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THE SECOND WORLD WAR > ITALIAN CAMPAIGN

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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited May 14, 2020 08:28PM) (new)

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This thread focuses on the Italian Campaign of World War II.


This African-American combat patrol advanced three miles north of Lucca (furthermost point occupied by American troops) to contact an enemy machine gun nest. Here a bazooka-man cuts loose at the target some 300 yards distant - Department of Defense. Department of the Army. Office of the Chief Signal Officer. - This media is available in the holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration, cataloged under the National Archives Identifier (NAID) 531216

The Italian campaign of World War II consisted of Allied and Axis operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to 1945.

The Joint Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) was operationally responsible for all Allied land forces in the Mediterranean theatre and it planned and led the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, followed in September by the invasion of the Italian mainland and the campaign in Italy until the surrender of the German Armed Forces in Italy in May 1945.

It is estimated that between September 1943 and April 1945, 60,000–70,000 Allied and 38,805–150,660 German soldiers died in Italy.

The number of Allied casualties was about 320,000 and the German figure (excluding those involved in the final surrender) was over 330,000.

Fascist Italy, prior to its collapse, suffered about 200,000 casualties, mostly POWs taken in the Allied invasion of Sicily, including more than 40,000 killed or missing.

Over 150,000 Italian civilians died, as did 35,828 anti-fascist partisans and some 35,000 troops of the Italian Social Republic.

On the Western Front of World War II, Italy was the most costly campaign in terms of casualties suffered by infantry forces of both sides, during bitter small-scale fighting around strongpoints at the Winter Line, the Anzio beachhead and the Gothic Line.

The Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 led to the collapse of the Fascist Italian regime and the fall of Mussolini, who was deposed and arrested by order of King Victor Emmanuel III on 25 July.

The new government signed an armistice with the Allies on 8 September 1943. However, German forces soon took control of northern and central Italy; Mussolini, who was rescued by German paratroopers, established a collaborationist puppet state, the Italian Social Republic (RSI) to administer the German-occupied territory.

The Germans, often with Italian fascists, also committed several atrocities against civilians and non-fascist troops.

As a result, the Italian Co-Belligerent Army was created to fight against the RSI and its German allies, alongside the large Italian resistance movement, while other Italian troops, loyal to Mussolini, continued to fight alongside the Germans in the National Republican Army.

This period is known as the Italian Civil War. The campaign ended when Army Group C surrendered unconditionally to the Allies on May 2, 1945, one week before the formal German Instrument of Surrender.

The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican, both surrounded by Italian territory, also suffered damage during the campaign.


Remainder of article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian...

Source: Wikipedia


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The British Army in Sicily 1943 Infantry marching through the town of Noto, 11 July 1943.


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Artillery being landed during the invasion of mainland Italy at Salerno, September 1943. Troops bringing artillery ashore at Salerno in September 1943. The military policeman (MP) in the foreground is ducking from a near-by German shell hit. The LCVP is from USS James O'Hara (APA-90). Note the use of chicken wire to stabilize the beach sand. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives and Records Administration, Still Pictures Unit, College Park, MD. Photo Citation Number: 80-G-54600. Official Caption: "American fighting men pour out of their landing ships. The M.P. in the foreground was in the act of instinctively ducking from the blast of a shell from a German 88mm. gun."


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Stretcher bearers pass M4 Sherman tanks in Portomaggiore, 19 April 1945. - The British Army in Italy


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Members of the Italian resistance movement in Milan - April 26, 1945


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A soldier of the Italian Social Republic's Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano on the Gothic Line, late 1944


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The situation south of Rome showing German prepared defensive lines - 1943-1944


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Pte. Jack Bailey of the Perth Regiment, sniping at enemy troops, Orsogna, Italy, 29 January 1944. Bailey is using a Pattern 1914 Enfield bolt-action rifle fitted with a telescopic sight. There is a Bren light machinegun next to him - Canadian sniper at the Battle of Ortona


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Canadians in Italy: Canadian soldiers inspect a captured German MG 34 machine gun. With a rate of fire of up to 900 rounds per minute it was significantly faster firing than its Canadian army counterpart, the Bren gun - Canadian soldiers inspect a captured German MG34 machine gun - National Archives of Canada


