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AMERICAN CIVIL WAR > TIMELINE OF EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44200 comments Mod
There were numerous events which led up to the onset of the American Civil War.

This thread is dedicated to the discussion of some of those events.


message 2: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44200 comments Mod
The following is a timeline from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline...

Please feel free to discuss any and all of these events which may have played a part in the start of the American Civil War.

The first act concerning slavery in the United States was the Northwest Ordinance Act of 1787. This act declared that there was no slavery allowed above the Ohio River.

This was the beginning of the divisions of the country over the issue of slavery. It also established what made up many of the northern anti-slavery states in the Civil War. The Northwest Ordinance Act started the long series of events that led up to the Civil War.

The Missouri Compromise was the next declaration that stated where slavery could exist.

Henry Clay of Kentucky came up with this idea, which stated the following: Missouri is a slave state; Maine is a free state; and the 36°30' line was the official dividing line between the free North and slave South.

This act, passed in 1820, kept a balance in the Senate, with twelve free states and twelve slave states. This was beneficial to the South, but only for a time, for the most of the land beneath the 36°30' line was under Mexico’s control.

This meant that the North would eventually receive most of the territories in the West like Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska. For the balance to remain, the South would have to gain land from Mexico.

In 1846, the Wilmot Proviso was passed. This bill said that Northern congressmen would only vote for the war if the land acquired from it became more free states.

The primary reason for the South fighting this war was to gain such land for slavery. This strongly angered southerners and only widened the gap between the two changing regions.

In 1850, however, the government made a complete turn from where it formerly stood on slavery. In the Compromise of 1850, a strongly pro-southern bill, all territories were open to popular sovereignty (the majority decides on slavery in the territory), basically meaning that the Wilmot Proviso was repealed.

This bill, created, too, by Henry Clay, also established the Fugitive Slave Act, which said that all U.S. citizens were required to return any runaway slaves to their owner.

Even though this was not strongly enforced, its meaning infuriated Northerners; their government had essentially accepted slavery as just and was enforcing its upholding.

In addition, taxpayers were required to pay Texas $10 million to give up its claims to New Mexico, which would allow the creation of yet another slave state.

The only part of the Missouri Compromise that benefited the North was that California became a free state and slave trade was disallowed in Washington D.C.

The Kansas-Nebraska Act helped to even the playing field between the North and the South. Stephen Douglas from Illinois came up with such an act primarily to benefit his home state, specifically Chicago, by making these two territories states sooner, allowing for the construction of railroads.

This act allowed the people of Kansas and Nebraska to choose the outcome of their states. Of course, both Northerners and Southerners rushed to these territories to express their opinion in the voting.

By 1856, the country began seeing violence between the two groups, and this started in Kansas. Pro-slavery looters known as Border Ruffians angered anti-slavery activist John Brown. In response, he and his sons massacre five men from Pottawatomie Creek.

These actions became known as Bleeding Kansas, and heightened tensions all the more between the North and South.

The final, and possibly most influential, cause of the Civil War was the Supreme Court case The Dred Scott Decision. This began when a formerly free slave, Dred Scott, attempted to file a suit against his owner because he had lived in free states/territories.

He lost this case, and the Court decided that: Slaves were not citizens, and, therefore, cannot sue; living in a free state/territory does not grant a slave freedom; and the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and was consequently repealed, allowing all territories to be open to slavery.


Source: Wikipedia


message 3: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44200 comments Mod
Attached is the timeline of the African American Civil Rights Movement:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline...


message 4: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Mar 06, 2010 09:12PM) (new)

Bentley | 44200 comments Mod
Project Gutenberg has a free publication called Famous Americans of Recent Times by James Parton:

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12771/...

The famous Americans discussed were:

HENRY CLAY

DANIEL WEBSTER

JOHN C. CALHOUN

JOHN RANDOLPH

STEPHEN GIRARD AND HIS COLLEGE

JAMES GORDON BENNETT AND THE NEW YORK HERALD

CHARLES GOODYEAR

HENRY WARD BEECHER AND HIS CHURCH

COMMODORE VANDERBILT

THEODOSIA BURR

JOHN JACOB ASTOR


Famous Americans of recent times by James Parton by James Parton



message 5: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44200 comments Mod
An interesting stumbling block which had a lot to do with the American Civil War was states rights.

http://www.civilwarhome.com/statesrig...

