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SUPREME COURT OF THE U.S. > INTRODUCTION - ASSOCIATE JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES

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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Jan 18, 2015 05:22PM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
This is the introduction to the Supreme Court

"The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States. Its membership consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices.

The justices are nominated by the President of the United States and appointed after confirmation by the United States Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court have life tenure and receive a salary which is set at $255,500 per year for the chief justice and at $244,400 per year for each associate justice as of 2014.

On August 7, 2010, Justice Elena Kagan became the 112th justice to serve on the Court.

The Supreme Court was created in 1789 by Article III of the United States Constitution, which stipulates that the "judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court" together with any lower courts Congress may establish.[1] Congress organized the Court that year with the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789. It specified the Court's original and appellate jurisdiction, created thirteen judicial districts, and fixed the number of justices at six (one chief justice and five associate justices).

Since the passage of the Judiciary Act, Congress has occasionally altered the size of the Supreme Court, historically in response to the country's own expansion in size. Membership was decreased in 1801 to five, then increased to seven members in 1807, to nine in 1837, and to ten in 1863. It was then reduced to seven in 1866. In 1869, Congress set the Court's size to nine members, where it has remained since.[8] While the justices of the Supreme Court are appointed for life, some choose to retire: a total of 54 have retired or resigned. The average age of newly appointed justices is about 53 years old. Historically, the average length of service on the Court has been less than 15 years; however, since 1970 the average length of service has increased to about 26 years.


Source: Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_...


message 2: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Jan 25, 2015 04:48AM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
There have been 112 appointed Associate Justices aside from Edwin Stanton who died before taking office.

1. James Wilson appointed from Pennsylvania - Born/Died: 1742–1798 Active Service: 1789–1798 (9 years) Appointed by: George Washington Reason for Termination: Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

2. John Jay appointed from New York - Born/Died:1745–1829
John Jay became the first Chief Justice of the United States.
Active Service:1789–1795 (6 years) Chief Justice: 1789–1795
Appointed by: George Washington Reason for Termination: Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

3. William Cushing appointed from Massachusetts Born/Died:1732–1810 Active Service: 1789–1810 (21 years) Appointed by: George Washington Reason for Termination: Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

4. John Blair, Jr. appointed from Virginia Born/Died:1732–1800
Active Service: 1789–1795 (6 years) Appointed by: George Washington Reason for Termination: Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

5. John Rutledge appointed from South Carolina Born/Died:1739–1800
John Rutledge became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1795–1795 (0 years) — — Washington Rejection
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

5. John Rutledge appointed from South Carolina Born/Died:1739–1800
John Rutledge became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1789–1791 (2 years) — — Washington Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

6. James Iredell appointed from North Carolina Born/Died: 1751–1799 1790–1799 (9 years) — — Washington Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

7. Thomas Johnson* appointed from Maryland Born/Died: 1732–1819 1792–1793 (1 years) — — Washington Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

8. William Paterson appointed from New Jersey Born/Died: 1745–1806 1793–1806 (13 years) Washington Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

9. Samuel Chase appointed from Maryland Born/Died:1741–1811
1796–1811 (15 years) — — Washington Death
Link to the History Book Club Site:

10. Oliver Ellsworth appointed from Connecticut Born/Died:1745–1807
Oliver Ellsworth became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1796–1800 (4 years) 1796–1800 — Washington Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site:

11. Bushrod Washington appointed from Virginia Born/Died:1762–1829 1798–1829 (31 years) — — Adams, J. Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

12. Alfred Moore appointed from North Carolina Born/Died:1755–1810 1800–1804 (4 years) — — Adams, J. Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

13. John Marshall† appointed from Virginia Born/Died:1755–1835
John Marshall became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1801–1835 (34 years) 1801–1835 — Adams, J. Death
Link to the History Book Club Site:

14. William Johnson appointed from South Carolina Born/Died:1771–1834 1804–1834 (30 years) — — Jefferson Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

15. Henry Brockholst Livingston appointed from New York Born/Died:
1757–1823 1807–1823 (16 years) — — Jefferson Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

16. Thomas Todd appointed from Kentucky Born/Died:1765–1826 1807–1826 (19 years) — — Jefferson Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

17. Gabriel Duvall appointed from Maryland Born/Died: 1752–1844 1811–1835 (24 years) — — Madison Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

18. Joseph Story appointed from Massachusetts Born/Died: 1779–1845 1812–1845 (33 years) — — Madison Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

19. Smith Thompson* appointed from New York Born/Died: 1768–1843 1823–1843 (20 years) — — Monroe Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