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Polish II Corps: Bishop Józef Gawlina during visit to Salento, Italy, oversees swearing in ceremony of the students old enough to join the army - Polish II Corps and Bishop Józef Gawlina in Casarano - Benon Tuszyński - Photograph from collection of Benon Tuszyński (JarekT's uncle)


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Carro armato tedesco Tiger I di fronte all'Altare della Patria a Roma, nel febbraio 1944. Schwere Panzer-Abteilung 508 (only Tiger unit that went to Rome) - German Tiger I tank in front of the Altare della Patria in Rome in 1944


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The British Army in Italy 1944 The ruined town of Pontecorvo, 26 May 1944. Text on image file: "ITALY THE ADVANCE CONTINUES On the Eighth Army sector, the enemy were forced to evacuate Pontecorvo, and to draw back north-west along the Liri river as a result of the Canadian penetration of the Hitler line between Pontecorvo and Aquino. This picture bears testimony to the terrific battering which the enemy received while defending the town of Pontecorvo."- Loughlin (Sgt), No 2 Army Film & Photographic Unit - Imperial War Museum


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Private Paul Oglesby of the U.S. 30th Infantry Regiment before the altar in a damaged church in Acerno - Pvt. Paul Oglesby, 30th Infantry, standing in reverence before an altar in a damaged Catholic Church. Note: pews at left appear undamaged, while bomb-shattered roof is strewn about the sanctuary. Acerno, Italy - National Archives and Records Administration


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British infantry moving cautiously through the ruined streets of Impruneta, 3 August 1944 - Johnson (Sgt), No 2 Army Film & Photographic Unit - Imperial War Museum


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Brazilian troops arrive in the city of Massarosa, Italy, September 1944


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Map of the Brazilian actions in northern Italy, 1944–1945. National Archives of Brazil


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The German Army 1939–45: Western Front 1943-45

The German Army 1939-45 (5) Western Front 1943–45 (Men-at-Arms) by Nigel Thomas by Nigel Thomas (no photo)

Synopsis:

This book covers the high command, the developments in unit organisation, the campaigns and the uniforms and equipment of the German Army in the last two years of the war in North-West Europe and Italy. Despite the huge pressure of fighting on three fronts, ever-worsening shortages of manpower and equipment, and Allied command of the skies, Germany's decimated divisions fought on with impressive skill and determination. This period of World War II (1939-1945) also saw a fascinating mixture of obsolescent, newly designed, and field-made combat clothing which gave the German soldier a radically different appearance from his predecessor of just five years before.


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A Look Back … Barbara Lauwers: Deceiving the Enemy



Link: https://www.cia.gov/news-information/...

Source: The Central Intelligence Agency


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Alexander's Generals (the Italian Campaign)

(no image) Alexander's Generals: The Italian Campaign, 1944 45 by Gregory Blaxland(no photo)

Synopsis:

Only found this review on Amazon regarding this book:

I am a bagpipe player (Still Learning so not yet entitled to claim to be a piper). One of the early, popular tunes is the “Argyll’s Crossing the River Po” and this wonderful book allowed me to learn where the tune came from, it was written by RH Brown, and all that it celebrates, namely the final step in a long and very bloody campaign. The Po is a mighty river and the Scotsmen, both the Argyll’s and the Southerland Highlanders felt they were well on their way to finally ending their unfair reputation as “D Day Dodgers” (Cheers Nancy Astor, your mouth really was “too bloody wide”)


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Salerno to Cassino. United States Army in World War II, Mediterranean Theater of Operations. Volume 3.

SALERNO TO CASSINO by U.S. Department of Defense by U.S. Department of Defense Martin Blumenson U.S. Department of Defense and by Martin Blumenson

Synopsis:

Operations from the invasion of the Italian mainland near Salerno through the winter fighting up to the battles for Monte Cassino (including the Rapido River crossing) and the Anzio beachhead.


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Monte Cassino: a German View

Monte Cassino A German View by Rudolf Bohmler by Rudolf Bohmler (no photo)

Synopsis:

As a German battalion commander Rudolf Bohmler fought in the front line during the fierce battles fought at Monte Cassino.

After the war he wrote this remarkable history, one of the first full-length accounts of this famous and controversial episode in the struggle for Italy.

