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Intersectional Feminism > Sex and gender differences between men and women.

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message 1: by [deleted user] (new)

Sex and gender differences between men and women, and the peculiarities of their study.


message 2: by [deleted user] (new)

Research by scientists from a wide range of sciences on the differences between men and women shows that the differences between men and women are related to biology, gender psychology, level of socialization and cross-cultural aspects, and include the following blocks of factors:
First, biological factors: biological characteristics; genetic characteristics; psychophysiological characteristics (sex hormones);
Second, social and psychological factors: distribution of labor according to sex; assignment of sexual roles: a) imitation by the child of the behavior of parents of the same sex; b) imitation by the child of the behavior of adults of the relevant group; identification of the child with his or her own sex, his or her acceptance and correspondence of behavior with him or her, the expected behavior of the society; assimilation of social norms, social attitudes, gender stereotypes that define the society; assessment of behavior of children depending on sex;
Third, cultural factors: cultural distribution of labour; appropriation of gender attitudes, customs and behaviour patterns in accordance with culture.


message 3: by [deleted user] (new)

"sex" is defined at the time of birth. This cannot be said about "gender", because a person's awareness of his or her social belonging takes place throughout his or her life in the process of upbringing, development and becoming a person, as a result of which he or she learns the necessary norms of behavior and understanding of the specifics of activity. "Sex" is a distinctive characteristic of men and women in terms of chromosomes, hormones, anatomical and reproductive characteristics, and the concept of "gender" is their distinctive characteristic in social aspect. This means that a man and a woman have to play a certain social role, to correspond to the set rules and norms of behavior, specificity of activity, which are defined by the society in this or that culture in accordance with their sex.


message 4: by [deleted user] (new)

Most often people try to adhere to social norms, and the main reason for this is the desire of a person to be accepted by society. Such a desire is achieved by implementing the following mechanisms
Gender role-playing behaviour is encouraged, and unacceptable behaviour is punished. This goal can be achieved through parental education, with or without the approval or non-approval of gender-specific activities carried out by children;
The person defines and behaves in accordance with the behaviour pattern of the relevant group.
Typically, people choose role models in behaviour that are relevant to their gender.


message 5: by [deleted user] (new)

the essence of gender, which comes down to the following:
- A person's social characteristic formed in the process of development in accordance with a certain gender - a man and a woman - should correspond to certain social rules and norms of behavior necessary for society in different cultures, starting from birth;
- The specificity of gender is manifested in social-psychological relations - communication, interaction with other people at the level of behavioral forms depending on gender;
- gender defines a set of personality agreements reflecting typical features, stereotypes, roles, typical for men and women. Gender stereotypes express society's attitudes to the patterns of behavior expected of men and women;
- socio-psychological construct, which represents the essence, mechanism and specificity of the formation of features of masculinity and femininity in society, which are reflected in the socio-psychological characteristics;
- social-psychological characteristics of a person, arising on the basis of biological sex, but necessarily in interaction with other people and differing in mental, emotional and behavioral characteristics;
- gender characteristics are manifested through the socialization of the individual and depending on the culture, which change with the maturity of the individual;
- determines the hierarchy of social relations between the sexes and inequality of opportunities - the system of power relations, where a man dominates (public sphere) and a woman submits (private sphere);
- assumes conscious acceptance of one's own sex - conscious acceptance of sex - conscious significance of sex.


message 6: by [deleted user] (new)

The study found that the empirical study of the distinctive features of men and women in terms of their comparison takes place in three different directions:
- Study of sexual differences (studies of mental cognitive processes, intelligence, creativity, abilities);
- gender characteristics (gender identity, gender stereotypes, gender attitudes, femininity - masculinity);
- gender differences (psychological peculiarities of a personality: mental states and psychic properties of a personality; volitional, emotional, motivational sphere).


message 7: by [deleted user] (new)

