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THE FIRST WORLD WAR > THE ASSYRIAN GENOCIDE

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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Jan 23, 2015 12:25PM) (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
This thread deals with another sad situation of World War I - the Assyrian Genocide.

A decent book on the First World War:

The First World War by John Keegan by John Keegan John Keegan


message 2: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
"The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo) was committed against the Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac population of the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.

The Assyrian population of northern Mesopotamia (the Tur Abdin, Hakkari, Van, Siirt regions of present-day southeastern Turkey and the Urmia region of northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by Ottoman (Turkish) and Kurdish forces between 1914 and 1920.

The death toll of the Assyrian genocide was approximately 250,000, according to contemporary and more recent sources. "In 1918, according to the Los Angeles Times, Ambassador Morgenthau confirmed that the Ottoman Empire had 'massacred fully 2,000,000 men, women, and children -- Greeks, Assyrians, Armenians; fully 1,500,000 Armenians.'"[1:]

With 250,000 Greeks among the dead, that makes Ambassador Morgenthau's estimate of Assyrian deaths about 250,000.[2:] The Assyro-Chaldean National Council stated in a December 4, 1922, memorandum that the total death toll was unknown, but it estimated that about 275,000 "Assyro-Chaldeans" died between 1914 and 1918.[3:]

The population of the Assyrians of the Ottoman Empire was about 500,000 before the genocide, and 100,000 to 250,000 after.[4:] Specific massacres included 25,000 Assyrians in Midyat, 21,000 in Jezira-ibn-Omar, 7,000 in Nisibis, 7,000 in Urfa, 7,000 in the Qudshanis region, 6,000 in Mardin, 5,000 in Diyarbekir, 4,000 in Adana, 4,000 in Brahimie, and 3,500 in Harput.

The Assyrian genocide took place in the same context and time-period as the Armenian and Greek genocides. Contemporary sources usually speak of the events in terms of an Assyrian genocide, along with the Armenian genocide and Greek genocide by the Ottoman Empire, listing the Greek Orthodox, Syriac Christian and Armenian Christian victims together.

For example, the International Association of Genocide Scholars reached a consensus that "the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks."

After this resolution, the Dictionary of Genocide co-authored by eminent genocide scholar Samuel Totten, an expert on Holocaust education and the genocide in Darfur, contained an entry on the "Assyrian genocide."

The President of Genocide Watch endorsed the "repudiation by the world's leading genocide scholars of the Turkish government's ninety year denial of the Ottoman Empire's genocides against its Christian populations, including Assyrians, Greeks, and Armenians."


Source: Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyrian...


message 3: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (new)

Jerome | 4364 comments Mod
The Forgotten Genocide: Eastern Christians, the Last Arameans

The Forgotten Genocide Eastern Christians, the Last Arameans by S Courtois by S Courtois

Synopsis:

The first and only extensive treatment of the genocide of the Aramaic-speaking Christians of the Middle East, in particular the Syriac Orthodox communities, in the late 1800s and early 1900s under the Ottomans. Courtois basis his study on the diplomatic archives of the French Foreign Affairs office (Quai D'orsay), the archives of the Dominican Mission at Mosul, Iraq, written eastern eyewitness accounts, and oral interviews with genocide survivors conducted by the author. Based on a doctoral research, the books gives accurate facts and balanced conclusions on a very sensitive topic.


message 4: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (new)

Jerome | 4364 comments Mod
Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia During World War I

Massacres, Resistance, Protectors Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia During World War I by David, Gaunt by David, Gaunt

Synopsis:

This pioneering historical investigation of the genocide of the Assyrian, Chaldean, and Syrian Christians of Upper Mesopotamia during World War I uses primary sources of Turkish, Russian, German, French, and Arabic origin, and oral histories by survivors and their descendants.


message 5: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
The Assyrian Genocide, 1914 to 1923 and 1933 up to the present

Source: Rutgers Center for the Study of Genocide and Human Rights



The Assyrian people have been repeatedly victimized by genocidal assaults over the past century. They first suffered, along Ottoman Greeks and Armenians, from Turkey’s simultaneous genocides during and immediately after World War I. Soon after, the Armenians of northern Iraq were brutally massacred by the newly established Iraqi state. Persecution continued during the reign of the Ba’ath Party and Saddam Hussein, and sectarian violence unleashed during the recent Iraq War has left Assyrians vulnerable in their historic homeland. As a result of these successive tragedies, an Assyrian diaspora stretches across the world.