20. Robert Trimble appointed from Kentucky Born/Died: 1776–1828 1826–1828 (2 years) — — Adams, J. Q. Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA


message 3: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Jan 25, 2015 04:55AM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Continued:

21. John McLean appointed from Ohio
1785–1861 1830–1861
(31 years) — — Jackson Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

22. Henry Baldwin appointed from Pennsylvania
1780–1844 1830–1844
(14 years) — — Jackson Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBS

23. James Moore Wayne appointed from Georgia
1790–1867 1835–1867
(32 years) — — Jackson Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

24. Roger B. Taney† appointed from Maryland
Roger B. Taney became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1777–1864 1836–1864
(28 years) 1836–1864 — Jackson Death
Link to the History Book Club Site:

25. <Philip Pendleton Barbou appointed from Virginia
1783–1841 1836–1841
(5 years) — — Jackson Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

26. John Catron appointed from Tennessee
1786–1865 1837–1865
(28 years) — — Jackson Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

27. John McKinley appointed from Alabama
1780–1852 1837–1852
(15 years) — — Van Buren Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

28. Peter Vivian Daniel appointed from Virginia
1784–1860 1842–1860
(18 years) — — Van Buren Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

29. Samuel Nelson appointed from New York
1792–1873 1845–1872
(27 years) — — Tyler Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

30. Levi Woodbury* appointed from New Hampshire
1789–1851 1845–1851
(6 years) — — Polk Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

31. Robert Cooper Grier appointed from Pennsylvania
1794–1870 1846–1870
(24 years) — — Polk Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

32. Benjamin Robbins Curtis* appointed from Massachusetts
1809–1874 1851–1857
(6 years) — — Fillmore Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

33. John Archibald Campbell appointed from Alabama
1811–1889 1853–1861
(8 years) — — Pierce Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

34. Nathan Clifford appointed from Maine
1803–1881 1858–1881
(23 years) — — Buchanan Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

35. Noah Haynes Swayne appointed from Ohio
1804–1884 1862–1881
(19 years) — — Lincoln Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

36. Samuel Freeman Miller appointed from Iowa
1816–1890 1862–1890
(28 years) — — Lincoln Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

37. David Davis* appointed from Illinois
1815–1886 1862–1877
(15 years) — — Lincoln Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

38. Stephen Johnson Field appointed from California
1816–1899 1863–1897
(34 years) — — Lincoln Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

39. Salmon P. Chase† appointed from Ohio
Salmon P. Chase became a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
1808–1873 1864–1873
(9 years) 1864–1873 — Lincoln Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

40. William Strong appointed from Pennsylvania
1808–1895 1870–1880
(10 years) — — Grant Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA


message 4: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Jan 25, 2015 04:59AM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Continued:

41. Joseph P. Bradley appointed from New Jersey
1813–1892 1870–1892
(22 years) — — Grant Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

42. Ward Hunt appointed from New York
1810–1886 1873–1882
(9 years) — — Grant Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

43. Morrison Waite† appointed from Ohio
Morrison Waite became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1816–1888 1874–1888
(14 years) 1874–1888 — Grant Death
Link to the History Book Club Site:

44. John Marshall Harlan appointed from Kentucky
1833–1911 1877–1911
(34 years) — — Hayes Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

45. William Burnham Woods appointed from Alabama
1824–1887 1881–1887
(6 years) — — Hayes Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

46. Stanley Matthews appointed from Ohio
1824–1889 1881–1889
(8 years) — — Garfield Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

47. Horace Gray appointed from Massachusetts
1828–1902 1882–1902
(20 years) — — Arthur Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

48. Samuel Blatchford appointed from New York
1820–1893 1882–1893
(11 years) — — Arthur Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

49. Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II appointed from Mississippi
1825–1893 1888–1893
(5 years) — — Cleveland Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

50. Melville Fuller† appointed from Illinois
Melville Fuller became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1833–1910 1888–1910
(22 years) 1888–1910 — Cleveland Death
Link to the History Book Club Site:

51. <David Josiah Brewer appointed from Kansas
1837–1910 1890–1910
(20 years) — — Harrison, B. Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

52. Henry Billings Brown appointed from Michigan
1836–1913 1891–1906
(15 years) — — Harrison, B. Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

53. George Shiras, Jr. appointed from Pennsylvania
1832–1924 1892–1903
(11 years) — — Harrison, B. Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

54. Howell Edmunds Jackson appointed from Tennessee
1832–1895 1893–1895
(2 years) — — Harrison, B. Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

55. Edward Douglass White† appointed from Louisiana
Edwin Douglass White became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1845–1921 1894–1921
(27 years) 1910–1921 — Cleveland (associate)
Taft (chief)[n 2] Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