In fact, the state rights tone was set in the preamble to the Confederate Constitution in the significant phrase, "each State acting in its sovereign and independent character."


message 6: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)


message 7: by John (last edited Mar 10, 2010 01:44PM) (new)

John E | 105 comments I always have found it interesting that the Constitution of the Confederates did not allow for secession.

Your above list covers the political, but leaves out what I consider the most important reason for the break: the emergence of a different society and set of values between the sections because of the mere existence of slavery. The Southern ideal was to have their children become "gentlemen" and "ladies". As in most societies, this was only possible for a few, but it still was the prevelant drive in the society. While in the North the ideal was to become independent and wealthy, an ideal available to a larger part of the population. Thus to the South the North was crass and pushy while the North saw the South as living in the past and determined to perpetuate their world-view through maintaining slavery. The Southern view had developed over two hundred and fifty years into the concept that the South was so different that they were a "nation." The South was fighting a defensive battle against "progress" and would fight using any means it had: states rights, "gag" rules, personal violence, or finally organized warfare.


message 8: by Elizabeth S (new)

Elizabeth S (esorenson) | 2011 comments John wrote: "I always have found it interesting that the Constitution of the Confederates did not allow for secession.

Your above list covers the political, but leaves out what I consider the most important..."


Now that is the best description I think I've ever read about why the whole succession wasn't just slavery. And that is an interesting tidbit that the Confederate Constitution didn't allow for secession.


message 9: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44200 comments Mod
John wrote: "I always have found it interesting that the Constitution of the Confederates did not allow for secession.

Your above list covers the political, but leaves out what I consider the most important..."


Excellent portrayal of the real underlying issues John; and I guess they did not subscribe to the theory that what is good for the goose is good for the gander.


message 10: by Bryan (new)

Bryan Craig Lincoln President Elect: Abraham Lincoln and the Great Secession Winter, 1860-1861

Lincoln President-Elect Abraham Lincoln and the Great Secession Winter, 1860-1861 by Harold Holzer by Harold Holzer Harold Holzer

Synopsis:

Abraham Lincoln first demonstrated his determination and leadership in the Great Secession Winter -- the four months between his election in November 1860 and his inauguration in March 1861 -- when he rejected compromises urged on him by Republicans and Democrats, Northerners and Southerners, that might have preserved the Union a little longer but would have enshrined slavery for generations. Though Lincoln has been criticized by many historians for failing to appreciate the severity of the secession crisis that greeted his victory, Harold Holzer shows that the presidentelect waged a shrewd and complex campaign to prevent the expansion of slavery while vainly trying to limit secession to a few Deep South states.

During this most dangerous White House transition in American history, the country had two presidents: one powerless (the president-elect, possessing no constitutional authority), the other paralyzed (the incumbent who refused to act). Through limited, brilliantly timed and crafted public statements, determined private letters, tough political pressure, and personal persuasion, Lincoln guaranteed the integrity of the American political process of majority rule, sounded the death knell of slavery, and transformed not only his own image but that of the presidency, even while making inevitable the war that would be necessary to make these achievements permanent.

Lincoln President-Elect is the first book to concentrate on Lincoln's public stance and private agony during these months and on the momentous consequences when he first demonstrated his determination and leadership. Holzer recasts Lincoln from an isolated prairie politician yet to establish his greatness, to a skillful shaper of men and opinion and an immovable friend of freedom at a decisive moment when allegiance to the founding credo "all men are created equal" might well have been sacrificed.


message 11: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) This famous case was one more spark that helped ignite the American Civil War.

The Dred Scott Case: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Race and Law

The Dred Scott Case Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Race and Law by David Thomas Konig by David Thomas Konig (no photo)

Synopsis:

In 1846 two slaves, Dred and Harriet Scott, filed petitions for their freedom in the Old Courthouse in St. Louis, Missouri. As the first true civil rights case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court, Dred Scott v. Sandford raised issues that have not been fully resolved despite three amendments to the Constitution and more than a century and a half of litigation.

