The History Book Club discussion


Comments Showing 1-26 of 26 (26 new)    post a comment »
dateDown arrow    newest »

message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited May 27, 2020 09:40AM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
This thread is focused on Crete.

Agios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece

Crete (Greek: Κρήτη, Modern: Kríti, ['kriti], Ancient: Krḗtē, [krέːtεː]; Egyptian: 𓎡𓆑𓍘𓅱𓈉, keftiu; Biblical Hebrew: כפתור‎, caphtor) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

It bounds the southern border of the Aegean sea. Crete lies approximately 160 km (99 mi) south of the Greek mainland. It has an area of 8,336 km2 (3,219 sq mi) and a coastline of 1,046 km (650 mi).

Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the Region of Crete (Greek: Περιφέρεια Κρήτης), the southernmost of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece; the region is the fifth most populous region of Greece. Its capital and largest city is Heraklion, located on the northern shore of the island. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065. The Dodecanese are located to the northeast of Crete, while the Cyclades are situated to the north, separated by the Sea of Crete. The Peloponnese is to the region's northwest.

Humans have inhabited the island since at least 130,000 years ago, during the Paleolithic age. Crete was the centre of Europe's first advanced civilization, the Minoans, from 2700 to 1420 BC; the Minoan civilization was overrun by the Mycenaean civilization from mainland Greece. Later, Crete fell under Roman rule, and afterwards the Byzantine Empire, Andalusian Arabs, the Venetian Republic, and the Ottoman Empire successively ruled Crete. The Cretan people, who maintained a desire to join the Greek state, achieved independence from the Ottomans in 1898 as the Cretan State and became part of Greece in December 1913.

The island is mostly mountainous, and its character is defined by a high mountain range crossing from west to east; the range of the White Mountains (Lefka Ori) contains Crete's highest point, Mount Ida. Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry and music). The Nikos Kazantzakis airport at Heraklion and the Daskalogiannis airport at Chania serve international travelers. The palace of Knossos, a Bronze Age settlement and ancient Minoan city, lies in Heraklion in Crete.

Remainder of article:

Source: Wikipedia

message 2: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
The Natural History Museum of Crete


Source: The Natural Museum of Crete, Youtube

message 3: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Oxford Bibliographies of Ancient Crete


Source: Oxford University Press

message 4: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
The archaeology of Crete: An introduction. London: Methuen

The Archaeology of Crete An Introduction by John Devitt Stringfellow Pendlebury by John Devitt Stringfellow Pendlebury (no photo)


Although reflecting the state of research in prewar Crete, this remains an unsurpassed introduction to the study of Cretan history and archaeology; well-written, methodologically inspiring, and based on intimate knowledge of the Cretan landscape and the history of Crete from prehistory to modern times. Reprinted London: Methuen, 1979.

message 5: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Das antike Kreta

Das antike Kreta (Beck'sche Reihe) by Angelos Chaniotis by Angelos Chaniotis (no photo)


Covers in 128 pages the historical development of Crete from the Early Bronze Age to Late Antiquity; written for a general audience.

message 6: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
The making of the Cretan landscape

The Making Of The Cretan Landscape by Oliver Rackham by Oliver Rackham (no photo)


The best introduction to the Cretan landscape, its diversity, its history, and its various uses from prehistoric times to today; written for a general audience; obligatory reading for anyone interested in Cretan history.

message 7: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
The aerial atlas of ancient Crete

(no image) The Aerial Atlas Of Ancient Crete by Eleanor Emlen Myers (no photo)


This volume presents aerial photographs of a good selection of important archaeological sites of all periods, with information on their history and basic bibliography; extremely useful as a reference.

message 8: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Ancient Crete: A social history from early times until the Roman occupation

Ancient Crete A Social History, From Early Times Until The Roman Occupation by Ronald Frederick Willetts by Ronald Frederick Willetts (no photo)


An attempt to reconstruct the structure and history of Cretan society from Minoan times onward; readable, but more reliable for the Classical and Hellenistic periods than for the earlier periods. Reprinted 2007

message 9: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Cretan antiquities. Guide to Cretan Antiquities2d ed. Athens, Greece:Eptalofos.

(no image) Guide to Cretan Antiquities by Costis Davaras (no photo)


Concise encyclopedia of Cretan history and archaeology; useful for a general audience. German updated translation by Wolfgang Schürmann, Führer zu den Altertümern Kretas (Athens, Greece:Eptalofos, 2003).

message 10: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited May 27, 2020 11:53AM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
The Discoveries in Crete and their Bearing on the History of Ancient Civilization

The Discoveries in Crete and Their Bearing on the History of Ancient Civilization (Classic Reprint) by Ronald Montagu Burrows by Ronald Montagu Burrows (no photo)


This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

message 11: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Roman Crete: New Perspectives

Roman Crete New Perspectives by Jane E. Francis by Jane E. Francis (no photo)


The last several decades have seen a dramatic increase in interest in the Roman period on the island of Crete.

