THE WORLD WAR TWO GROUP discussion

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ARCHIVED READS > 2015 - June - Theme Read - Merchant Navies & Submarine Warfare

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message 1: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments June theme read on any book or books covering Merchant navies and/or submarine warfare during WW2.

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message 2: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments For those itching to get started on their theme book for June I've opened the thread early for you - enjoy your book and tell us what you are reading :)


message 3: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments I've started reading my theme book a bit early as I was stuck on a bus for 3 & 1/2hrs and finished my other book early. Anyhow the author mentioned this incident during convoy HX 201:

"There was a light fog off the coast of Nova Scotia, and the commodore, a British vice admiral with the singular name Wion de Malpas Egerton, ordered that the ships in the group trail railroad ties on cables behind them, in order to better hold position within the group. These ties sent up a phosphorescent spray of water as they skimmed over the ocean, which helped illuminate the path of the leading ship even in fog and nighttime travel."

I've never heard that before, has anyone else read about this method of keeping station?

Twelve Desperate Miles The Epic World War II Voyage of the SS Contessa by Tim Brady by Tim Brady


message 4: by Feliks (last edited May 30, 2015 11:43PM) (new)

Feliks (dzerzhinsky) My favorite of this theater is 'Dark Sea Running'


message 5: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments What's the book about Feliks?


message 6: by Feliks (last edited May 31, 2015 12:10AM) (new)

Feliks (dzerzhinsky) Its an obscure, hard-to-track-down novel I read as a lad. I can as yet turn up nothing about the author other than that he seems to have served in the US sub fleet during the appropriate timeperiod. The narrative is written from the perspective of a mate on a sub describing a captain who goes over the line in his pursuit of the enemy. It has always stood out in my memory for the chilling descriptions (and ethical questions) of men-at-sea fighting in that particularly complex and frustrating theater of WWII. I believe the novel was briefly renowned at the time of its release (50s? 60s?) for its gripping sea battle writing, but then disappeared swiftly from public recollection, and thereupon from virtually all but my own memory.


message 7: by Patrick (new)

Patrick Clark | 12 comments I am looking forward to reading Twelve Desperate miles. I see the map shows details of Port Lyautey (where my sister was born) and the adjacent cork forest (were I went to a military dependents school). Also interested in reading more about Colonel William Eddy whom I used as a character in my first novel. Eddy was a highly decorated WWI Marine vet and eventually became the Ambassador to Saudi Arabia.


message 8: by Manray9 (new)

Manray9 | 4376 comments 'Aussie Rick' wrote: "I've started reading my theme book a bit early as I was stuck on a bus for 3 & 1/2hrs and finished my other book early. Anyhow the author mentioned this incident during convoy HX 201:

"There was a..."


That's new to me, but creative.


message 9: by Geevee, Assisting Moderator British & Commonwealth Forces (last edited Jun 01, 2015 01:38PM) (new)

Geevee | 3796 comments My book Survivors British Merchant Seamen in the Second World War by G.H. Bennett by G.H. Bennett has started well. The first chapter describes the initial actions and mentions of course the sinking of the Athenia. What it also mentions is for the first month-six weeks of the war how the Germans tried to adhere to the terms and restrictions described in various treaties post WWI. Some examples given, sourced by British masters/captains and crew include being given bread, beer, changes of clothes and being taken aboard for a number of hours. German U-boat captains signalled merchantmen, RN or neutrals to the positions to rescue crews - who had in the main, at this early stage, abandoned ships before torpedoes/gunfire fully sank them.

One is of the well known U-boat captain Gunther Prien. A survivor recalled "The submarine turned round and picked the men out of the water; there was one dead man. When we got into our boat we went towards the submarine to pick up these other men; they all went into our boat. We saw them on top of this man and we thought they were hitting him, but they were trying to give him artificial respiration. He had a lifebelt on, but was only in his singlet (vest) because he'd run out of th stokehold. I think the water killed him...the German captain was a smahing feller (sic)".