His pioneering work, which has long been out of print, gives a fascinating insight into the battle as it was perceived at the time and as it was portrayed immediately after the war. While his fluent narrative offers a strong German view of the fighting, it also covers the Allied side of the story, at every level, in graphic detail.

The climax of his account, his description of the tenacious defence of the town of Cassino and the Monte Cassino abbey by exhausted, outnumbered German troops, has rarely been equalled His book presents a soldier's view of the fighting but it also examines the tactics and planning on both sides.

It is essential reading for everyone who is interested in the Cassino battles and the Italian campaign.


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NOVEMBER 22, 2019 | PART OF 2019 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WORLD WAR II

Italian Campaign and Liberation of Rome, 1943-1944

This session from the National World War II Museum’s annual conference in New Orleans focused on the Italian Campaign in 1943 and 1944. Rob Citino, the museum’s senior historian, talked about the German army in Italy, and author and historian Rick Atkinson discussed the campaign from the Allied perspective.

Link: https://www.c-span.org/video/?466481-...

Source: C-Span

People in this video:
Robert (Rob) Citino
Rick Atkinson
Ed Lengel
Christopher Rein


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The War North of Rome (June 1944 – May 1945)

The War North of Rome June 1944-May 1945 by Thomas R. Brooks by Thomas R. Brooks (no photo)

Synopsis:

By the time the Allied forces vanquished the enemy in Italy, Russian soldiers were already dancing on Hitler's grave. Nevertheless, the young men north of Rome fought as bravely, and suffered as much, as troops on any front in WWII. Their record of courage and sacrifice is described here in this fascinating account.


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The Wehrmacht’s Last Stand: The German Campaigns of 1944-45

The Wehrmacht's Last Stand The German Campaigns of 1944-1945 by Robert M. Citino by Robert M. Citino Robert M. Citino

Synopsis:

By 1943, the war was lost, and most German officers knew it. Three quarters of a century later, the question persists: What kept the German army going in an increasingly hopeless situation? Where some historians have found explanations in the power of Hitler or the role of ideology, Robert M. Citino, the world’s leading scholar on the subject, posits a more straightforward solution: Bewegungskrieg, the way of war cultivated by the Germans over the course of history. In this gripping account of German military campaigns during the final phase of World War II, Citino charts the inevitable path by which Bewegungskrieg, or a “war of movement,” inexorably led to Nazi Germany’s defeat.

The Wehrmacht’s Last Stand analyzes the German Totenritt, or “death ride,” from January 1944—with simultaneous Allied offensives at Anzio and Ukraine—until May 1945, the collapse of the Wehrmacht in the field, and the Soviet storming of Berlin. In clear and compelling prose, and bringing extensive reading of the German-language literature to bear, Citino focuses on the German view of these campaigns. Often very different from the Allied perspective, this approach allows for a more nuanced and far-reaching understanding of the last battles of the Wehrmacht than any now available. With Citino’s previous volumes, Death of the Wehrmacht and The Wehrmacht Retreats, The Wehrmacht’s Last Stand completes a uniquely comprehensive picture of the German army’s strategy, operations, and performance against the Allies in World War II.


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The Wehrmacht Retreats: Fighting a Lost War, 1943 (Modern War Studies)

The Wehrmacht Retreats Fighting a Lost War, 1943 (Modern War Studies) by Robert M. Citino by Robert M. Citino Robert M. Citino

Synopsis:

Arthur Goodzeit Award

Throughout 1943, the German army, heirs to a military tradition that demanded and perfected relentless offensive operations, succumbed to the realities of its own overreach and the demands of twentieth-century industrialized warfare. In his new study, prizewinning author Robert Citino chronicles this weakening Wehrmacht, now fighting desperately on the defensive but still remarkably dangerous and lethal.

Drawing on his impeccable command of German-language sources, Citino offers fresh, vivid, and detailed treatments of key campaigns during this fateful year: the Allied landings in North Africa, General von Manstein's great counterstroke in front of Kharkov, the German attack at Kasserine Pass, the titanic engagement of tanks and men at Kursk, the Soviet counteroffensives at Orel and Belgorod, and the Allied landings in Sicily and Italy. Through these events, he reveals how a military establishment historically configured for violent aggression reacted when the tables were turned; how German commanders viewed their newest enemy, the U.S. Army, after brutal fighting against the British and Soviets; and why, despite their superiority in materiel and manpower, the Allies were unable to turn 1943 into a much more decisive year.