Ongoing and some long-standing excavations and investigations of Roman sites and buildings, intensive archaeological survey of Roman areas, and intensive research on artifacts, history, and inscriptions of the island now provide abundant data for assessing Crete alongside other Roman provinces.

New research has also meant a reevaluation of old data in light of new discoveries, and the history and archaeology of Crete is now being rewritten.

The breadth of topics addressed by the papers in this volume is an indication of Crete's vast archaeological potential for contributing to current academic issues such as Romanization/acculturation, climate and landscape studies, regional production and distribution, iconographic trends, domestic housing, economy and trade, and the transition to the late-Antique era.

These papers confirm Crete's place as a fully realized participant in the Roman world over the course of many centuries but also position it as a newly discovered source of academic inquiry.

message 12: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Ancient Crete

Ancient Crete by Angelos Chaniotis by Angelos Chaniotis (no photo)


The island of Crete holds a special position in classical studies, primarily as the birthplace of the earliest “high culture” in Europe: the Minoan civilization of the Bronze Age. But in addition to the artistic and cultural achievements of the “Minoans,” Crete is the only Greek region whose history can be studied on the basis of written sources (Egyptian hieroglyphic documents, Linear B texts, Greek literary sources and inscriptions), almost continually from c. 1400 BCE to Late Antiquity. It is the first Greek area where script was used (Cretan hieroglyphics, Linear A, and Linear B); and being an island with a diverse landscape, in relative proximity to mainland Greece but strategically located in the center of the eastern Mediterranean, it offers interesting paradigms for the study of ancient political organization, society, and culture in changing historical contexts. Understandably, Minoan Crete has been studied more intensely than later periods of Cretan history. This is not a bibliography of Minoan archaeology and art history. Although it attempts to cover Cretan history from the processes that led to the appearance of the palaces (c. 2000 BCE) to Late Antiquity (c. 5th century CE), it places more emphasis on the periods of Cretan history for which written sources exist. This bibliography does not always follow the traditional periodization of Greek history and art history because it corresponds to the periods of Cretan history. The Cretan “Renaissance” (c. 900–630), roughly the Geometric, Orientalizing, and Early Archaic periods of art history, is taken here as a single period, in which Crete was a pioneer in art and culture. A major change occurred around 630 BCE: trade and the arts did not disappear but lost their innovative power, and Cretan institutions seem to petrify; the Late Archaic and Classical periods are therefore taken as a single unit (c. 630–c. 336 BCE). In the remaining centuries Crete kept pace with the rest of the Greek world, first integrated in the Hellenistic world (c. 336–67 BCE) and then in the Roman Empire (67 BCE–284 CE); finally, Late Antiquity (c. 284–mid-7th century CE) is clearly defined through Diocletian’s reforms and the advance of Christianity, and the beginning of the Arab raids.

message 13: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
The Ancient Greeks: An Introduction

The Ancient Greeks An Introduction by Stephanie Lynn Budin by Stephanie Lynn Budin (no photo)


This accessible introduction surveys the land and peoples who gave us the Labyrinth, the Acropolis, the Iliad and Odyssey, Herodotus and Thucydides, Sappho and Sophocles, Aphrodite and Aristotle, and so much more. Using the full range of resources of art history, archaeology, and philology, this book details the familiar--mythic heroes and heroines, famous philosophers and poets, as well as classical art and architecture--and introduces the less-well-known aspects of ancient Greece, notably the civilizations of the Bronze and Dark Ages and even the earliest form of written Greek--Linear B. In addition, Stephanie Lynn Budin offers a full history of how the study of classical Greece has evolved from ancient times through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance to the present day. She covers ongoing questions and new directions in Greek studies, including Minoan religion, the role of women in early Greek cultures, the historical accuracy of Homer and Herodotus, and the role of Greece amongst its non-Greek neighbors. The Ancient Greeks includes a rich collection of illustrations, drawings, maps, and photographs, including detailed renderings of Knossos, the evolution of Greek sculpture and pottery, and even a section on ancient weaponry. The result is a superb companion for both newcomers and long-time Hellenophiles, revealing not only what we know about ancient Greece but how we know it and how these cultures continue to influence us.

message 14: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Beaches in Crete:

Source: Cretan Beaches

message 15: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited May 27, 2020 01:46PM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Richtis Gorge:



Source: Cretan Beaches

message 16: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Photos of Agia Lake:

Source: Crete Tournet

message 17: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Tradition in the Frame, Photography, Power and Imagination in Sfakia

Tradition in the Frame Photography, Power, and Imagination in Sfakia, Crete (New Anthropologies of Europe) by Konstantinos Kalantzis by Konstantinos Kalantzis (no photo)


Sfakians on the island of Crete are known for their distinctive dress and appearance, fierce ruggedness, and devotion to traditional ways.