However, this conduct did not last. British naval and air responses made it dangerous for U-boats to hang around collecting survivors - or indeed stopping ships and having crews abandon before hostile action - as they were highly likely to be attacked. Also the German high command started to change its guidance, and then orders, in part based on British response but also the need to be more destructive and protect their finite resources.

One account of th


message 10: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments Sounds like your book will may very interesting reading Geevee, keep us posted on details of interest.


message 11: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (last edited Jun 01, 2015 05:50PM) (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments I am amazed at how much oil these merchant ships, or any ship in fact, used during wartime:

"The Contessa carried four boilers pumping steam to four quadruple-expansion engines. These could produce 5,600 horsepower at her top speed of sixteen knots. Sailing at that rate for a full day, the Contessa swallowed almost three hundred barrels of oil."

You have to wonder how much oil we used up during WW2 eh!

Twelve Desperate Miles The Epic World War II Voyage of the SS Contessa by Tim Brady by Tim Brady


message 12: by Feliks (new)

Feliks (dzerzhinsky) Even more when you zig-zag...


message 13: by Robert (new)

Robert Walker | 52 comments In '94 I took my once-in-a-lifetime trip to Europe to pay homage to the D-day veterans. While in London I came upon a memorial garden to the British merchant seamen who went down with their ships. It was very impressive, of course everything I saw and did on the trip was very impressive.


message 14: by Manray9 (new)

Manray9 | 4376 comments On the subject of this month's "Buddy Read," group members in the U.S. have an opportunity tonight to see a good WW II submarine warfare movie -- The Enemy Below on TCM at 10:00 EDT. Made in 1957, The Enemy Below stars Robert Mitchum, Curt Jurgens, and Theodore Bikel. Mitchum plays the tough U.S. destroyer captain on a relentless drive to sink Jurgens' U-boat. The story is based on the novel of the same title by Denys Rayner, an officer of the Royal Navy during the Battle of the Atlantic, who went on to a career as a writer and yacht-builder. Rayner commanded a FLOWER-class corvette and two destroyers during WW II. HMS WARWICK (D25) was sunk out from under Rayner by U-413 in 1944. Another interesting note: The Enemy Below, was directed by Hollywood musical and noir detective star, Dick Powell.


message 15: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments Thanks for the heads up on the movie and the interesting background information Manray9, I'm sure a few dedicated film fans will be watching the movie!


message 16: by Manray9 (new)

Manray9 | 4376 comments 'Aussie Rick' wrote: "Thanks for the heads up on the movie and the interesting background information Manray9, I'm sure a few dedicated film fans will be watching the movie!"

I think there are few fans of old movies anymore.


message 17: by Feliks (last edited Jun 02, 2015 01:50PM) (new)

Feliks (dzerzhinsky) I sure am. Its been my #2 hobby for a long time. (#1 is reading). I grew up watching B&W flicks on late night TV. And I wouldn't reverse that choice for anything. These films form our national identity and are a legacy beyond evaluation. They are our collective memory.

Who ever is making worthwhile, adult movies these days (is there anyone left but maybe Scorcese?) sure had better know their film history as he does, if they want to be taken seriously.

Of course, you sure DON'T need to know your history if you just wanna make absolutely irrelevant, forgettable, 'Transformers' sequels.


message 18: by Manray9 (new)

Manray9 | 4376 comments Feliks wrote: "I sure am. Its been my #2 hobby for a long time. (#1 is reading). I grew up watching B&W flicks on late night TV. And I wouldn't reverse that choice for anything. These films form our national iden..."

There's a few of us still.


message 19: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments I'm not sure if I'd like this job on a merchant ship:


"Oilers walked around in fifteen-minute rounds with a can of oil in their hands to make sure shafts and pistons were well lubricated; fireman made sure the pressure was up but not too high. And every few minutes someone had to stick his hand into a space between the top of the engine and a pounding piston attached to a huge rotating cylinder as it hit the bottom of its cycle. That hand had to get back out before the engine cycled the piston back up, or it was, simply put, a mass of flesh and crushed bones. It was the only means available to test the temperature of the space to make sure it wasn't overheating. 'That wasn't no fun neither,' was the understatement of a sailor assigned the task on a Liberty ship's reciprocating engine."

