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AMERICAN CIVIL WAR > PACIFIC COAST THEATER OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
This thread is dedicated to the discussion of the PACIFIC COAST THEATER OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR.

The Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War was the military operations in the United States bordering or close to the Pacific Ocean.

The theater was encompassed by the Department of the Pacific that included the states of California, Oregon, and Nevada, Washington Territory, Utah Territory, and later Idaho Territory.

The operations of Union volunteer troop detachments primarily from California, some from Oregon and a few companies from Washington Territory were directed mostly against Indians in the theater.

Union and Confederate regular forces did not meet directly within the Pacific Department but operations were directed against Confederate irregulars in California and strong garrisons were placed in Southern California to control the region which had strong secessionist sympathies.

Though the Union and confederate armies did not meet, Confederate States Navy warships would operate along the Pacific/American coast, ultimately firing the last shot of the American Civil War in the Bering Sea off Alaska. Attempts by the Confederacy to buy or seize ships for commerce raiding on the West Coast were thwarted by alert Union officials.

The campaign classification established by the United States National Park Service lists only one campaign and one battle in this theater, the Battle of Bear River.

However this is not correct, there were several campaigns against the Indian tribes besides the eastern Shoshone. In Northern California there was the ongoing Bald Hills War (1858-1864) against the Wiyot, Yurok, Karuk, Hupa, Tsnungwe, and Whilkut.

From December 12, 1861 the theater of this war was made into the District of Humboldt with its headquarters at Fort Humboldt). It was a protracted irregular war requiring garrisons protecting settlements and long patrols sometimes resulting in small skirmishes.

In September 25, 1861 the District of Southern California was established, with its first Headquarters at Camp Latham, west of Los Angeles this was later moved to Drum Barracks.

It was first formed to control what was seen as the secessionist majority population in Southern California. This district included Tulare County to the north which at the time was much larger than it is now including what is now Kings, Kern and Inyo Counties and part of Fresno County.

In early 1862, the District headquarters was used as the base for the campaign of the California Column into Confederate Arizona. California sent some of their Volunteer Regiments east to clear the Confederate garrison from southern New Mexico Territory.

Subsequently, California units remained there fighting the Navajo and the Apache Wars until after the Civil War when they were relieved by Federal Troops in 1866. In March 1865, Arizona Territory under the military District of Arizona, was transferred from the Department of New Mexico to the Department of the Pacific and in July 1865 to the Department of California.

Between 1862 and 1864, Cavalry units from the Southern Califoria District fought the Owens Valley Indian War [6:] against the Owens Valley Paiutes or Numa and against their friends among the Kawaiisu in the Sierra Mountains to the west.

Throughout the Civil War, Oregon and California Volunteer patrols had several clashes with the Ute, Paiute, Bannock, and Shoshone bands in Oregon and the Territories of Washington (later Idaho), Utah, and Nevada collectively known as the Snake Indians.

However the invasion of Snake Indians territory by gold miners in 1863 brought on the Snake War. The Volunteers fought the Snakes until relieved by Federal troops in late 1865, the war continued until 1868.

Other operations west of the Mississippi River are included in the Trans-Mississippi Theater.


Source: Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_...


message 2: by Bryan (new)

Bryan Craig The Civil War in the Western Territories

The Civil War in the Western Territories Arizona, colorado, New Mexico, and Utah by Ray Charles Colton by Ray Charles Colton (no photo)

Synopsis:

Between 1861 and 1865 the violent struggles of the Civil War extended into the Western Territories, where they were complicated by the involvement of the Indians. The Confederate leaders had planned to annex a corridor from the Rio Grande in Texas to the California coast. Thus they would have had a pathway to the Pacific Ocean, areas rich in minerals, new territory for the expansion of slavery, and valuable military stores and equipment. They soon found that the land was more difficult to conquer than they had anticipated. The people of the Western Territories for the most part remained loyal to the Union, and the Confederate vision of empire failed to materialize.

The emphasis in this book is on the Union campaigns against the Confederates and the Indians who sought to take advantage of the confusion of the Civil War. Yet it is also shown that the Western Territories came of age as a result of the conflict. When the Confederate invasion had been repelled, the Union leaders undertook vigorous campaigns for extermination or settlement of the Indians on reservations. Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah all acquired their present boundaries and patterns of state government during the Civil War period.


message 3: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (new)

Jerome | 4374 comments Mod
The Saints and Union: Utah Territory During the Civil War

The Saints and Union UTAH TERRITORY DURING THE CIVIL WAR by E.B. Long by E.B. Long (no photo)

Synopsis:

The history of Utah during the Civil War can be written largely in terms of two personalities, and this E. B. Long has done. They were Brigham Young, the dynamic and commanding president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and General Patrick Edward Connor, the mercurial Irishman who commanded federal troops in Utah from 1862 to 1865.Those who like their history straight from the sources will find The Saints and the Union a gem: solid history, comprehensively documenting an important period in Utah and Mormon history.