Here I will give some examples of how scientists view this issue in general. What theories and assessments. So you can make your own judgements in this area.
So let's get started,
Firstly, in the study of socio-cultural and socio-psychological properties of masculinity, femininity and androgynous nature of people regardless of their biological sex (role positions, etc.), in the study of value orientations, including focus on human relations and family (femininity), as well as the success and achievement of goals (masculinity) gender differences are considered.
As for the methods of studying gender peculiarities, there are very few of them, namely: the method of studying gender stereotypes in the questionnaires of G. Heimans, the method of studying gender attitudes in children (semi-standardized interview with V.E. Kagan), the method of studying leadership and gender behavior styles of manager A. Kann and D. Siegfried (modification by T.V. Bendas), the method of revealing masculinity - femininity (Freiburg personal questionnaire FPI), the method of "masculinity - femininity" S. Bam, the method of studying gender stereotypes - a questionnaire that offers to assess the images: "ideal woman", "woman unlike men", "destination of women", "assessment of women themselves", the study of gender identity by focus group, etc.
These are the criteria that distinguish you as a man and a woman. And then your personal opinion whether or not you agree with these arguments.
Thank you for reading it.


message 8: by Barbara (new)

Barbara (barbarainhouston) Evgeny wrote: ""sex" is defined at the time of birth. This cannot be said about "gender", because a person's awareness of his or her social belonging takes place throughout his or her life in the process of upbri..."
Remember, for intersex persons, sex may be "assigned" at birth, but they do not fit in many societies' standard (binary) definitions. Lots of other generalizations used in studies of both sex and gender.


message 9: by [deleted user] (new)

60% of girls in specific words directly denote their sex, while boys who directly denote their sex (boyfriend, man, man) are only 16%. A total of 44 per cent of boys and 11 per cent of girls do not have a gender marker at all. Girls identify themselves more in family terms (daughter, sister, granddaughter, niece) - 80%, than boys - 28%. Boys (16%) more often mention their sexual role and sexuality (lover, sexual giant) than girls (4.7%). Only boys had answers related to problematic gender and social identity. Physical identity was also assessed, which included a description of their physical data (strong, sporty, slender, long legged, fat, etc.) and their eating habits. A sign of acceptance of its attractiveness (elegant, beautiful, attractive, etc.) manifested itself in 82% of girls and 36% of boys.
When measuring the category "Perspective Self", 13% of girls and 4% of boys have a family perspective: wishes, intentions, dreams related to family status (future wife, future mother, future father). Masculine qualities (defender, strong, confident, arrogant, evil, energetic, etc.) were mentioned by 56% of boys and 8% of girls. Feminine qualities
(tenderness, carelessness, modesty, obedience, vulnerability) were emphasized by 56% of boys and 8% of girls.
No problem gender identity was revealed in the answers of mature age respondents. Men's answers were six times more likely to have answers that they had feminine qualities. Women in 95 per cent of the responses stressed that they possess feminine qualities, but were four times less likely to be attractive.


message 10: by [deleted user] (last edited Nov 13, 2019 08:21AM) (new)

A person's gender identity begins to form in infancy through a series of stages. The destabilization of socially significant relations inevitably leads to a crisis of gender identity.
The dynamics of the formation of gender identity in adolescence has psychological features. Girls are becoming more interested in their appearance, and there is an overestimation of its importance, an increase in self-esteem, and an increase in the need to like the opposite sex. Young men, on the other hand, have a fetishization of strength and masculinity. In adulthood a person is an object to be imitated, women and men are more calm about their physical features and are more oriented towards constructive interaction between the sexes. The youthful age, namely the final stage of youth, is the decisive period of development of gender identity of a person. The further changes represent not development and formation, but transformation depending on conditions of life of the concrete person: presence of family, children and mutual relations with the opposite sex and other factors.

