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AMERICAN CIVIL WAR > TRANS-MISSISSIPPI THEATER OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44126 comments Mod
This thread is dedicated to the discussion of the TRANS-MISSISSIPPI THEATER of the American Civil War.

The Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War was the major military and naval operations west of the Mississippi River.

The area excluded the states and territories bordering the Pacific Ocean, which formed the Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War.

Though geographically isolated from the battles to the east, several small-scale military actions took place in the Trans-Mississippi Theater.

The campaign classification established by the United States National Park Service[1:] is more fine-grained than the one used in this article. Some minor NPS campaigns have been omitted and some have been combined into larger categories. Only a few of the 75 battles the NPS classifies for this theater are described. Boxed text in the right margin show the NPS campaigns associated with each section.

The Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department was formed May 26, 1862, to include Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), and Louisiana west of the Mississippi River.

It absorbed the Trans-Mississippi District (Department Number Two), which had been organized January 10, 1862, to include that part of Louisiana north of the Red River, the Indian Territory, and the states of Missouri and Arkansas, except for the country east of St. Francis County, Arkansas, to Scott County, Missouri. The combined department had its headquarters at Shreveport, Louisiana, and Marshall, Texas.

THE COMMANDERS:

Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn (January 10, 1862 – May 23, 1862, District part of Department Number Two)

Brig. Gen. Paul O. Hébert (May 26, 1862 – June 20, 1862)

Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder (assigned June 20, 1862, but did not accept)

Maj. Gen. Thomas C. Hindman (June 20, 1862 – July 16, 1862)

Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes (July 30, 1862 – February 9, 1863)

Lt. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith (March 7, 1863 – April 19, 1865)

Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner (April 19, 1865 – April 22, 1865)

General Edmund Kirby Smith (April 22, 1865 – May 26, 1865)


Source: Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans-Mi...


message 2: by Doug (last edited May 03, 2011 05:04PM) (new)

Doug DePew (dougdepew) | 33 comments This is one of my favorite historical subjects! I can't believe we haven't had more posts in this folder. I find the Trans-Mississippi imminently more interesting that the eastern war.

I recently read a group of books to expand my knowledge of the Missouri war. Missouri was the third most fought over state in the country after Virginia and Tennessee. Many people do not realize that. I had a friend from Tennessee who said to me once,"The Civil War spread up into Missouri?"

Well, here is one I read recently with a review:
M. Jeff Thompson Missouri's Swamp Fox of the Confederacy by Doris Land Mueller by Doris Land Mueller

"M. Jeff Thompson: MIssouri's Swamp Fox of the Confederacy" is a very rare glimpse into the life of a Missouri Confederate officer in the Civil War. He operated in southeast Missouri which is often ignored in discussions of the western theater of the war or the war in Missouri. It was a particularly brutal brand of warfare in that part of the country. The book follows his life from beginning to end and even includes some of his poetry.

It is a fairly quick read and is well written although sometimes a bit academic. It details his exploits throughout the war all the way to his post-war exploits. It's a very well researched and documented account of one of the more intriguing member of the Trans-Mississippi Brigade. I recommend it to anyone who's interested in the war in Missouri. Missouri was the third most fought over state in the war, and many people don't even realize it was involved. This book gives you a glimpse of it.

I'll add more later as I get a chance. I love discussing the Missouri war. The house where I grew up in Cuba, Missouri was on a battlefield. Three soldiers were buried up the street on what used to be the property of our house. Others hid in the basement of our house after the train was stopped a few blocks away. I found a grapeshot in our garden one year!


message 3: by Doug (new)

Doug DePew (dougdepew) | 33 comments Here's another one I read recently.
General Jo Shelby's March by Anthony Arthur by Anthony Arthur

I'm about to review it on here. I found the parts about Shelby's life after the war particularly fascinating. I didn't know much about the Confederates who went to Mexico.


message 4: by 'Aussie Rick' (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) Hi Doug, sounds like an interesting book, thanks for the post.