message 4: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (new)

Jerome | 4374 comments Mod
The Civil War and the West: The Frontier Transformed

The Civil War and the West The Frontier Transformed by Carol L Higham by Carol L Higham (no photo)

Synopsis:

What happened in the West in the lead-up to and during the American Civil War? The Civil War and the West: The Frontier Transformed provides a clear and complete answer to this question. The work succinctly overviews the West during the antebellum period from 1800 to 1862, supplying thematic chapters that explain how key elements and characteristics of the West created conflict and division that differed from those in the East during the Civil War. It looks at how these issues influenced the military, settlement, and internal territorial conflicts about statehood in each region, and treats the Cherokee and other Indian nations as important actors in the development of a national narrative.


message 5: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (new)

Jerome | 4374 comments Mod
California and the American Civil War

California and the American Civil War by Alton Pryor by Alton Pryor (no photo)

Synopsis:

California sent more volunteers, about 17,000 men, to fight in the American Civil War, more than any other state in the Union. Volunteers fought in 31 engagements, most in the Shenandoah Valley. Others served with distinction in New York and Pennsylvania regiments. Author Alton Pryor has captured many of the elements involving California and the American Civil War in his new book, California and the American Civil War. Most of the men in Southern California during the Civil War were Confederate sympathizers. Because of their number they exercised a great deal of political influence in the state. The American Civil War is judged as America’s worst war, as Americans were fighting Americans. The reader will learn many facts about California’s involvement in the Civil War that is not known by most Americans.


message 6: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (new)

Jerome | 4374 comments Mod
The Civil War in Arizona: The Story of the California Volunteers, 1861–1865

The Civil War in Arizona The Story of the California Volunteers, 1861–1865 by Andrew E. Masich by Andrew E. Masich (no photo)

Synopsis:

Bull Run, Gettysburg, Appomattox. For Americans, these battlegrounds, all located in the eastern United States, will forever be associated with the Civil War. But few realize that the Civil War was also fought far to the west of these sites. The westernmost battle of the war took place in the remote deserts of the future state of Arizona.

In this first book-length account of the Civil War in Arizona, Andrew E. Masich offers both a lively narrative history of the all-but-forgotten California Column in wartime Arizona and a rare compilation of letters written by the volunteer soldiers who served in the U.S. Army from 1861 to 1866. Enriched by Masich’s meticulous annotation, these letters provide firsthand testimony of the grueling desert conditions the soldiers endured as they fought on many fronts.


message 7: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) A little known aspect of the American Civil War.

Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War

Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War by Jesse Russell by Jesse Russell(no photo)

Synopsis

The Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War was the military operations in the United States on the Pacific Ocean and in the states and Territories west of the Continental Divide. The theater was encompassed by the Department of the Pacific that included the states of California, Oregon, and Nevada, Washington Territory, Utah Territory, and later Idaho Territory. The operations of Union volunteer troop detachments primarily from California, some from Oregon and a few companies from Washington Territory were directed mostly against Indians in the theater. Union and Confederate regular forces did not meet directly within the Pacific Department except in New Mexico Territory, however operations were directed against Confederate irregulars in California and strong garrisons were placed in Southern California, and southern New Mexico Territory to control the region which had strong secessionist sympathies. Though the Union and confederate armies did not meet, Confederate States Navy warships would operate in the Pacific Ocean, but neither of them succeeded in interupting commerce to the Eastern United States. The last of these commerce raiders the CSS Shenandoah fired the last shot of the American Civil War in the Bering Sea off Alaska. Attempts by the Confederacy to buy or seize ships for commerce raiding on the West Coast were thwarted by alert Union officials and the Pacific Squadron.


message 8: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The Golden State in the Civil War

The Golden State in the Civil War Thomas Starr King, the Republican Party, and the Birth of Modern California. Glenna Matthews by Glenna Matthews by Glenna Matthews (no photo)

Synopsis:

This book breaks new ground, not only in its coverage of California, but also in its treatment of the role of cultural links in enhancing national loyalty, in its attention to many groups of people of color, including Chinese and Latinos, and what happened to them during the Civil War. In addition, the book devotes attention to the ebb and flow of the two political parties and to the little-known fact that nearly 17,000 California men and women volunteered for military service on behalf of the Union. Glenna Matthews broadens understanding of the Civil War era both in terms of geography and in terms of social groupings.


message 9: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
Thank you Jill, Jerome and Bryan.


message 10: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The Civil War Year in Utah: The Kingdom of God and the Territory That Did Not Fight

The Civil War Years in Utah The Kingdom of God and the Territory That Did Not Fight by John Gary Maxwell by John Gary Maxwell (no photo)

Synopsis:

In 1832 Joseph Smith, Jr., the Mormons’ first prophet, foretold of a great war beginning in South Carolina. In the combatants’ mutual destruction, God’s purposes would be served, and Mormon men would rise to form a geographical, political, and theocratic “Kingdom of God” to encompass the earth. Three decades later, when Smith’s prophecy failed with the end of the American Civil War, the United States left torn but intact, the Mormons’ perspective on the conflict—and their inactivity in it—required palliative revision. In The Civil War Years in Utah, the first full account of the events that occurred in Utah Territory during that war, John Gary Maxwell contradicts the patriotic mythology of Mormon leaders’ version of this dark chapter in Utah history.