Remainder of article:

http://www.ncas.rutgers.edu/center-st...


message 6: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
Assyrian International News Agency

http://www.aina.org


message 7: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
AINA News
ISIS Threatens to Blow Up the Historical Walls of Nineveh
Posted 2015-01-02 00:01 GMT



The remains of the walls of Nineveh in north Iraq.

(AINA) -- According to the Assyrian website www.ankawa.com, ISIS is planning to destroy the walls of Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian Empire and one of the most important archaeological sites in Iraq. Nineveh was sacked in 612 B.C. when the Assyrian Empire was overthrown.
Residents of the Bab Nergal area of Mosul said ISIS has informed them that it will blow up the walls of Nineveh with the start of operations to liberate Mosul by the Iraqi army.

In the last month ISIS has seized the content of the cultural museum in Mosul as well as destroyed Assyrian monuments in the city, which ISIS claims "distort Islam."

Assyrians are the the only indigenous people of Iraq, going back to 4750 B.C. In 2003, just before the U.S. invasion, there were 1.5 million Assyrians living in Iraq. Today there are about 500,000 remaining. A sustained, low grade genocide (report) perpetrated by Sunnis, Shiites and Kurds drove hundreds of thousands of Assyrians into exile in Syria, Jordan, Turkey and Lebanon.

On August 7 of 2014, ISIS moved into the Nineveh Plain, the last stronghold of Assyrians in Iraq, forcing nearly 200,000 Assyrians to flee their homes and villages, where they now live as refugees in the Dohuk and Arbel areas.

More:
http://www.aina.org/news/201407291157...




message 8: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The word genocide chills the blood and this book explains the basis and causes for the genocides that have occurred throughout history. He make some good points but how can one understand such horror?

Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction

Genocide A Comprehensive Introduction by Adam Jones by Adam Jones Adam Jones

Synopsis:

An invaluable introduction to the subject of genocide, explaining its history from pre-modern times to the present day, with a wide variety of case studies.

Recent events in the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, East Timor and Iraq have demonstrated with appalling clarity that the threat of genocide is still a major issue within world politics. The book examines the differing interpretations of genocide from psychology, sociology, anthropology and political science and analyzes the influence of race, ethnicity, nationalism and gender on genocides. In the final section, the author examines how we punish those responsible for waging genocide and how the international community can prevent further bloodshed.


message 9: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
Thank you for the add.


message 10: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The Tragedy of the Assyrians

The Tragedy of the Assyrians by Ronald Sempill Stafford by Ronald Sempill Stafford(no photo)

Synopsis:

The Tragedy of the Assyrians depicts the massacres that befell the Assyrians in Iraq in 1933, following their uprooting from their homelands during World War I.


message 11: by Jill (last edited Jul 03, 2015 06:24PM) (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The Assyrian genocide took place in the same context and time-period as the Armenian and Greek genocides. Contemporary sources usually speak of the events in terms of an Assyrian genocide, along with the Armenian genocide and Greek genocide by the Ottoman Empire, listing the Greek Orthodox, Syriac Christian and Armenian Christian victims together.