General Jo Shelby's March by Anthony Arthur by Anthony Arthur


message 5: by Bryan (new)

Bryan Craig Civil War Arkansas 1863

Civil War Arkansas, 1863 The Battle for a State by Mark K. Christ by Mark K. Christ (no photo)

Synopsis:

The Arkansas River Valley is one of the most fertile regions in the South. During the Civil War, the river also served as a vital artery for moving troops and supplies. In 1863 the battle to wrest control of the valley was, in effect, a battle for the state itself. In spite of its importance, however, this campaign is often overshadowed by the siege of Vicksburg. Now Mark K. Christ offers the first detailed military assessment of parallel events in Arkansas, describing their consequences for both Union and Confederate powers.

Christ analyzes the campaign from military and political perspectives to show how events in 1863 affected the war on a larger scale. His lively narrative incorporates eyewitness accounts to tell how new Union strategy in the Trans-Mississippi theater enabled the capture of Little Rock, taking the state out of Confederate control for the rest of the war. He draws on rarely used primary sources to describe key engagements at the tactical level—particularly the battles at Arkansas Post, Helena, and Pine Bluff, which cumulatively marked a major turning point in the Trans-Mississippi.

In addition to soldiers’ letters and diaries, Christ weaves civilian voices into the story—especially those of women who had to deal with their altered fortunes—and so fleshes out the human dimensions of the struggle. Extensively researched and compellingly told, Christ’s account demonstrates the war’s impact on Arkansas and fills a void in Civil War studies.


message 6: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (new)

Jerome | 4236 comments Mod
An upcoming book:
Release date: February 15, 2015

Blood on the Bayou: Vicksburg,Port Hudson,and the Trans-Mississippi

Blood on the Bayou Vicksburg,Port Hudson,and the Trans-Mississippi by Donald S. Frazier by Donald S. Frazier (no photo)

Synopsis:

Blood on the Bayou: Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and the Trans-Mississippi takes a well-known story, the struggle for control of the Mississippi River in the American Civil War, and recasts it as a contest for control of African-American populations. The Emancipation Proclamation may have freed the slaves, but the task of actually moving these liberated people into the Union lines and directing their labor to the benefit of the Union fell to the Federal army and navy. Control of the Mississippi has often been cast in economic terms. This book, by examining the campaigns from west of the river, shows how the campaign to reduce these Rebel forts also involved the creation of a black army of occupation and a remaking of the social and political landscape of Louisiana and the nation.

This book is new scholarship and, most importantly, fresh research that challenges many commonly held notions of the Vicksburg and Port Hudson campaigns. In the past, the movement of large armies and the grand assaults garnered the most attention. As Blood on the Bayou reveals, small unit actions and big government policies in the Trans-Mississippi did as much to shape the outcome of the war as did the great armies and famous captains of legend and lore. No student of the Civil War should ignore this book. Scholars of Vicksburg and Port Hudson will find their studies incomplete without a thorough examination of this work.


message 7: by Teri (new)

Teri (teriboop) There is a great website dedicated to the Trans-Mississippi Theater:

Trans-Mississippi Theater | Virtual Museum
(website)


The Trans-Mississippi Theater Virtual Museum

The Civil War was America’s bloodiest conflict and remains central to understanding our nation’s cultural identity. Participants in the Civil War divided the conflict into three geographic regions or theaters of war. The Eastern Theater embraced the area from the Atlantic coast to the Appalachian Mountains, and was the scene of such famous battles as Antietam and Gettysburg. The Western Theater stretched from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River. Shiloh, Perryville, Stones River, and other important battles were fought there. While everything from the Mississippi River west to the Pacific Ocean was labeled the Trans-Mississippi Theater, almost all significant events occurred in Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, the Indian Territory (modern Oklahoma), Louisiana, and Texas. This was the scene of the battles of Wilson’s Creek, Pea Ridge, Prairie Grove, Westport, Cabin Creek, and many others.