The Dred Scott Case: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Race and Law presents original research and the reflections of the nation’s leading scholars who gathered in St. Louis to mark the 150th anniversary of what was arguably the most infamous decision of the U.S. Supreme Court. The decision that held that African Americans “had no rights” under the Constitution and that Congress had no authority to alter that galvanized Americans and thrust the issue of race and law to the center of American politics. This collection of essays revisits the history of the case and its aftermath in American life and law. In a final section, the present-day justices of the Missouri Supreme Court offer their reflections on the process of judging and provide perspective on the misdeeds of their nineteenth-century predecessors who denied the Scotts their freedom.


message 12: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The Missouri Compromise and Its Aftermath: Slavery and the Meaning of America

The Missouri Compromise and Its Aftermath Slavery & the Meaning of America by Robert Pierce Forbes by Robert Pierce Forbes (no photo)

Synopsis

Robert Pierce Forbes goes behind the scenes of the crucial Missouri Compromise, the most important sectional crisis before the Civil War, to reveal the high-level deal-making, diplomacy, and deception that defused the crisis, including the central, unexpected role of President James Monroe. Although Missouri was allowed to join the union with slavery, the compromise in fact closed off nearly all remaining federal territories to slavery. When Congressman James Tallmadge of New York proposed barring slavery from the new state of Missouri, he sparked the most candid discussion of slavery ever held in Congress. The southern response quenched the surge of nationalism and confidence following the War of 1812 and inaugurated a new politics of racism and reaction. The South's rigidity on slavery made it an alluring electoral target for master political strategist Martin Van Buren, who emerged as the key architect of a new Democratic Party explicitly designed to mobilize southern unity and neutralize antislavery sentiment. Forbes's analysis reveals a surprising national consensus against slavery a generation before the Civil War, which was fractured by the controversy over Missouri.Robert Pierce Forbes goes behind the scenes of the crucial Missouri Compromise, the most important sectional crisis before the Civil War, to reveal the high-level deal-making, diplomacy, and deception that defused the crisis, including the central, unexpected role of President James Monroe. Although Missouri was allowed to join the union as a slave state, Forbes observes, the compromise in fact closed off nearly all remaining federal territory to slavery. Forbes's analysis reveals a surprising national consensus against slavery a generation before the Civil War, which was fractured by the controversy over Missouri.


message 13: by Teri (new)

Teri (teriboop) This book includes the months leading up to the start of the war:

The Civil War Months: A Month-by-Month Compendium of the War Between the States

The Civil War Months A Month-by-Month Compendium of the War Between the States by Walter Coffey by Walter Coffey Walter Coffey

Synopsis:

The Civil War obliterated America's past, along with many of the founders' visions of what America should be. Replacing those visions was the America that we have today. Any true understanding of America, both past and present, must include a specific understanding of this conflict.

This work, with a thought-provoking introduction exploring the true causes of the war, traces the entire story of the conflict in a concise monthly summary. In addition to all the major events that shaped the war, key facts that have disappeared from most mainstream texts are also included, such as:

Both Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis lost young sons during the war

The legendary Robert E. Lee faced intense southern criticism for military failures in the war's first year

U.S. forces battled the Sioux Indians during the war, leading to the largest mass execution in American history

A former Ohio congressman was banished to the South by Lincoln for opposing the war

Facts are explored and myths are exposed as the conflict is put in its proper chronological perspective. For anyone seeking a general resource guide to the seminal event in American history, this is required reading.


message 14: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) I also cross-posted this to another Civil War topic as this book show the rumblings of what was to become the War Between the States, long before it broke out.

American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House

American Lion Andrew Jackson in the White House by Jon Meacham by Jon Meacham Jon Meacham

Synopsis:

Andrew Jackson, his intimate circle of friends, and his tumultuous times are at the heart of this remarkable book about the man who rose from nothing to create the modern presidency. Beloved and hated, venerated and reviled, Andrew Jackson was an orphan who fought his way to the pinnacle of power, bending the nation to his will in the cause of democracy.

Jackson’s election in 1828 ushered in a new and lasting era in which the people, not distant elites, were the guiding force in American politics. Democracy made its stand in the Jackson years, and he gave voice to the hopes and the fears of a restless, changing nation facing challenging times at home and threats abroad. To tell the saga of Jackson’s presidency, acclaimed author Jon Meacham goes inside the Jackson White House.

Drawing on newly discovered family letters and papers, he details the human drama–the family, the women, and the inner circle of advisers–that shaped Jackson’s private world through years of storm and victory.

One of our most significant yet dimly recalled presidents, Jackson was a battle-hardened warrior, the founder of the Democratic Party, and the architect of the presidency as we know it. His story is one of violence, sex, courage, and tragedy. With his powerful persona, his evident bravery, and his mystical connection to the people, Jackson moved the White House from the periphery of government to the center of national action, articulating a vision of change that challenged entrenched interests to heed the popular will–or face his formidable wrath. The greatest of the presidents who have followed Jackson in the White House–from Lincoln to Theodore Roosevelt to FDR to Truman–have found inspiration in his example, and virtue in his vision.