While the Civil War spread death, tragedy, and sorrow across the continent, Utah Territory remained virtually untouched. Although the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—and its faithful—proudly praise the service of an 1862 Mormon cavalry company during the Civil War, Maxwell’s research exposes the relatively inconsequential contribution of these Nauvoo Legion soldiers. Active for a mere ninety days, they patrolled overland trails and telegraph lines. Furthermore, Maxwell finds indisputable evidence of Southern allegiance among Mormon leaders, despite their claim of staunch, long-standing loyalty to the Union. Men at the highest levels of Mormon hierarchy were in close personal contact with Confederate operatives. In seeking sovereignty, Maxwell contends, the Saints engaged in blatant and treasonous conflict with Union authorities, the California and Nevada Volunteers, and federal policies, repeatedly skirting open warfare with the U.S. government.

Collective memory of this consequential period in American history, Maxwell argues, has been ill-served by a one-sided perspective. This engaging and long-overdue reappraisal finally fills in the gaps, telling the full story of the Civil War years in Utah Territory.


message 11: by Jill (last edited Jan 04, 2016 11:28AM) (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) This book is part of theHidden History series.

Hidden History of Civil War Oregon

Hidden History of Civil War Oregon by Randol B. Fletcher by Randol B. Fletcher (no photo)

Synopsis:

Many Oregonians think of the Civil War as a faraway event or something that happens when the Ducks and the Beavers tangle. Few know that the state raised two Union regiments or that more than ten thousand Union and Confederate veterans made their way to Oregon after the war. In fact, the Beaver State has impressive Civil War ties, including the battle death of Senator Edward Baker, the Long Tom Rebellion in Eugene and famous figures like U.S. Marshal Virgil Earp. Join Civil War enthusiast Randol B. Fletcher as he explores the tales behind the monuments and graves that dot today's landscape and unearths the Hidden History of the Civil War in Oregon.


message 12: by Teri (new)

Teri (teriboop) Empire and Liberty: The Civil War and the West

Empire and Liberty The Civil War and the West by Virginia Scharff by Virginia Scharff Virginia Scharff

Synopsis:

Empire and Liberty brings together two epic subjects in American history: the story of the struggle to end slavery that reached a violent climax in the Civil War, and the story of the westward expansion of the United States. Virginia Scharff and the contributors to this volume show how the West shaped the conflict over slavery and how slavery shaped the West, in the process defining American ideals about freedom and influencing battles over race, property, and citizenship.

This innovative work embraces East and West, as well as North and South, as the United States observes the 2015 sesquicentennial commemoration of the end of the Civil War. A companion volume to an Autry National Center exhibition on the Civil War and the West, Empire and Liberty brings leading historians together to examine artifacts, objects, and artworks that illuminate this period of national expansion, conflict, and renewal.


message 13: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) Not much information about this book but it seems to include descriptions of the Pacific Coast theater of the War Between the States.

Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion

Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion by Charles W. Stewart by Charles W. Stewart (no photo)

Synopsis:

This book details the west gulf blockading squadron from July 15, 1862 to March 14, 1863.


message 14: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) Bear Flag and Bay State in the Civil War

Bear Flag and Bay State in the Civil War The Californians of the Second Massachusetts Cavalry by Thomas E. Parson by Thomas E. Parson (no photo)

Synopsis:

The Second Massachusetts Cavalry included the only organized group (5 companies totaling 504 men) from California to fight in the east during the Civil War. Led by a young Boston aristocrat, Colonel Charles R. Lowell, these men began their wartime careers in Northern Virginia in 1862, clashing with the partisan rangers of Major John S. Mosby, in a deadly world of guerrilla warfare. In August of 1864, the regiment was assigned to Major General Phil Sheridans Army of Shenandoah and served through all of the battles in the victorious campaign to clear the valley of Confederates, witnessing the final surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. This account tells what these men from California and Massachusetts accomplished, how they communicated, and how they viewed themselves. The book contains three appendices that list the battle casualties of the regiment during its largest engagements. Photographs and a bibliography are also included.


message 15: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) A forgotten but especially important facet of the American Civil War. I have cross-posted this book to some other Civil War topics.