Survivors: An Oral History of the Armenian Genocide

Survivors An Oral History of the Armenian Genocide by Donald E. Miller by Donald E. Miller(no photo)

Synopsis:

Between 1915 and 1923, over one million Armenians died, victims of a genocidal campaign that is still denied by the Turkish government. Thousands of other Armenians suffered torture, brutality, deportation. Yet their story has received scant attention. Through interviews with a hundred elderly Armenians, Donald and Lorna Miller give the "forgotten genocide" the hearing it deserves. Survivors raise important issues about genocide and about how people cope with traumatic experience. Much here is wrenchingly painful, yet it also speaks to the strength of the human spirit.


message 12: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The continuation of the Assyrian genocide was far reaching and this book gives the reader a history of what was happening after WWI.

The Tragedy of the Assyrians

The Tragedy of the Assyrians by Ronald Sempill Stafford by Ronald Sempill Stafford(no photo)

Synopsis:

The Tragedy of the Assyrians depicts the massacres that befell the Assyrians in Iraq in 1933, following their uprooting from their homelands during World War I.


message 13: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
Thank you Jill for all of the adds on all of the First World War threads.


message 14: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (last edited Sep 15, 2016 08:41AM) (new)

Jerome | 4364 comments Mod
An upcoming book:
Release date: November 1, 2016

Year of the Sword: The Assyrian Christian Genocide: A History

Year of the Sword The Assyrian Christian Genocide A History by Joseph Yacoub by Joseph Yacoub (no photo)

Synopsis:

The Armenian genocide of 1915 has been well documented. Much less known is the Turkish genocide of the Assyrian, Chaldean and Syriac peoples, which occurred simultaneously in their ancient homelands in and around ancient Mesopotamia -- now Turkey, Iran and Iraq.

The advent of the First World War gave the Young Turks and the Ottoman government the opportunity to exterminate the Assyrians in a series of massacres and atrocities inflicted on a people whose culture dates back millennia and whose language, Aramaic, was spoken by Jesus. Systematic killings, looting, rape, kidnapping and deportations destroyed countless communities and created a vast refugee diaspora. As many as 300,000 Assyro-Chaldean-Syriac people were murdered and a larger number forced into exile. The 'Year of the Sword' (Seyfo) in 1915 was preceded over millennia by other attacks on the Assyrians and has been mirrored by recent events, not least the abuses committed by Islamic State. Joseph Yacoub, whose family was murdered and dispersed, has gathered together a compelling range of eye-witness accounts and reports which cast light on this 'hidden genocide.'

Passionate and yet authoritative in its research, his book reveals a little-known human and cultural tragedy. A century after the Assyrian genocide, the fate of this Christian minority hangs in the balance.


message 15: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The web site is very compelling and covers in detail the genocide of the Assyrian people.

Assyrian Genocide Research Center

http://www.seyfocenter.com/


message 16: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
Yes it is Jill - thank you for adding it.


message 17: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) Quite controversial book.

The Politics of Genocide

The Politics of Genocide by Edward S. Herman by Edward S. Herman (no photo)

Synopsis:

In this impressive book, Edward S. Herman and David Peterson examine the uses and abuses of the word genocide. They argue persuasively that the label is highly politicized and that in the United States it is used by the government, journalists, and academics to brand as evil those nations and political movements that in one way or another interfere with the imperial interests of U.S. capitalism. Thus the word genocide is seldom applied when the perpetrators are U.S. allies (or even the United States itself), while it is used almost indiscriminately when murders are committed or are alleged to have been committed by enemies of the United States and U.S. business interests. One set of rules applies to cases such as U.S. aggression in Vietnam, Israeli oppression of Palestinians, Indonesian slaughter of so-called communists and the people of East Timor, U.S. bombings in Serbia and Kosovo, the U.S. war of liberation in Iraq, and mass murders committed by U.S. allies in Rwanda and the Republic of Congo. Another set applies to cases such as Serbian aggression in Kosovo and Bosnia, killings carried out by U.S. enemies in Rwanda and Darfur, Saddam Hussein, any and all actions by Iran, and a host of others.