Twelve Desperate Miles The Epic World War II Voyage of the SS Contessa by Tim Brady by Tim Brady


message 20: by Bev (new)

Bev Walkling | 410 comments I've picked my book for this months Buddy Read. It's In All Respects Ready The Merchant Navy and The Battle of the Atlantic, 1940-1945 by Frederick B. Watt by Frederick B. Watt

Watt is actually Commander Frederick B. Watt RCN (R) Retired and apparently much of what is in the book was directly related to his wartime experiences. The Introduction was by a Gerald A. Morgan M.N.I. To quote from his introduction: For many sailors, all illusion was lost in the hazard's brought by war to the cold North Atlantic. For many, it might have seemed better to kick down the "system" before their lives were uselessly lost. Let the shore folk, who never learn, find other fools to "do it again". But if a demoralized sailor realizes he is the hope of millions of people, if someone lets him know by tone or gesture that his work, his sacrifice, is known, then he cannot choose but to sail again. This is what happened in Halifax, where the convoys assembled. How it happened is Ted Watt's tale.
He writes of his work, with others, in the Naval Boarding Service, which ensured that each ship to join a convoy for the cruise among U-boats to the mines and bombs of Britain's home waters was "in all respects ready for sea". This meant it must be seaworthy in hull, engines, guns (if supplied), lifeboats and in the minds and hearts of its crew. Battleworthy, in short, and tallied as such by the Naval Boarding Service."

It looks like this will be an interesting read.


message 21: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments It does sound like it will be an interesting read and the perfect book for the theme read, keep us posted.


message 22: by Geevee, Assisting Moderator British & Commonwealth Forces (new)

Geevee | 3796 comments Robert wrote: "In '94 I took my once-in-a-lifetime trip to Europe to pay homage to the D-day veterans. While in London I came upon a memorial garden to the British merchant seamen who went down with their ships. ..."

That sounds like the Tower Hill memorial across the road from the Tower of London Robert. A fine listing of all the men lost in every merchant ship in a lovely setting.


message 23: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments An example of combat packing on a merchant ship during WW2 (Operation Torch) that nearly worked, but not quite:

"A new handheld rocket launcher that would eventually gain wide renown in World War II, the bazooka, was issued to troops jus two days prior to launching. Ammunition was supplied an packed with the weapon, but it was discovered only later that instructions on how to use the launcher had been crated separately."

Twelve Desperate Miles The Epic World War II Voyage of the SS Contessa by Tim Brady by Tim Brady


message 24: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments A funny account from my current book; Twelve Desperate Miles. This incident took place when Walter Cronkite managed to get ashore and visit Port Lyautey after the Torch landings. He was accompanying a US naval officer from the battleship Texas to access the accuracy of the ships big guns:

"As Cronkite and the Texas's officer approached the center of Port Lyautey, an army colonel, spying the Navy man, came speeding toward them in a jeep. It turned out that there was an unexploded shell from the Texas just blocks ahead of them. What, the colonel wanted to know, was the navy going to do about it?
"We've got an old rule in the Navy,' the lieutenant said in response. 'Once the shell leaves the muzzle of the gun, it doesn't belong to the Navy any longer'."


message 25: by Superangela (new)

Superangela | 14 comments Thanks for the info!!


message 26: by A.L. (new)

A.L. Sowards | 500 comments 'Aussie Rick' wrote: "We've got an old rule in the Navy,' the lieutenant said in response. 'Once the shell leaves the muzzle of the gun, it doesn't belong to the Navy any longer'."

Great story, Rick!


message 27: by A.L. (new)

A.L. Sowards | 500 comments Sometime this month I plan to read Grey Wolf, Grey Sea Grey Wolf, Grey Sea by E.B. Gasaway . I have a few other books to finish first, but I hope to get to this one in a week or two.


message 28: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments Looks like a good book there A.L., bound to be a pretty interesting read.


message 29: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments Apparently René Malevergne was the first Frenchman to be awarded the US Silver Star for his efforts during Operation Torch. He also became the first Frenchman to be awarded the US Navy Cross.