56. Rufus Wheeler Peckham appointed from New York
NY 1838–1909 1896–1909
(13 years) — — Cleveland Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

57. Joseph McKenna appointed from California
1843–1926 1898–1925
(27 years) 1921 (acting)[n 3] — McKinley Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

58. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. appointed from Massachusetts
1841–1935 1902–1932
(30 years) 1930 (acting)[n 4] — Roosevelt, T. Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

59. William R. Day appointed from Ohio
1849–1923 1903–1922
(19 years) — — Roosevelt, T. Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA

60. William Henry Moody appointed from Massachusetts
1853–1917 1906–1910
(4 years) — — Roosevelt, T. Retirement[n 5]
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA


message 5: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Jan 25, 2015 05:14AM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Continued:

61. Horace Harmon Lurton appointed from Tennessee
1844–1914 1910–1914
(4 years) — — Taft Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

62. Charles Evans Hughes appointed from New York
Charles Evans Hughes became a Chief Justice of the United States
1862–1948 1910–1916
(6 years) — — Taft Resignation[n 1]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

63. Willis Van Devanter appointed from Wyoming
1859–1941 1911–1937
(26 years) — 1937–1941
(4 years) Taft Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

64. Joseph Rucker Lamar appointed from Georgia
1857–1916 1911–1916
(5 years) — — Taft Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

65. Mahlon Pitney appointed from New Jersey
1858–1924 1912–1922
(10 years) — — Taft Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

66. James Clark McReynolds appointed from Tennessee
1862–1946 1914–1941
(27 years) — 1941–1946
(5 years) Wilson Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

67. Louis Brandeis appointed from Massachusetts
1856–1941 1916–1939
(23 years) — 1939–1941
(2 years) Wilson Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

68. John Hessin Clarke appointed from Ohio
1857–1945 1916–1922
(6 years) — — Wilson Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

69. William Howard Taft† appointed from Ohio
William Howard Taft became a Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). William Howard Taft had been the 27th President of the United States (1909- 1913).
1857–1930 1921–1930
(9 years) 1921–1930 — Harding Resignation[n 7]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

70. George Sutherland appointed from Utah
1862–1942 1922–1938
(16 years) — 1938–1942
(4 years) Harding Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

71. Pierce Butler appointed from Minnesota
1866–1939 1923–1939
(16 years) — — Harding Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

72. Edward Terry Sanford appointed from Tennessee
1865–1930 1923–1930
(7 years) — — Harding Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

73. Harlan F. Stone† appointed from New York
Harlan F. Stone became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1872–1946 1925–1946
(21 years) 1941–1946[n 8] — Coolidge (associate)
Roosevelt, F. (chief)[n 2] Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

74. Owen Roberts appointed from Pennsylvania
1875–1955 1930–1945
(15 years) — — Hoover Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

75. Benjamin N. Cardozo appointed from New York
1870–1938 1932–1938
(6 years) — — Hoover Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

76. Hugo Black appointed from Alabama
1886–1971 1937–1971
(34 years) 1946 (acting)
1953 (acting)[n 9][n 10] 1971–1971
(0 years) Roosevelt, F. Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

77. Stanley Forman Reed appointed from Kentucky
1884–1980 1938–1957
(19 years) — 1957–1980
(23 years) Roosevelt, F. Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

78. Felix Frankfurter appointed from Massachusetts
1882–1965 1939–1962
(23 years) — 1962–1965
(3 years) Roosevelt, F. Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

79. William O. Douglas appointed from Connecticut
1898–1980 1939–1975
(36 years) — 1975–1980
(5 years) Roosevelt, F. Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

80. Frank Murphy appointed from Michigan
1890–1949 1940–1949
(9 years) — — Roosevelt, F. Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added


message 6: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Jan 25, 2015 05:24AM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Continued:

81. James F. Byrnes from South Carolina
1882–1972 1941–1942
(1 years) — — Roosevelt, F. Resignation
Link to the History Book Site: added

82. Robert H. Jackson from New York
1892–1954 1941–1954
(13 years) — — Roosevelt, F. Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

83. Wiley Blount Rutledge from Iowa
1894–1949 1943–1949
(6 years) — — Roosevelt, F. Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

84. Harold Hitz Burton from Ohio
1888–1964 1945–1958
(13 years) — 1958–1964
(6 years) Truman Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

85. Fred M. Vinson† from Kentucky
Fred M. Vinson became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1890–1953 1946–1953
(7 years) 1946–1953 — Truman Death
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

86. Tom C. Clark from Texas
1899–1977 1949–1967
(18 years) — 1967–1977
(10 years) Truman Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

87. Sherman Minton from Indiana
1890–1965 1949–1956
(7 years) — 1956–1965
(9 years) Truman Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