Applying the keen operational analysis for which he is so highly regarded, Citino contends that virtually every flawed German decision—to defend Tunis, to attack at Kursk and then call off the offensive, to abandon Sicily, to defend Italy high up the boot and then down much closer to the toe—had strong supporters among the army's officer corps. He looks at all of these engagements from the perspective of each combatant nation and also establishes beyond a shadow of a doubt the synergistic interplay between the fronts.

Ultimately, Citino produces a grim portrait of the German officer corps, dispelling the longstanding tendency to blame every bad decision on Hitler. Filled with telling vignettes and sharp portraits and copiously documented, The Wehrmacht Retreats is a dramatic and fast-paced narrative that will engage military historians and general readers alike.


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The Imperial War Museum Book of the War in Italy 1943–1945.

Imperial War Museum Book of the War in Italy 1943-1945 by Michael Carver by Michael Carver Michael Carver

Synopsis:

The Allies fought the Germans in Italy from July 1943 to May 1945, in a campaign perhaps more reminiscent of the First World War. The terrain was difficult, the weather bitter, the adversaries fierce and in no way inferior in strength. As the author contends, the Allies felt they played "second fiddle to the cross-channel invasion; that victory was not going to be won by them, and that their sacrifices and suffering were not essential to it and would not be appreciated." Had the Germans been able to deploy their forces in Italy against the D-Day landings and subsequent offensive, there could have been a very different situation in Northern Europe in 1944-45. The hard-fought campaign in Italy, so vividly portrayed in this book, probably made the difference.


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The Second World War

The Second World War by Winston S. Churchill by Winston S. Churchill Winston S. Churchill

Synopsis:

The definitive, Nobel Prize–winning history of World War II, universally acknowledged as a magnificent historical reconstruction and an enduring work of literature

From Britain's darkest and finest hour to the great alliance and ultimate victory, the Second World War remains the most pivotal event of the twentieth century. Winston Churchill was not only the war's greatest leader, he was the free world's singularly eloquent voice of defiance in the face of Nazi tyranny, and it's that voice that animates this six-volume history. Remarkable both for its sweep and for its sense of personal involvement, it begins with The Gathering Storm; moves on to Their Finest Hour, The Grand Alliance, The Hinge of Fate, and Closing the Ring; and concludes with Triumph and Tragedy.


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Calculated Risk

Calculated Risk by Mark W. Clark by Mark W. Clark (no photo)

Synopsis:

Mark W. Clark was a major figure in World War II. He was prominent as one of the top American commanders. Together with Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar N. Bradley, and George S. Patton, Jr., Clark was widely regarded as being responsible for victory on the European side of the conflict."—from the introduction

One of the great World War II memoirs by a legendary American general in charge of operations in North Africa and Italy. General Mark W. Clark recounts his wartime exploits and tells the story of the battles in Tunisia and Italy with verve and attention to key detail. An unparalleled account by a great military leader.


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The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944

The Day of Battle The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944 (World War II Liberation Trilogy, #2) by Rick Atkinson by Rick Atkinson Rick Atkinson

Synopsis:

In An Army at Dawn—winner of the Pulitzer Prize—Rick Atkinson provided a dramatic and authoritative history of the Allied triumph in North Africa. Now, in The Day of Battle, he follows the strengthening American and British armies as they invade Sicily in July 1943 and then, mile by bloody mile, fight their way north toward Rome.

The Italian campaign’s outcome was never certain; in fact, Roosevelt, Churchill, and their military advisers engaged in heated debate about whether an invasion of the so-called soft underbelly of Europe was even a good idea. But once under way, the commitment to liberate Italy from the Nazis never wavered, despite the agonizingly high price. The battles at Salerno, Anzio, and Monte Cassino were particularly difficult and lethal, yet as the months passed, the Allied forces continued to drive the Germans up the Italian peninsula. Led by Lieutenant General Mark Clark, one of the war’s most complex and controversial commanders, American officers and soldiers became increasingly determined and proficient. And with the liberation of Rome in June 1944, ultimate victory at last began to seem inevitable.

Drawing on a wide array of primary source material, written with great drama and flair, this is narrative history of the first rank. With The Day of Battle, Atkinson has once again given us the definitive account of one of history’s most compelling military campaigns.