Slaves, Sailors, Citizens: African American in the Union Navy

Slaves, Sailors, Citizens African Americans in the Union Navy by Steven J. Ramold by Steven J. Ramold (no photo)

Synopsis:

As many as one in six Union navy sailors was African American, many of them former slaves. This richly detailed history shows that the free blacks and "contraband" slaves who joined the U.S. Navy during the Civil War were essential to Northern victories at sea. Through their role in preserving the Union, they helped to win recognition for African Americans as full citizens.

African Americans joined the U.S. Navy from the first days of the war and soon demonstrated to a skeptical Northern population that they would fight for their freedom. Faced with the hazards of battle, African American sailors performed with great heroism, and several earned the nation's highest military tribute, the Medal of Honor. Their service in the navy paved the way for their wider employment in the U.S. Army.

Despite the lack of official records on the subject, Ramold has combed through mountains of memoirs, court documents, pension reports, and other sources to discover the true magnitude of African Americans' contribution to the naval effort. The book presents a vivid description of the lives of these sailors from enlistment to discharge, telling the story as much as possible in the words of the sailors themselves. A dozen rare photographs illustrate the range of African American service.

Ramold demonstrates that the navy, from necessity and from tradition, treated African Americans in its ranks far more equitably than did the army or any other public institution in antebellum America. Decades later, black sailors would be consigned to work in the mess hall, but in the Civil War era they fought side by side with white sailors, were treated equally in courts-martial, and received the same pay and benefits. Slaves, Sailors, Citizens allows us to rediscover these largely forgotten heroes, whose story can now take its rightful place in the history of the war and in the struggle of slaves and free blacks to become citizens.


message 16: by Jill (last edited Nov 07, 2016 06:03PM) (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) The Civil War in the American West

The Civil War in the American West by Alvin M. Josephy Jr. by Alvin M. Josephy Jr. (no photo)

Synopsis:

This riveting work of scholarship by the acclaimed author of The Patriot Chiefs recounts the often tragic history of the part of the War Between the States that was waged on the largely unsettled Western frontier.

The Patriot Chiefs A Chronicle of American Indian Resistance by Alvin M. Josephy Jr. by Alvin M. Josephy Jr. (no photo)


message 17: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
"Friends in Peace and War": The Russian Navy's Landmark Visit to Civil War

Friends in Peace and War The Russian Navy's Landmark Visit to Civil War San Francisco by C. Douglas Kroll by C. Douglas Kroll (no photo)

Synopsis:

Great friendship existed between the United States and Imperial Russia during the nineteenth century. The Old World Russian autocracy supported the young New World democracy because of the emerging U.S. role as a bulwark against Great Britain’s ambitions, in Asia and in the North Pacific Ocean region especially. In fact, when the American Civil War threatened to divide the United States, Russia alone among the European great powers gave no aid or comfort to the seceding states.

The surprise 1863 arrival of squadrons of Russian warships and thousands of Russian sailors in New York and San Francisco proved fortuitous, coming when the Union feared British and French intervention on the Confederacy’s behalf. C. Douglas Kroll, using both Russian and U.S. documents, investigates why the Russian Pacific Squadron came to San Francisco, a port of departure for California and Nevada gold headed east; what happened during its nearly year-long visit; and how its presence influenced events. With the units of the U.S. Navy’s small Pacific Squadron widely dispersed and Confederate commerce raiders on the loose, the Russians’ arrival suggested to on-lookers that they intended to defend the Union against interference.

Whether actively supporting the Union or training and refitting or both, the Russian officers and sailors endeared themselves to San Francisco’s citizens. Parades and balls, as well as dinners hosted by both sides, helped San Franciscans overlook the various differences they had with their Russian visitors. Kroll gives us a thorough examination of the Russians’ visit and its social, diplomatic, and military impact.


message 18: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44207 comments Mod
California and the Civil War (Civil War Series

California and the Civil War (Civil War Series) by Richard Hurley by Richard Hurley (no photo)

Synopsis:

In the long and bitter prelude to war, southern transplants dominated California government, keeping the state aligned with Dixie.

However, a murderous duel in 1859 killed “Free Soil” U.S. Senator David C. Broderick, and public opinion began to change. As war broke out back east, a golden-tongued preacher named Reverend Thomas Starr King crisscrossed the state endeavoring to save the Golden State for the Union.

Seventeen thousand California volunteers thwarted secessionist schemes and waged brutal campaigns against native tribesmen resisting white encroachment as far away as Idaho and New Mexico.

And a determined battalion of California cavalry journeyed to Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley to battle John Singleton Mosby, the South’s deadliest partisan ranger.

Author Richard Hurley delves into homefront activities during the nation’s bloodiest war and chronicles the adventures of the brave men who fought far from home.


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