Here are some interested details on this man and the events that lead to these awards:

http://www.malevergne.free.fr/?p=Press


message 30: by Manray9 (new)

Manray9 | 4376 comments 'Aussie Rick' wrote: "Apparently René Malevergne was the first Frenchman to be awarded the US Silver Star for his efforts during Operation Torch. He also became the first Frenchman to be awarded the US Navy Cross.

Her..."


If he received the Navy Cross, he earned it.


message 31: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments Coming from a Navy man :)


message 32: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments How is everyone going with their theme books, do we still have a few in the group reading a theme book this month?


message 33: by Bev (new)

Bev Walkling | 410 comments I am really enjoying my book In All Respects Ready: The Merchant Navy and The Battle of the Atlantic, 1940-1945by Frederick B. Watt but I am also madly packing to get ready for my flight tomorrow. I'd love to type up some bits to share. Will try while on the road. This book deals very much with how the Navy dealt with the morale of the merchant marines - sometimes having to imprison some to get ships prepared to join convoys. The women in Halifax saved up reading material which was delivered to the sailors so they could read in off times. Many merchant marine boats normally were used in gentler climates than the North Atlantic and were poorly insulated totally aside from the fact that the men didn't have cold weather clothes. Each crisis was dealt with as quickly as possible. Fascinating!


message 34: by Geevee, Assisting Moderator British & Commonwealth Forces (new)

Geevee | 3796 comments Sounds like a good read Bev. Enjoy your trip too.

In my book there is a chapter on abandoning ship following enemy action. It also includes the perils and dangers of the time a ship takes to sink and chances to leave depending on where the ship was hit, what cargo she carried (iron ore very quick, wheat and cotton slower), the sea's condition, the lifeboats, ship's design, damage to ladders & gangways, in-ship comms (speaking tube, shouting, hand signals to telephones and tannoys), ship's drills, crew's familiarity, weapons used to engage the ship.

Much work and discussion was done on lifeboats and rafts. One lady who featured in persuading Government, shipping owners/companies and "experts" was Mis Bridget Talbot, a grand-daughter of the 18th Earl of Shrewsbury, who badgered MPs and government departments on all aspects of safety for merchant seamen. She had won the Italian Military Cross as a WWI nurse and sailed as a crew member on the Finnish ship the Pamir through a 90 mph gale. She wrote a persuasive letter to the Times and visited the Misistry of Shipping in January 1940 to argue for compulsory liferafts.


message 35: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments Some interesting information there Bev and Geevee, thanks for sharing.


message 36: by Rory (last edited Jun 10, 2015 09:09PM) (new)

Rory (rorygallagher) | 127 comments Hi All,
Re-Reading The Hunters 1939-1942 (Volume 1): Hitler's U-Boat War: The Hunters, 1939-42 Vol 1
I read this many years ago, along with Silent Service. Great books. Anyway, issue I'd be curious for y'all to discuss is==pun alert== the impact of torpedoes. Both American and German torpedoes at outset of war had trouble with magnetic contacts, and ran deep. Surprising that both had same issue. Japanese torpedoes were state of the art and lightyears ahead of both US and Germans. Why do you think that was?
By the way, in Silent Service, Blair mentions that US torpedoes went into the war untested--because a single torpedo was too expensive some beancounter forbid their testing as wasteful. Ah, government bureaucracy at its best!


message 37: by Rory (new)

Rory (rorygallagher) | 127 comments By the way, if convoy system worked in WWI, why the heck did Britain take so long to implement it? Blair gives a few reasons but none to my mind really held water...besides he doesn't get too deep into what Admiralty was thinking. Any good books/memoirs from this viewpoint that you have read. I am guessing/hoping GeeVee, Manray, and Aussie Rick will jump in, but everyone else, please don't be shy--no sharks here, just in the water and the books we read!
Thanks!


message 38: by Manray9 (last edited Jun 10, 2015 09:45PM) (new)

Manray9 | 4376 comments Rory wrote: "Hi All,
Re-Reading The Hunters 1939-1942 (Volume 1): Hitler's U-Boat War: The Hunters, 1939-42 Vol 1
I read this many years ago, along with Silent Service. Great books. Anyway, issu..."