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Circles Of Hell: The War In Italy 1943-1945

Circles Of Hell The War In Italy 1943-1945 by Eric Morris by Eric Morris (no photo)

Synopsis:

A critical look at this appallingly managed campaign describes how the Allies triumphed in spite of dissent, desertion, venereal disease, and the actions of a weak and irresolute British commander and a power-hungry American one.


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Both great books Jerome - thank you for your adds.


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World War II in the Mediterranean

World War II in the Mediterranean, 1942-1945 by Carlo D'Este by Carlo D'Este (no photo)

Synopsis:

Recounts events in the Mediterranean during World War II, including how the inexperienced Americans gained combat experience and learned to work together with the British


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The World War II Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for all the combatants. BCA.

The World War II Databook The Essential Facts And Figures For All The Combatants by John Ellis by John Ellis (no photo)

Synopsis:

Providing a comprehensive and authoritative summary of all the available facts and figures relating to World War II, this text is divided into nine sections for ease of reference.


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The Eastern Front 1943–1944: The War in the East and on the Neighbouring Fronts

Germany and the Second World War Volume VIII The Eastern Front 1943-1944 The War in the East and on the Neighbouring Fronts by Karl-Heinz Frieser by Karl-Heinz Frieser (no photo)

Synopsis:

The latest volume in the magisterial Germany and the Second World War series, volume VIII deals with one of the most eventful phases of the Second World War: the battles on the eastern front in 1943 and 1944.

In no other period of the war, apart from its concluding phase in 1945, did the Wehrmacht suffer such enormous losses.

The land battles of those years, first and foremost the battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943, were among the biggest in world history. In the winter of 1943/44 the Red Army showed itself for the first time capable of conducting large-scale offensives against all German army groups simultaneously. It was no longer a matter of isolated flare-ups: the whole eastern front was in flames. The dramatic climax was reached in the summer of 1944, when the collapse of Army Group Centre led to what was then the heaviest defeat in German military history. It was nevertheless overshadowed by events on the western front, with the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944. And it is that which dominates perceptions in western societies to this day and has relegated the catastrophe in the east, despite its unprecedented proportions, to the rank of an almost "forgotten war


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Germany and the Second World War

Germany and the Second World War Volume IV The Attack on the Soviet Union by Horst Boog by Horst Boog (no photo)

Synopsis:

Nine months after the beginning of the Second World War, German dominance over much of Europe seemed assured. Hitler not only stood on the pinnacle of his popularity in Germany but more than ever his ideological fixations and political calculations determined German war policy.

This volume, the fourth in the acclaimed Germany and the Second World War series, examines the thinking behind the decision to go to war with the Soviet Union which was to prove the undoing of the German war effort. The authors examine in revealing detail the military and political policies behind the attack on the Soviet Union and the strategic conduct of the war.

They explore not only the command principles and practices, but also the expenditure and attrition of the forces, and show that by the end of 1941 it was clear that it was in the eastern theatre that the Second World War would be decided and the map of Europe redrawn.


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The Impossible Victory

The Impossible Victory (Coronet Books) by Brian Harpur by Brian Harpur (no photo)

Synopsis:

No synopsis of book. This was one reviewer's impressions on Amazon.

S. Wadley reviewed - "The Italian campaign was neglected by the top political and military leadership and even by the journalists and historians/authors writing after the war.

Even the little attention it had faded after the hard slog of the 44-45 winter.

This book fills some holes in WW2 history. It is as if this is two books. One is an engaging memoir of a young officer in the British Army from Cassino to the final big assault crossing the Po. The author's first-person account of life on the front lines is one of the best I've ever read.

The second is a set of interviews with and analysis of three generals, Mark Clark, Richard McCreery, and Wladyslaw Anders that provides insight into their real points of view, something not necessarly found in their memoirs.

This book is too short. Harpur did such a good job in his interviews and analysis that I wanted to hear him speak with and write about others such as Truscott. This couldn't be helped since by the time it was written/compiled the other big commanders were no longer around.

The only real fault is that the single map meant the reader should have another source while reading."

Source: Amazon


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World War II: People, Politics, and Power.