Konstantinos Kalantzis explores how Sfakians live with the burdens and pleasures of maintaining these expectations of exoticism for themselves, for their fellow Greeks, and for tourists. Sfakian performance of masculine tradition has become even more meaningful for Greeks looking to reimagine their nation’s global standing in the wake of stringent financial regulation, and for non-Greek tourists yearning for rootedness and escape from the post-industrial north.

Through fine-grained ethnography that pays special attention to photography, Tradition in the Frame explores the ambivalence of a society expected to conform to outsiders’ perception of the traditional even as it strives to enact its own vision of tradition. From the bodily reenactment of historical photographs to the unpredictable, emotionally-charged uses of postcards and commercial labels, the book unpacks the question of power and asymmetry but also uncovers other political possibilities that are nested in visual culture and experiences of tradition and the past. Kalantzis explores the crossroads of cultural performance and social imagination where the frame is both empowerment and subjection.

The Sfakians (Sfakianoi, Σφακιανοί), the local inhabitants of the area of Sfakia and the Hora Sfakion town, boast that they are descended from the Dorians who came down to Crete 2,000 years ago. That is why they look different from other Cretans. Here you will find many more tall, fair-haired men and women with light eyes and skin.

The Sfakians were once great sailors and even greater pirates, but they were always great warriors who played a leading part in all the struggles for freedom in Crete.

Many major Cretan risings against the Venetians and later the Turks began in Sfakia. The conquerors never lived here, not only because it was a tough life in the mountains but mainly because they were afraid of the inhabitants, who were used to living free.

Today the Sfakians remain genuine, fine specimens of Cretan manhood, always warlike. There are guns, military or “civilian”, in almost every house. They come out at weddings, christenings and every other celebration. Shots are fired to express joy or just for target practice using road signs. As the Sfakians like to say, “If we had had this level of armament in 1940, the Germans would never have taken Crete”.

The Sfakians, like all Cretans, are friendly and hospitable as long as you do not insult their wives, their pride or their country. This excessive sense of honour is the reason that the vendetta, the custom of revenge and taking the law into one’s own hands, has marked Sfakia more than any other part of Crete, plunging families into mourning and emptying whole villages.

Most people in Sfakia today are shepherds, with some also engaged in farming and, in recent years, tourism. Mass tourism has not come to Sfakia and probably never will, thanks to its mountainous terrain and inaccessibility.

message 18: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
One hell of an impression

During a Greek holiday in 2002, a Polish paleontologist found what he thinks are the oldest human-like footprints in the world. Thus began a vicious fight over a discovery that raises new questions about our evolution.

Gerard Gierlinski presents a plaster replica of one of the Trachilos footprints during a press conference in Warsaw, Poland, in September 2017. (Tomasz Gzell/EFE/EPA)


Source: CBC News

message 19: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Hominids Went Out of Africa on Rafts


Source: Wired

message 20: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod

Link: Shelmerdine.pdf

Source: Shelmerdine.pdf

message 21: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Greece and the Balkans: Identities, Perceptions and Cultural Encounters Since the Enlightenment

Greece and the Balkans Identities, Perceptions and Cultural Encounters Since the Enlightenment by Dēmētrēs Tziovas by Dēmētrēs Tziovas (no photo)


Greece and the Balkans explores the cultural relationships between Greece and other Balkan countries in the domains of language, literature, thought, translation, and music, and examines issues of identity and perception among the Balkan peoples themselves. The essays bring together scholars from across a range of disciplines: historians, anthropologists, linguists and musicologists with specialists on literature, translation, the history of ideas and religion. By raising issues of cultural hybridity, and nationalist or pre-nationalist interpretations of culture and history it lays claim to a place in the context of studies on nationalism and post-colonialism.