At the beginning of the war, Japanese naval tactical doctrine stressed surface torpedo attacks, night action, and aggressive employment of secondary warships (such as destroyers). The USN was overconfident, relied too heavily on big gun engagement theories, lacked reliable tactical communications, and failed at reconnaissance. Add to this situation the superiority of Japanese O2-fueled torpedoes versus compressed air or electric fish. O2 is much more efficient, supports a longer run, and produced much fewer bubbles. The Japanese torps had much larger warheads too and relied on contact exploders.


message 39: by Rory (new)

Rory (rorygallagher) | 127 comments So why didn't Germany and US use o2 fueled torpedos? More expensive? I've read before they may have been hazardous but that doesn't fully explain dismissal of them by everyone but Japan


message 40: by Manray9 (new)

Manray9 | 4376 comments Rory wrote: "So why didn't Germany and US use o2 fueled torpedos? More expensive? I've read before they may have been hazardous but that doesn't fully explain dismissal of them by everyone but Japan"

O2 torps were cutting edge technology. They required much more complicated and sophisticated maintenance, handling and support equipment and training. Even the Japanese had trouble with the presence of large tanks of compressed O2 aboard their warships -- serious accidents and explosions weren't unknown. I suspect the Kriegsmarine and USN didn't realize they had a torpedo problem until after the war started.


message 41: by Geevee, Assisting Moderator British & Commonwealth Forces (new)

Geevee | 3796 comments Gents, I have no real knowledge and have read little on torpedoes but found this text below which is interesting in the context of this debate. I can't vouch for the points it makes but it would sem well placed:

Britain held a technological lead in torpedo development for much of the period between the World Wars, but they were overtaken by the Japanese with their use of pure oxygen. However, the British remained ahead of all other nations. This success was mainly due to the adoption of the Brotherhood burner-cycle engine. The burner-cycle engine was in effect a semi-diesel. Typically, air pressurized to about 840 lbs./in2 (59 kg/cm2) was heated to about 1,800ºF (1,000ºC) by burning a small amount of atomized kerosene-type fuel. This hot air/gas mixture was then fed into the engine via poppet valves and more fuel was injected into each cylinder a little before TDC (Top Dead Center). The spontaneous ignition of this mixture powered the engine.
Oxyen-enrichment was employed for the large 24.5" (62.2 cm) Mark I torpedoes used on the Nelson class battleships and for the 21" (53.3 cm) Mark VII torpedoes used on cruisers, but they were not well regarded as the oxygen enrichment process was cumbersome and difficult to use. The performance of these torpedoes was far below the much more successful Japanese oxygen-fueled torpedoes which were, ironically, developed when a Japanese officer overheard a conversation about the use of oxygen. Cruiser torpedoes were converted to natural air in the early part of World War II.

Hydrogen peroxide for propulsion had been studied in 1923, but its innate instability and procurement problems meant that work was quickly abandoned. Following the end of World War II, German and USA work was investigated and a few 21" (53.3 cm) Mark 12 Ferry/Fancy were issued starting in 1954, but following the destruction of the submarine HMS Sidon and an explosive failure on the Arrochar test range, the project was cancelled in 1959.

The Royal Navy had no great interest in using electric motors for torpedoes prior to World War II as they had relatively poor performance and because there was no demand for tracklessness. During the war, experiments were conducted using captured German G7e torpedoes, but the war ended before British-produced versions were in service. Captured examples of German electric torpedoes were given to the USA, who used them in developing their own electric torpedoes. A program for an electric-powered 22.4" (56.9 cm) torpedo developed by the RAF was abandoned before entering production.

Torpedoes developed after World War II are either Hap-Otto fueled pump-jet powered (Spearfish) or else use high-capacity battery-powered electric motors.