With its careful and voluminous documentation, close reading of the U.S. media and political and scholarly writing on the subject, and clear and incisive charts, The Politics of Genocide is both a damning condemnation and stunning expose of a deeply rooted and effective system of propaganda aimed at deceiving the population while promoting the expansion of a cruel and heartless imperial system."


message 18: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) A part of the Ottoman Empire during WWI, the Assyrians were no strangers to genocide. Below is a short and informative history of their troubled history.

Assyrians as Part of the Ottoman Empire (1900–1928)

The Assyrians suffered a number of religiously and ethnically motivated massacres throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, culminating in the large scale Hamidian massacres of unarmed men, women and children by Muslim Turks and Kurds in the 1890s at the hands of the Ottoman Empire and its associated (largely Kurdish and Arab) militias, which greatly reduced their numbers, particularly in southeastern Turkey.

The Assyrians suffered a further catastrophic series of events during World War I in the form of the religiously and ethnically motivated Assyrian Genocide at the hands of the Ottomans and their Kurdish and Arab allies from 1915 to 1918. Some sources claim the highest number of Assyrians killed during the period was 750,000, while a 1922 Assyrian assessment set it at 275,000. The Assyrian Genocide ran largely in conjunction to the similarly motivated Armenian Genocide and Greek Genocide.

In reaction against Ottoman cruelty, the Assyrians in the Hakkari Mountains took up arms, and an Assyrian war of independence was fought during World War I. For a time, the Assyrians fought successfully against overwhelming numbers, scoring a number of victories against the Ottomans and Kurds, and also hostile Arab and Iranian groups. However, due to the collapse of the Russian Empire due to the Russian Revolution, and the similar collapse of the Armenian Defense: The Assyrians were left without allies. As a result, The Assyrians were vastly outnumbered, outgunned, surrounded, and without supplies. The only option they had was to flee the region into northwest Iran and fight their way, with around 50,000 civilians in tow, to British train lines going to Mandatory Iraq. The sizable Assyrian presence in south eastern Anatolia which had endured for over four millennia was thus reduced to no more than 15,000 by the end of World War I, and by 1924 those who remained were expelled, with many leaving and later founding villages in the Sapna and Nahla valleys in the Dohuk Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan.

The Assyrian Levies were founded by the British in 1928, with ancient Assyrian military rankings, such as Rab-shakeh, Rab-talia and Turtanu, being revived for the first time in millennia for this force. The Assyrians were prized by the British rulers for their fighting qualities, loyalty, bravery and discipline, and were used to help the British put down insurrections among the Arabs, Kurds and Turcoman, guard the borders with Iran and Turkey, and protect British military installations.

(Source: Wikipedia)


message 19: by Jimmy (last edited Sep 18, 2016 04:14PM) (new)

Jimmy | 177 comments This is one of the most horrible poems I have ever read about the genocide of Armenians:

The Dance
by Siamanto (Adom Yarjanian)
Translation - Peter Balakian

In the town of Bardez where Armenians
were still dying,
a German woman, trying not to cry
told me the horror she witnessed:

"This thing I'm telling you about,
I saw with my own eyes.
Behind my window of hell
I clenched my teeth
and watched with my pitiless eyes:
the town of Bardez turned
into a heap of ashes.
Corpses piled high as trees.
From the waters, from the springs,
from the streams and the road,
the stubborn murmur of your blood
still revenges my ear.

Don't be afraid. I must tell you what I saw,
so people will understand
the crimes men do to men.
For two days, by the road to the graveyard . . .
Let the hearts of the whole world understand.
It was Sunday morning,
the first useless Sunday dawning on the corpses.
From dusk to dawn in my room,
with a stabbed woman,
my tears wetting her death.
Suddenly I heard from afar
a dark crowd standing in a vineyard
lashing twenty brides
and singing dirty songs.