Both during and since the war, attention has most often focused on events east of the Mississippi, the most populous area of the country. This is ironic, for in many ways the Civil War originated on the Kansas-Missouri border, where during the 1850s conflict over slavery spawned “Bleeding Kansas.” The final battle of the war was fought May 12-13, 1865, at Palmito Ranch, Texas. Moreover, the last high-ranking Confederate officer to surrender was General Stand Watie, a Cherokee chief who lay down his arms on June 23, 1865, two and a half months after Robert E. Lee’s capitulation at Appomattox Court House. The issue of emancipation arose first in Missouri, when on August 30, 1861, General John C. Fremont issued a proclamation freeing slaves (Abraham Lincoln rescinded it). The Union’s “Brown Water Navy,” the fleet that opened the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy, was born in St. Louis, with the construction of the nation’s first ironclads. At least 200,000 soldiers, North and South, spent all or part of the war in the Trans-Mississippi. Their actions impacted the lives of over 2 million civilians, in part in relation to a guerrilla war of unparalleled ferocity. The physical destruction in the Trans-Mississippi was widespread, recovery was prolonged, and animosities lingered, giving birth to outlaw violence.

More:
War on the Frontier The Trans-Mississippi West by Alvin M. Josephy Jr. by Alvin M. Josephy Jr. (no photo)


message 8: by Teri (new)

Teri (teriboop) This has been a great reference for me in my genealogy research.

Wilson's Creek: The Second Battle of the Civil War and the Men Who Fought It

Wilson's Creek The Second Battle of the Civil War and the Men Who Fought It by William Garrett Piston by William Garrett Piston (no photo)

Synopsis:

In the summer of 1861, Americans were preoccupied by the question of which states would join the secession movement and which would remain loyal to the Union. This question was most fractious in the border states of Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. In Missouri, it was largely settled at Wilson's Creek on August 10, 1861, in a contest that is rightly considered the second major battle of the Civil War.

In providing the first in-depth narrative and analysis of this important but largely overlooked battle, William Piston and Richard Hatcher combine a traditional military study of the fighting at Wilson's Creek with an innovative social analysis of the soldiers who participated and the communities that supported them. In particular, they highlight the importance of the soldiers' sense of corporate honor--the desire to uphold the reputation of their hometowns--as a powerful motivator for enlistment, a source of sustenance during the campaign, and a lens through which soldiers evaluated their performance in battle. In the summer of 1861, Americans were preoccupied by the question of which states would join the secession movement and which would remain loyal to the Union. This question was most fractious in the border states of Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. In Missouri, it was largely settled at Wilson's Creek on August 10, 1861, in a contest that is rightly considered the second major battle of the Civil War. In an in-depth narrative and analysis of this important but largely overlooked battle, William Piston and Richard Hatcher combine a traditional military study of the fighting with an innovative social analysis of the soldiers who participated and the communities that supported them.


message 9: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) Battle of Carthage, Missouri: First Trans-Mississipps Conflict of the Civil War

Battle of Carthage, Missouri First Trans-Mississippi Conflict of the Civil War by Kenneth E Burchett by Kenneth E Burchett (no photo)

Synopsis:

The Battle of Carthage, Missouri, was the first full-scale land battle of the Civil War. Governor Claiborne Jackson's rebel Missouri State Guard made its way toward southwest Missouri near where Confederate volunteers collected in Arkansas, while Colonel Franz Sigel's Union force occupied Springfield with orders to intercept and block the rebels from reaching the Confederates. The two armies collided near Carthage on July 5, 1861. The battle lasted for ten hours, spread over several miles, and included six separate engagements before the Union army withdrew under the cover of darkness. The New York Times called it the first serious conflict between the United States troops and the rebels. This book describes the events leading up to the battle, the battle itself, and the aftermath.


message 10: by Teri (new)

Teri (teriboop) Autobiography of Samuel S. Hildebrand: The Renowned Missouri Bushwhacker

Autobiography of Samuel S. Hildebrand The Renowned Missouri Bushwhacker by Samuel S. Hildebrand by Samuel S. Hildebrand (no photo)

Synopsis:

Most Civil War historians now agree that the guerrilla conflict shaped the entire war in significant ways. Some of these “bushwhackers”—Nathan Bedford Forrest, William Clarke Quantrill, John Singleton Mosby—have become quite infamous.