World War II People, Politics, And Power (America At War) by William L. Hosch by William L. Hosch (no photo)

Synopsis:

World War II was a horrific deviation from our long relationship with war; new technologies and ideas were employed that resulted in widespread death and unimaginable atrocitiesnever before known to man. This book is a valuable resource that follows the war from the rise of Hitler to the dropping of the atomic bombs, through blitzkrieg and bombings, to the treaty that finally ended it all, noting the effects upon future world politics.


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The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume VI: Part III

The Mediterranean And Middle East Volume Vi Victory In The Mediterranean Part Iii November 1944 To May 1945 by William G.F. Jackson by William G.F. Jackson (no photo)

Synopsis:

The last of eight volumes in the 18-volume official British History of the Second World War dealing with the war in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern theatres, this book tells the final stage of the story from November 1944 to May 1945.

It details the end of the war in Greece and Yugoslavia, but concentrates on the stubborn struggle in northern Italy.

The narrative opens with the aborting of Field-Marshal Alexander’s plan for a quick thrust to Vienna across north-eastern Italy, and describes poltical and other difficulties encountered in co-operating with Tito’s Yugoslav partisans. Tito’s fellow-Communist E.A.M/E.L.A.S partisans in Greece attempted to take power in Athens in December 1944.

Churchill intervened personally with the British army to crush the revolt. In the new year of 1945, a carefully prepared final allied offensive in Italy, Operatioon Grapeshot, destroyed the German Army Group C on the River Po.

In the final days of the war, with secret negotiations for the surrender of Field Marshal Kesselring’s German forces in Italy underway in Switzerland, Eighth Army crossed the Po and took Trieste. Kesselring surrendered on 2nd May. But as British forces moved in to occupy their alloted zone of Carinthia in southern Austria, they again found themselves clashing with Tito’s partisans.

In an epilogue, the authors look back at the hard-slogging Italian campaign, concluding that it was justified as an important diversion of German forces.

Allied losses were limited, they argue, by the judicious use of overwhelming air and artillery power to save lives.

With 10 appendices and 20 maps and diagrams


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The Battle for Rome

The Battle for Rome The Germans, the Allies, the Partisans, and the Pope, September 1943--June 1944 by Robert Katz by Lloyd Clark (no photo)

Synopsis:

In September 1943, the German army marched into Rome, beginning an occupation that would last nine months until Allied forces liberated the ancient city.

During those 270 days, clashing factions -- the occupying Germans, the Allies, the growing resistance movement, and the Pope -- contended for control over the destiny of the Eternal City.

In The Battle for Rome, Robert Katz vividly recreates the drama of the occupation and offers new information from recently declassified documents to explain the intentions of the rival forces.

One of the enduring myths of World War II is the legend that Rome was an "open city," free from military activity. In fact the German occupation was brutal, beginning almost immediately with the first roundup of Jews in Italy.

Rome was a strategic prize that the Germans and the Allies fought bitterly to win. The Allied advance up the Italian peninsula from Salerno and Anzio in some of the bloodiest fighting of the war was designed to capture the Italian capital.

Dominating the city in his own way was Pope Pius XII, who used his authority in a ceaseless effort to spare Rome, especially the Vatican and the papal properties, from destruction. But historical documents demonstrate that the Pope was as concerned about the Partisans as he was about the Nazis, regarding the Partisans as harbingers of Communism in the Eternal City.

The Roman Resistance was a coalition of political parties that agreed on little beyond liberating Rome, but the Partisans, the organized military arm of the coalition, became increasingly active and effective as the occupation lengthened.

Katz tells the story of two young Partisans, Elena and Paolo, who fought side by side, became lovers, and later played a central role in the most significant guerrilla action of the occupation. In retaliation for this action, the Germans committed the Ardeatine Caves Massacre, slaying hundreds of Roman men and boys.

The Pope's decision not to intervene in that atrocity has been a source of controversy and debate among historians for decades, but drawing on Vatican documents, Katz authoritatively examines the matter.

Katz takes readers into the occupied city to witness the desperate efforts of the key actors: OSS undercover agent Peter Tompkins, struggling to forge an effective spy network among the Partisans; German diplomats, working against their own government to save Rome even as they condoned the Nazi repression of its citizens; Pope Pius XII, anxiously trying to protect the Vatican at the risk of depending on the occupying Germans, who maintained order by increasingly draconian measures; and the U.S. and British commanders, who disagreed about the best way to engage the enemy, turning the final advance into a race to be first to take Rome.