Leaving the half-dead girl on the straw mattress,
I went to the balcony on my window
and the crowd seemed to thicken like a clump of trees.
An animal of a man shouted, "you must dance,
dance when our drum beats."
With fury whips cracked
on the flesh of these women.
Hand in hand the brides began their circle dance.
Now, I envied my wounded neighbor
because with a calm snore
she cursed the universe
and gave her soul up to the stars . . .

In vain I shook my fists at the crowd.
'Dance,' they raved,
'dance till you die, infidel beauties.
With your flapping tits, dance!
Smile for us.
You're abandoned now, you're naked slaves,
so dance like a bunch of fuckin' sluts.
We're hot for you all.'
Twenty graceful brides collapsed.
'Get up,' the crowd roared,
brandishing their swords.
Then someone brought a jug of kerosene.
Human justice, I spit in your face.
The brides were anointed.
'Dance,' they thundered -
here's a fragrance you can't get in Arabia.'
With a torch, they set
the naked brides on fire.
And the charred bodies rolled
and tumbled to their deaths . . .
I slammed the shutters
of my windows,
and went over to the dead girl
and asked: 'How can I dig out my eyes?"

PRAYER (Armenian Poetry XIX-XX Book 2) by SIAMANTO Atom Yarjanian
by
SIAMANTO Atom Yarjanian


message 20: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) Oh dear. How did you find that poem?


message 22: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (new)

Jerome | 4364 comments Mod
An upcoming book:
Release date: March 30, 2017

Let Them Not Return: Sayfothe Genocide Against the Assyrian, Syriac, and Chaldean Christians in the Ottoman Empire

Let Them Not Return Sayfothe Genocide Against the Assyrian, Syriac, and Chaldean Christians in the Ottoman Empire by David Gaunt by David Gaunt (no photo)

Synopsis:

The mass killing of Ottoman Armenians is today widely recognized, both within and outside scholarly circles, as an act of genocide. What is less well known, however, is that it took place within a broader context of Ottoman violence against minority groups during and after the First World War. Among those populations decimated were the indigenous Christian Assyrians (also known as Syriacs or Chaldeans) who lived in the borderlands of present-day Turkey, Iran, and Iraq. This volume is the first scholarly edited collection focused on the Assyrian genocide, or "Sayfo" (literally, "sword" in Aramaic), presenting historical, psychological, anthropological, and political perspectives that shed much-needed light on a neglected historical atrocity


message 23: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
Thank you Jerome


message 24: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Apr 13, 2018 07:49AM) (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
Genocide in the Ottoman Empire

Genocide in the Ottoman Empire Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks, 1913-1923 by George N. Shirinian by George N. Shirinian (no photo)

Synopsis:

The final years of the Ottoman Empire were catastrophic ones for its non-Turkish, non-Muslim minorities.

From 1913 to 1923, its rulers deported, killed, or otherwise persecuted staggering numbers of citizens in an attempt to preserve "Turkey for the Turks," setting a modern precedent for how a regime can commit genocide in pursuit of political ends while largely escaping accountability.

While this brutal history is most widely known in the case of the Armenian genocide, few appreciate the extent to which the Empire's Assyrian and Greek subjects suffered and died under similar policies.

This definitive volume is the first to comprehensively examine the genocides of the Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks in comparative fashion, analyzing the similarities and differences among them and giving crucial context to present-day efforts for reparative justice.

News Article related to the above book:

http://www.marketwired.com/press-rele...

Author of the Book:



George N. Shirinian is the Executive Director of the Zoryan Institute. In addition to this new book, he is also the co-editor of Studies in Comparative Genocide (Macmillan 1999) and editor of The Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Ottoman Greek Genocide: Essays on Asia Minor, Pontos, and Eastern Thrace, 1913-1923 (Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center 2012).


message 25: by ClaraBelle (new)

ClaraBelle (elsiecorriedale) So sad but in Interesting as I’ve never heard of it before.


message 26: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
Yes Clara Belle - thank you for posting - please keep posting - we love reading members' posts.

It is a wonder sometimes how cruel humans can be to each other.


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