Illiterate Sam Hildebrand, one of Missouri’s most notorious guerrillas—often compared to “Rob Roy,” and the subject of dime novels—was one of the few to survive the war and have his story taken down and published. Shortly after this he was killed in a barroom brawl. “I make no apology to mankind for my acts of retaliation; I make no whining appeal to the world for sympathy. I sought revenge and I found it; the key of hell was not suffered to rust in the lock while I was on the war path.” —Sam Hildebrand

Hildebrand’s reign of terror gave the Union army fits and kept much of the Trans-Mississippi, especially Missouri, roiling in the 1860s. Over seven years of fighting he and his men killed dozens of soldiers and civilians, whites and blacks; he claimed to have killed nearly one hundred himself. He was accused of many heinous acts. The historical significance of Hildebrand’s story is substantial, but his bloody tale is eminently readable and stands quite well on its own as a cold-blooded portrait of a violent time in American history.

Like the nightmarish and depraved world of the Kid in Cormac McCarthy’s novel Blood Meridian, Hildebrand’s world is truly ruthless and his story is brutally descriptive in its coolly detached rendering of one man’s personal war. Published in 1870, Hildebrand’s autobiography has long been out of print and has been a rare and highly prized acquisition among Civil War.


message 11: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) A major battle in the Trans-Mississippi theater.

The Battleof Pea Rige: Union Victory in the West

The Battle of Pea Ridge Union Victory in the West by Theodore P. Savas by Theodore P. Savas (no photo0

Synopsis:

The Battle of Pea Ridge was one of the largest and bloodiest of the Trans-Mississippi Theater. It was both a decisive Union victory, and a turning point of the war west of the Mississippi River. Contents include an overview of the battle, articles on Generals Earl Van Dorn and Samuel Curtis, unit histories of the Missiouri State Guard and Iowa regiments, an interview with Pea Ridge historian Doug Keller, and much more


message 12: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) Something a little different as we seldom hear much about the quartermasters during the war.

The Confederate Quartermaster in the Trans-Mississippi

The Confederate Quartermaster in the Trans-Mississippi by James L. Nichols by James L. Nichols (no photo)

Synopsis:

The quartermaster's duties were burdensome, particularly for the Confederate officer, whose difficulties with supply were acute. But the records show that somehow these officers managed to round up the minimum essentials for their troops. In both the South and the North the quartermaster, who conceived of his duties on a grander scale than official orders ever envisioned, accepted almost Olympian responsibility. Based on abundant research in original sources, this book traces the evolution of a system of centralized quartermaster bureaus in the Trans-Mississippi Department. James L. Nichols explores and contrasts quartermaster efforts in relationship to the War's efforts and outcome.


message 13: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (bucs1960) Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi

Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi Volume 1 Essays on America's Civil War by Lawrence Lee Hewitt by Lawrence Lee Hewitt (no photo)

Synopsis:

In contrast to Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, the armies and events of the Civil War’s Trans-Mississippi Theater have received scant historical attention, to the detriment of our understanding not only of individuals and events west of the Mississippi River, but also to the east of it. In Confederate Generals in the Trans-Mississippi, noted Civil War historians offer fresh scholarship on eight generals who made names for themselves in the region, providing intriguing insight into important wartime issues in the Trans-Mississippi and beyond.

Contrary to popular belief, the Trans-Mississippi did not serve as a dumping ground for generals who had failed in Virginia. Instead, the majority of generals who served in the region were homegrown and faced challenges unknown to their counterparts in the East—expansive territory, few men, and limited transportation for the meager supplies available. Superior Union numbers in the West, however, did not guarantee Union victory. As these essays show, southern generals often beat themselves because of personal failings or an inability to work together. Sterling Price and Ben McCulloch refused to cooperate, Henry Sibley combined alcoholism with cowardice, and the able French-born Prince de Polignac faced language barriers. The war ended before Joseph Brent, a visionary regarding tank warfare, could make his name as a brigadier, and “Prince John” Magruder’s achievements in Texas remain overshadowed by his earlier career in Virginia. The Cajun Alfred Mouton, a superior leader, died on a battlefield in his native Louisiana, while Mosby Parsons survived the war only to be murdered by Mexican cavalry. While some of these generals breathed life into the Confederacy, others hastened its downfall.