The Battle for Rome is a landmark work that draws on newly released documents and firsthand testimony gathered over decades to offer the finest account yet of one of the most dramatic episodes of World War II

Note: Check out the internet archive where you can borrow the book free for 14 days:
https://archive.org/details/battlefor...


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The Second World War

The Second World War by John Keegan by John Keegan John Keegan

Synopsis:

In this comprehensive history, John Keegan explores both the technical and the human impact of the greatest war of all time. He focuses on five crucial battles and offers new insights into the distinctive methods and motivations of modern warfare. In knowledgable, perceptive analysis of the airborne battle of Crete, the carrier battle of Midway, the tank battle of Falaise, the city battle of Berlin, and the amphibious battle of Okinawa, Keegan illuminates the strategic dilemmas faced by the leaders and the consequences of their decisions on the fighting men and the course of the war as a whole.


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History of the Second World War

History of the Second World War by B.H. Liddell Hart by B.H. Liddell Hart B.H. Liddell Hart

Synopsis:

History of the Second World War, B. H. Liddell Hart's last work as well as his magnum opus, embodies the fruits of twenty years of research and a lifetime of thinking on war.

It abounds with controversial judgments, including provocative assertions about the true causes behind France's defeat in 1940, Hitler's failed invasion of Russia, and Japan's stunning victory at Pearl Harbor; the effectiveness of the Allies' strategic bombing of Germany; the questionable necessity of detonating atom bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and much more.

This monumental history is both a crowning achievement and a final summation by one of the greatest military thinkers of the twentieth century.


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The Gothic Line (The Autumn Campaign in Italy 1944)

The Gothic Line by Douglas Orgill by Mark Zuehlke Mark Zuehlke

Synopsis:

The account of the bitter, bloody campaign by the British Eighth and American Fifth Armies as they clawed their way through the Gothic Line.


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A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II

A World at Arms A Global History of World War II by Gerhard L. Weinberg by Gerhard L. Weinberg Gerhard L. Weinberg

Synopsis:

In a new edition featuring a new preface, A World of Arms remains a classic of global history. Widely hailed as a masterpiece, this volume remains the first history of World War II to provide a truly global account of the war that encompassed six continents.

Starting with the changes that restructured Europe and its colonies following the First World War, Gerhard Weinberg sheds new light on every aspect of World War II. Actions of the Axis, the Allies, and the Neutrals are covered in every theater of the war.

More importantly, the global nature of the war is examined, with new insights into how events in one corner of the world helped affect events in often distant areas.

Note: Check out the internet archive where you can borrow the book free for 14 days:
https://archive.org/details/worldatar...


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US Armored Units in the North African and Italian Campaigns 1942-45

US Armored Units in the North Africa and Italian Campaigns 1942 45 by Steven J. Zaloga by Steven J. Zaloga Steven J. Zaloga

Synopsis:

The Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) saw the first operational deployment of US armoured divisions in World War II, and the experience proved chastening for the 1st Armored Division when it suffered defeat at the hands of Rommel’s Afrika Korps at the battle of Kasserine Pass.

This title covers the organization of these early US armored divisions, as well as the independent tank and tank destroyer battalions that accompanied them.

It details the evolution if US armoured warfare tactics and doctrine, learned from the difficult experiences of North Africa, and illustrates how they were used elsewhere in the MTO, particularly in the Italian Peninsula.


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More:

Mavrogordato, Ralph S. (2000) [1960]. "Chapter 12: Hitler's Decision on the Defense of Italy"

https://history.army.mil/books/70-7_1...
https://history.army.mil/books/70-7_0...


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More:

In Kent Roberts Greenfield (ed.). Command Decisions. United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 70-7.

https://history.army.mil/books/70-7_0...


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More:

Matthews, Sidney T. (2000) [1960]. "Chapter 14: General Clark's Decision to Drive to Rome"

https://history.army.mil/books/70-7_1...


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More:

Brown, Shaun R. G. (1986). The Loyal Edmonton Regiment at War, 1943–1945 (MA, Wilfrid Laurier University

https://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewconte...


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The Gothic Line:

http://www.gothicline.org


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The Winter Line Stories
Real-life accounts of the unheralded heros of the Italian Campaign of WWII


http://winterlinestories.com


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