Source: http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WTBR_...


message 42: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments Interesting information Geevee, thanks for posting the details.


message 43: by Manray9 (last edited Jun 11, 2015 02:12PM) (new)

Manray9 | 4376 comments Geevee wrote: "Gents, I have no real knowledge and have read little on torpedoes but found this text below which is interesting in the context of this debate. I can't vouch for the points it makes but it would s..."

Good info, Geevee. The UK has long had a good reputation for torpedoes. Modern torpedoes are a huge step ahead of the WW II fish with wire-guidance, active and passive sonar, and computer programming. The U.S. Mark 46 (surface, air and mine) and Mark 48 (sub) use specialized reciprocating engines powered by Otto II fuel. USN surface and air launched torps (Mk 46 and its mods) have a small warhead (100 lbs) compared to those of WW II, but they're designed for ASW use. A small warhead goes a long way against a sub.


message 44: by Eileen (new)

Eileen | 46 comments This book sounds interesting; I just joined this group and am planning to read it.


message 45: by Patrick (new)

Patrick Clark | 12 comments Twelve Desperate Miles: The Epic World War II Voyage of the SS Contessa

I started Twelve Desperate Miles and am enjoying it thoroughly. However, I wish I had read it before I wrote my first novel, The Sportpalast: Total War. The prologue of Twelve Desperate Miles centers on French mariner Rene Malvergne who helped the Navy land in Morocco during Operation Torch. I featured him in my book as a real character in a fictional setting, but Brady knows a lot more about him. Malvergne was a much richer character than I gave him credit for being. I recommend Brady's book for history buffs.


message 46: by Dane (new)

Dane Henshall | 11 comments How serindipitous! I am currently in the midst of a submarine reading binge.


The War Below The Story of Three Submarines That Battled Japan by James Scott
I just finished The War Below today, which follows three mostly successful American boats through the length of their submarine campaign against Japan. I would highly recommend this book, which weaves the historical accounts into a compelling and well written narrative. I have not yet written a review, but will shortly.

Turning the Tide How a Small Band of Allied Sailors Defeated the U-boats and Won the Battle of the Atlantic by Ed Offley .
I read this one last month, which in contrast to The War Below is a relatively dry read. I would recommend it if only you do not mind wading through the boring parts. See reviews for details.

Twelve Desperate Miles The Epic World War II Voyage of the SS Contessa by Tim Brady
In the spirit of the theme read, I am going to join the crowd and will also be reading Twelve Desperate Miles! Sounds like a fun read.


message 47: by Geevee, Assisting Moderator British & Commonwealth Forces (new)

Geevee | 3796 comments I have just finished my book in this theme read. It is not the first book on the war at sea nor merchantman I have read but it is acutely good at detailing the risks, equipment and survivability the British merchant navy experienced.

Survivors British Merchant Seamen in the Second World War by G.H. Bennett Survivors: British Merchant Seamen in the Second World War by G.H. Bennett

My review should people be interested:
https://www.goodreads.com/review/show...


message 48: by 'Aussie Rick', Moderator (last edited Jun 16, 2015 12:02AM) (new)

'Aussie Rick' (aussierick) | 17748 comments Great review Geevee!

Glad you are enjoying Twelve Desperate Miles Patrick and you are finding the information on René Malevergne interesting. I mentioned earlier that he was the first Frenchman to be awarded the US Silver Star for his efforts during Operation Torch. He also became the first Frenchman to be awarded the US Navy Cross.

Some excellent books there Dane, perfect for the theme read! I hope you also enjoy Twelve Desperate Miles, keep us posted.

Twelve Desperate Miles The Epic World War II Voyage of the SS Contessa by Tim Brady by Tim Brady


message 49: by Patrick (new)

Patrick Clark | 12 comments Rick, re Twelve Desperate Men, I credited him in the book with the Silver Star but did not know about the Navy Cross.

Thanks
Patrick Nolan Clark


message 50: by ^ (new)

^ | 44 comments It's taken a while; but I've at last located my Pan paperback copy (1954) of "Unbroken" (Alastair Mars); so will start reading after I've taken a cover photo & created an edition record on GR.


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