By chronicling the lives and careers of these eight generals, this welcome volume integrates the Trans-Mississippi more fully with the Western Theater and illuminates critical issues vital to understanding the South’s ultimate defeat.


message 14: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (last edited Oct 25, 2016 08:23PM) (new)

Jerome | 4236 comments Mod
An upcoming book:
Release date: April 17, 2017

Theater of a Separate War: The Civil War West of the Mississippi River, 1861-1865

Theater of a Separate War The Civil War West of the Mississippi River, 1861-1865 by Thomas W. Cutrer by Thomas W. Cutrer (no photo)

Synopsis:

Though its most famous battles were waged in the East at Antietam, Gettysburg, and throughout Virginia, the Civil War was clearly a conflict that raged across a continent. From cotton-rich Texas and the fields of Kansas through Indian Territory and into the high desert of New Mexico, the trans-Mississippi theater was site of major clashes from the war's earliest days through the surrenders of Confederate generals Edmund Kirby Smith and Stand Waite in June 1865. In this comprehensive military history of the war west of the Mississippi River, Thomas W. Cutrer shows that the theater's distance from events in the East does not diminish its importance to the unfolding of the larger struggle.

Theater of a Separate War details the battles between North and South in these far-flung regions, assessing the complex political and military strategies on both sides. While providing the definitive history of the rise and fall of the South's armies in the far West, Cutrer shows, even if the region's influence on the Confederacy's cause waned, its role persisted well beyond the fall of Richmond and Lee's surrender to Grant. In this masterful study, Cutrer offers a fresh perspective on an often overlooked aspect of Civil War history.


message 15: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44126 comments Mod
Thanks Jerome


message 16: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44126 comments Mod
The Civil War in the Trans-Mississippi Theater 1861-1865 (The U.S. Army Campaigns of the Civil War)

(no image) U.S. Army Campaigns of the Civil War: The Civil War in the Trans-Mississippi Theater, 1861-1865 by Jeffery S. Prushankin (no photo)

Synopsis:

In The Atlanta and Savannah Campaigns, 1864, author J. Britt McCarley covers the military operations in northern Georgia involving the Union army group led by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman and the Confederate Army of Tennessee commanded by Generals Joseph E. Johnston and John Bell Hood. The Atlanta Campaign consisted of numerous engagements, including the Battles of Resaca, Kennesaw Mountain, Peachtree Creek, Atlanta, Ezra Church, and Jonesboro. The campaign ended with Sherman's capture of Atlanta, Georgia, the Confederacy's largest transportation and manufacturing center in the Deep South. McCarley's superb account concludes with an examination of the Savannah Campaign, more popularly known as Sherman's March to the Sea.

High school students and above, including history teachers and professors may be interested in this series as supplemental reading or reseach about the American Civil War. Additionally, military personnel, military science students, and American citizens, especially those living in Georgia or have continued curiosity about the United States Civil War may wish to have this resource for their personnel collection.

All libraries -high school, academic, public, and Federal/State/ Municipal libraries may find this resource complimentary to their historical reference collections about the U.S. Civil War.


message 17: by Jerome, Assisting Moderator - Upcoming Books and Releases (new)

Jerome | 4236 comments Mod
An upcoming book:
Release date: December 5, 2018

A Burned Land: The Trans-Mississippi in the Civil War

A Burned Land The Trans-Mississippi in the Civil War by Robert R. Laven by Robert R. Laven

Description:

Often neglected by historians, actions in Missouri and Kansas had an important influence on the course of the Civil War, with profound and lasting effects for the communities and people in the region. This book focuses on the experiences of the soldiers, officers and civilians on both sides. Outside of Virginia and Tennessee, Missouri was perhaps the most hotly contested territory during the war. The author brings to life the circumstances and events in the region that contributed to the outbreak of internecine strife in the Western Theater. The fighting in Missouri culminated with an expedition that re-wrote the books on tactics and the use of mounted infantry.


message 18: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44126 comments Mod
Thank you Jerome


message 19: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44126 comments Mod
Thank you Jerome


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