88. Earl Warren*† from California
Earl Warren became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1891–1974 1953–1969
(16 years) 1953–1969 1969–1974
(5 years) Eisenhower Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

89. John Marshall Harlan II from New York
1899–1971 1955–1971
(16 years) — 1971–1971
(0 years) Eisenhower Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

90. William J. Brennan, Jr.* from New Jersey
1906–1997 1956–1990
(34 years) — 1990–1997
(7 years) Eisenhower Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

91. Charles Evans Whittaker from Missouri
1901–1973 1957–1962
(5 years) — 1962–1965
(3 years) Eisenhower Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

92. Potter Stewart* from Ohio
1915–1985 1958–1981
(23 years) — 1981–1985
(4 years) Eisenhower Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

93. Byron White from Colorado
1917–2002 1962–1993
(31 years) — 1993–2002
(9 years) Kennedy Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

94. Arthur Goldberg from Illinois
1908–1990 1962–1965
(3 years) — — Kennedy Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

95. Abe Fortas from Tennessee
1910–1982 1965–1969
(4 years) — — Johnson, L. Resignation
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

96. Thurgood Marshall from New York
1908–1993 1967–1991
(24 years) — 1991–1993
(2 years) Johnson, L. Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

97. Warren E. Burger† from Virginia
Warren E. Burger became a Chief Justice of the United States.
1907–1995 1969–1986
(17 years) 1969–1986 1986–1995
(9 years) Nixon Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

98. Harry Blackmun from Minnesota
1908–1999 1970–1994
(24 years) — 1994–1999
(5 years) Nixon Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

99. Lewis F. Powell, Jr. from Virginia
1907–1998 1972–1987
(15 years) — 1987–1998
(11 years) Nixon Retirement[n 6]
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

100. William Rehnquist† from Arizona
In 1971 - Rehnquist was appointed from Arizona - but in 1986 when he was elevated to Chief Justice - he was appointed from Virginia.
1924–2005 1972–2005
(33 years) 1986–2005 — Nixon (associate)
Link to the History Book Club Site: added


message 7: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Oct 07, 2018 12:55PM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Continued:

101. John Paul Stevens appointed from Illinois
1920– 1975–2010
(35 years) 2005 (acting)[n 12] 2010–present
(5 years) Ford Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

102. Sandra Day O'Connor appointed from Arizona
1930– 1981–2006
(25 years) — 2006–present
(9 years) Reagan Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

103. Antonin Scalia appointed from Virginia
1936– 1986–present
(29 years) — — Reagan Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

104. Anthony Kennedy appointed from California
1936– 1988–present
(27 years) — — Reagan Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

105. David Souter appointed from New Hampshire
1939– 1990–2009
(19 years) — 2009–present
6 years) Bush, G. H. W. Retirement
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

106. Clarence Thomas appointed from Georgia
1948– 1991–present
(24 years) — — Bush, G. H. W. Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

107. Ruth Bader Ginsburg appointed from New York
1933– 1993–present
(22 years) — — Clinton Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: added

108. Stephen Breyer appointed from Massachusetts
1938– 1994–present
(21 years) — — Clinton Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

109. John G. Roberts† appointed from Maryland
1955– 2005–present
(10 years) 2005–present — Bush, G. W. Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

110. Samuel Alito appointed from New Jersey
1950– 2006–present
(9 years) — — Bush, G. W. Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

111. Sonia Sotomayor appointed from New York
1954– 2009–present
(6 years) — — Obama Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

112. Elena Kagan appointed from Massachusetts
1960– 2010–present
(5 years) — — Obama Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

113. Neil Gorsuch appointed from Colorado and Washington, D.C., veteran
1967- 2017-present
(just started) — — Trump Currently serving
Link to the History Book Club Site: https://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/...

114. Brett Kavanaugh appointed from xxxx - Trump - (just started)
Link to the History Book Club Site:
TBA


message 8: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Jan 24, 2015 08:29PM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Edwin Stanton died before taking office:

Edwin Stanton -TBA
Link to the History Book Club Site: TBA


message 9: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
I will verify that we have a thread per Associate/Chief Justice


message 10: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Here is an interesting course on edX:

The Supreme Court and American Politics

https://www.edx.org/course/the-suprem...


message 11: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Brett Kavanaugh lists his favorite Federalist Papers
by Pete Kasperowicz
| September 05, 2018 03:47 PM


The Washington Examiner

Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh on Wednesday ran through a list of his favorite Federalist Papers, the essays written in 1788 by some the nation's Founding Fathers in a bid to ratify the Constitution.

Link: https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/ne...

Source: The Washington Examiner


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