the southern side of the perimeter suffered the highest casualties, with the Yellow Jackets suffering a 30% casualty rate, but in fighting lasting about two hours Harrison’s force of roughly 1,000, suffered only 62 dead and about 120 wounded. As the sun rose, the warriors began running low on ammunition, and the light revealed their small numbers, leading them to break off the attack and retreat towards Prophetstown.

The battle was hardly a decisive victory, but at the end of the fighting the Americans still held their perimeter, allowing them to claim victory. While Tippecanoe was clearly not a total victory, and Native American resistance would continue through the War of 1812, the battle is widely considered the end of Tecumseh’s War and did help bring about the decline of Native American ascendance in the region.

There are countless examples of battles that take place in wars after a peace treaty is signed. The last battle of the Civil War was a skirmish in Texas that Confederate forces won, nearly a month after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox. But it’s certainly rare for the most famous battle of a war to take place after the peace treaty is signed.

Luckily for Andrew Jackson, the War of 1812 was that unique exception. Less than a year after his victory in the Battle of Horseshoe Creek, Jackson led his forces into a more important battle at the Battle of New Orleans. The British hoped to grab as much of the land on the western frontier as they could, especially New Orleans, which had a prominent position on the Mississippi River for trading. With more than 8,000 soldiers aboard a British fleet sailing in from Jamaica in early January 1815, the attack on New Orleans promised to be a significant one, while Jackson’s men defended New Orleans with about half that number. This went on despite the fact that the two sides had signed the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Eve 1814, which was supposed to end the war. However, the slow nature of bringing news from England to America ensured that the battle would take place anyway.

Though it was an enormous victory for Jackson and the Americans – the most important of the entire war – it proved to be a completely unnecessary one. The Treaty of Ghent had officially ended the war by keeping the status quo ante bellum. Regardless, the nation much appreciated Jackson's skills and the Battle of New Orleans was forever christened as one of the greatest in American history. Jackson was honored with a “Thanks from Congress,” which was then the nation's highest military honor.


message 15: by Jerome (new)

Jerome | 3979 comments An upcoming book:
Release date: May 16, 2017

Autumn of the Black Snake: The Creation of the U.S. Army and the Invasion That Opened the West

Autumn of the Black Snake The Creation of the U.S. Army and the Invasion That Opened the West by William Hogeland by William Hogeland (no photo)


Synopsis:

In 1783, with the signing of the Peace of Paris, the American Revolution was complete. And yet even as the newly independent United States secured peace with Great Britain, it found itself losing an escalating military conflict on its borderlands. The enemy was the indigenous people of the Ohio Valley, who rightly saw the new nation as a threat to their existence. In 1791, years of skirmishes, raids, and quagmires climaxed in the grisly defeat of a motley collection of irregular American militiamen by a brilliantly organized confederation of Shawnee, Miami, and Delaware Indians—with nearly one thousand U.S. casualties, the worst defeat the nation would ever suffer at native hands. Americans were shocked, perhaps none more so than their commander in chief, George Washington, who came to a fateful conclusion: the United States needed an army.

Autumn of the Black Snake tells how the early republic battled the coalition of Indians that came closer than any adversary, before or since, to halting the nation’s expansion. In evocative and absorbing prose, William Hogeland conjures up the woodland battles and the hardball politics that formed the Legion of the United States, the country’s first true standing army. His memorable portraits of soldiers and leaders on both sides—from the daring war chiefs Blue Jacket and Little Turtle to the doomed Richard Butler and a steely, even ruthless Washington—drive a tale of horrific violence, brilliant strategizing, stupendous blunders, and valorous deeds. This sweeping account, at once exciting and dark, builds to a crescendo as Washington and Alexander Hamilton, at enormous risk, outmaneuver Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and other skeptics of standing armies—and Washington appoints General “Mad” Anthony Wayne to lead the Legion. Wayne marches into the forests of the Old Northwest, where the very Indians he is charged with defeating will bestow on him, with grudging admiration, a new name: Black Snake.

Autumn of the Black Snake is a dramatic work of military and political history, told in a colorful, sometimes startling blow-by-blow narrative. It is also an original interpretation of how greed, honor, political beliefs, and vivid personalities converged on the killing fields of the Ohio Valley, where the U.S. Army’s first victory opened the way to western settlement and established the precedent that the new nation would possess a military to reckon with.


message 16: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 37666 comments Mod
Thank you for your add


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