Jackson was the most contradictory of men. The architect of the removal of Indians from their native lands, he was warmly sentimental and risked everything to give more power to ordinary citizens. He was, in short, a lot like his country: alternately kind and vicious, brilliant and blind; and a man who fought a lifelong war to keep the republic safe–no matter what it took.

Jon Meacham in American Lion has delivered the definitive human portrait of a pivotal president who forever changed the American presidency–and America itself.


message 15: by Jill (last edited Sep 28, 2016 06:58PM) (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The brainchild of Henry Clay of Kentucky.

To Preserve the Union: Causes and Effects of the Missouri Compromise

To Preserve the Union Causes and Effects of the Missouri Compromise by KaaVonia Hinton by KaaVonia Hinton (no photo)

Synopsis:

Expand slavery or limit it? By 1818, the United States was deeply divided about what to do in Missouri, a territory that wanted to be a state. At issue was whether slavery would be legal in the new state. But how did the fight start? And how would the fate of Missouri change the United States?


message 16: by Jill (last edited Sep 28, 2016 07:03PM) (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The Fall of the House of Dixie: The Civil War and the Social Revolution That Transformed the South

The Fall of the House of Dixie The Civil War and the Social Revolution That Transformed the South by Bruce Levine by Bruce Levine (no photo)

Synopsis:

In this major new history of the Civil War, Bruce Levine tells the riveting story of how that conflict upended the economic, political, and social life of the old South, utterly destroying the Confederacy and the society it represented and defended. Told through the words of the people who lived it, The Fall of the House of Dixie illuminates the way a war undertaken to preserve the status quo became a second American Revolution whose impact on the country was as strong and lasting as that of our first.

In 1860 the American South was a vast, wealthy, imposing region where a small minority had amassed great political power and enormous fortunes through a system of forced labor. The South’s large population of slaveless whites almost universally supported the basic interests of plantation owners, despite the huge wealth gap that separated them. By the end of 1865 these structures of wealth and power had been shattered. Millions of black people had gained their freedom, many poorer whites had ceased following their wealthy neighbors, and plantation owners were brought to their knees, losing not only their slaves but their political power, their worldview, their very way of life. This sea change was felt nationwide, as the balance of power in Congress, the judiciary, and the presidency shifted dramatically and lastingly toward the North, and the country embarked on a course toward equal rights.

Levine captures the many-sided human drama of this story using a huge trove of diaries, letters, newspaper articles, government documents, and more. In The Fall of the House of Dixie, the true stakes of the Civil War become clearer than ever before, as slaves battle for their freedom in the face of brutal reprisals; Abraham Lincoln and his party turn what began as a limited war for the Union into a crusade against slavery by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation; poor southern whites grow increasingly disillusioned with fighting what they have come to see as the plantation owners’ war; and the slave owners grow ever more desperate as their beloved social order is destroyed, not just by the Union Army, but also from within. When the smoke clears, not only Dixie but all of American society is changed forever.

Brilliantly argued and engrossing, The Fall of the House of Dixie is a sweeping account of the destruction of the old South during the Civil War, offering a fresh perspective on the most colossal struggle in our history and the new world it brought into being.


message 17: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Apr 12, 2018 05:57PM) (new)

Bentley | 44200 comments Mod
The Library of Congress Illustrated Timeline of the Civil War

The Library of Congress Illustrated Timeline of the Civil War by Margaret E. Wagner by Margaret E. Wagner Margaret E. Wagner

Synopsis:

With striking visuals from the Library of Congress' unparalleled archive, THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS ILLUSTRATED TIMELINE OF THE CIVIL WAR is an authoritative and engaging narrative of the domestic conflict that determined the course of American history.

A detailed chronological timeline of the war captures the harrowing intensity of 19th-century warfare in first-hand accounts from soldiers, nurses, and front-line journalists.

Readers will be enthralled by speech drafts in Lincoln's own hand, quotes from the likes of Frederick Douglass and Robert E. Lee, and portraits of key soldiers and politicians who are not covered in standard textbooks.

The Illustrated Timeline's exciting new source material and lucid organization will give Civil War enthusiasts a fresh look at this defining period in our nation's history.

About the Author:

A senior writer-editor in the Publishing Office of the Library of Congress, Margaret E. Wagner is the coauthor and coeditor of The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference and The Library of Congress World War II Desk Reference and author of The American Civil War: 365 Days, World War II: 365 Days, and Maxfield Parrish and the Illustrators of the Golden Age.


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