Greece and the Balkans also contributes to a recognition of the Balkans as a site, like some postcolonial ones, where identities have become fused, orientalism and eurocentrism blurred and where religion and modernity clashed and co-existed. By approaching cultural encounters between Greece and the Balkans from a fresh and informed perspective, it makes a substantial contribution to the study of a rather neglected aspect in the history of a region which has suffered in the past from narrow-minded, nationalistic arguments.

message 22: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
The Near East: A modern history

(no image) The Near East: a Modern History by William Yale (no photo)


No synopsis>

message 23: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
The Transformation of Ottoman Crete, Revolts, Politics and Identity in the Late Nineteenth century

Transformation of Ottoman Crete Revolts, Politics and Identity in the Late Nineteenth Century by Pınar Şenışık by Pınar Şenışık (no photo)


The island of Crete under Ottoman rule in the nineteenth century saw successive revolts from its majority Christian population, who were set on union with the newly-independent Greece. This book offers an original perspective on the social, political and ideological transformation of Ottoman Crete within the nationalist context of the late nineteenth century. It focuses on the Cretan revolts of 1896 and 1897, and examines the establishment of the autonomous Cretan State and the withdrawal of Ottoman troops from the island in 1898. Based on Ottoman, British and American archival sources, the author demonstrates that, contrary to the standard view that the uprisings were merely an expression of discontent at Ottoman rule, Cretan Christians in fact aimed to radically change the socio-economic and political structure of Cretan society and to actually overthrow and expel the Ottoman administration.

This book provides a deeper understanding of the Cretan experience, and of the wider politics of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the late nineteenth century._x000D__x000D_The Transformation of Ottoman Crete tells the sad story of Ottoman Crete, explaining how Ottoman rule came to an end with the 1896 and 1897 uprisings of Cretan Christians. Ottoman Empire, Greece and revolting Cretans are the main actors in this study, though it also includes a detailed sketch of the nineteenth century gunboat diplomacy of the European Great Powers: namely, Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Germany.

Eventually, Crete won its independence, and later annexed itself to Greece in 1908. But, the essential question of who won, still remains unanswered. - Dr. Yavuz Selim Karakisla, Bogazici University"

message 24: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
The British and the Hellenes: Struggles for Mastery in the Eastern Mediterranean 1850–1960

The British and the Hellenes Struggles for Mastery in the Eastern Mediterranean 1850-1960 by Robert Holland by Robert Holland Robert Holland


The age of nationalism in the eastern Mediterranean world began with the Greek revolt against Turkish rule in the 1820s. This book explores the power struggles which followed, focusing in particular on Britain's role in the expansion of Greece as an independent nation-state. The book traces events from these nineteenth-century origins right up to the travails of British colonial rule in Cyprus and its ending in 1960.

message 25: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
10 Fun Facts and Interesting Insights About Crete
By Andrea Robinson


Source: Wikipedia

message 26: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited May 27, 2020 10:51PM) (new)

Bentley | 44168 comments Mod
Novels set in Crete: - in progress

This is a list of notable novels set in Crete:

1. The Colossus of Maroussi — Henry Miller (1941)

2. The Sea Eagle — James Aldridge (1944)

3. The Egyptian — Mika Waltari (1945)

4. Zorba the Greek — Nikos Kazantzakis (1946)

5. Ill Met by Moonlight — W. Stanley Moss (1950)

6. A War of Shadows — W. Stanley Moss (1952)

7. Captain Michalis — Nikos Kazantzakis (1955)

8. The Cretan Runner — George Psychoundakis (1955)

9. Dark Labyrinth — Lawrence Durrell (1958)

10. The King Must Die — Mary Renault (1958)

11. The Moon-Spinners — Mary Stewart (1962)

12. Cast In Doubt — Lynne Tillman (1992)

13. Der kretisches Gast — Klaus Modick (2003)

14. You Are Here — Steve Horsfall (2004)

15. The Innocent and the Guilty — Maro Douka (2004)

16. The Island — Victoria Hislop (2005)

17. The Memory of Tides — Angelo Loukakis (2006)

18. Wish You Were Here — Mike Gayle (2007)

19. The Tomb of Zeus — Barbara Cleverly (2007)

20. Blood of Honour — James Holland (2010)

21. The Sword (Volume 1) — Luna Brothers (2010)

22. Digging at the Crossroads of Time — Christos Morris (2012)

23. "The Theseus Code" - Marc Hammond (1981)

24. "Korakas" - Anne Holloway (2015)

25. "The Threshing Circle" - Neil Grimmett (2014)

26. “Kritsotopoula: Girl of Krista” - Yvonne Payne (2015)

The Colossus of Maroussi by Henry Miller by Henry Miller Henry Miller

The Sea Eagle by James Aldridge by James Aldridge James Aldridge

The Egyptian by Mika Waltari by Mika Waltari Mika Waltari

Zorba the Greek by Nikos Kazantzakis by Nikos Kazantzakis Nikos Kazantzakis

back to top