Thank you for reading it.


message 11: by [deleted user] (new)

SPECIFICITIES OF THE GENDER IDENTITY COMPONENT OF YOUNG WOMEN


message 12: by [deleted user] (new)

Recently, the problem of identity has been addressed more and more frequently. National identity, professional identity, gender, etc. are in the scope of attention of researchers. The reference to this topic testifies to the change of views and approaches to the understanding of the phenomenon of identity itself. At the moment, there are several points of view revealing the essence of identity. У. James was one of the first to address the issue of human character, in which the scientist came into contact with the phenomenon of identity. However, he does not mention this term. In his letters of 1890, he wrote: "The character of a person is manifested in his mental or moral state, when he has the most intense and profound sense of his own activity and vitality. At such a moment, his inner voice tells him: "This is me! Such an experience always presupposes "an element of active tension, some firmness and the belief that external circumstances will help him, but not full confidence in it.
At birth, a person does not have an identity, it arises as a result of his or her social experience, experience of interaction with other people. Thus, identity emerges only if a person is included in a social group and interacts with its members. It is with the child's experience of "sense of identity" that identity begins. The earliest and most variable "sense of identity" is the sense of mutual trust and recognition that emerges in the earliest mother-child relationship. This sense of identity accompanies the person throughout their life, but culminates in their adolescent awareness in the form of an experience of "acute identity awareness". The teenager should solve problems such as: going to work or study, choosing a place to study or work, etc. The solution to any life problem contributes to the achievement of identity. If decisions have been made on their own, this leads to the formation of an achieved (or constructed) identity. There is another way of forming identity - a gradual awareness of some data about oneself (name, citizenship, ability). This contributes to the formation of a premature identity. In general, the formation of identity takes place over the course of a lifetime. Let us turn directly to the phenomenon of gender identity. These terms are: psychological sex and gender identity. Psychological sex is a complex of psychological, socio-cultural and behavioral characteristics that provide an individual with a personal, social and legal status of a man or a woman. I would like to note from myself one important fact - gender identity - is an aspect of self-consciousness that describes a person's experience of himself as a representative of a certain sex. In psychology, gender identity is defined as a basic, fundamental feeling of belonging to a certain sex/gender, self-awareness of a man, a woman or a being of some other, "intermediate" or "third" sex. Gender identity is not automatically given to an individual at birth, but is generated as a result of the complex interaction of his or her natural inclinations and appropriate gender socialization. An active participant in this process is the individual who accepts or rejects the social roles and behaviours offered to him/her. Another definition of gender identity is to identify with a certain gender, to master the rules and norms specific to that gender, and to demonstrate them in their behavior. The cognitive component of young women's gender identity includes knowledge of differences between men and women, women's social roles, women's psychological peculiarities, as well as learned sociocultural descriptions of women and gender stereotypes and original female images. Emotional assessment of women's social roles is a self-perception of themselves as female representatives, as well as a category of acceptance/non-acceptance of themselves as women. The behavioral component is divided into two aspects: real and imaginary behavior with representatives of their own and opposite sexes. This component covers the spectrum of behaviour within the main social roles of the woman (mother, wife, mistress, mistress, businesswoman, girlfriend). In this work, we are interested in the archetypal images that young women prefer (often without realizing it) and are guided by in everyday life.
End of the first part.


message 13: by Manish (new)

Manish Srivastava (manishsrivastava) | 1 comments What is the masculine and feminine essence each one of us have beyond our genders? How to we accept and heal that? Check out the book Trading Armour for a Flower: Rise of New Masculine


message 14: by Pam (new)

Pam | 1070 comments Mod
Emma wrote: "Are you actually interested in discussions in this thread? Because it seems like all you want to do is monologue..."


I know I don't read it. Sorry. :(

But by the prolific posting we can see that Evgeny puts in a lot of work to write this all out.

So if it makes them happy and since it's on their own thread. And they're not attacking anyone. Whelp... I'm not a moderator. So have fun


message 15: by Hannah (new)

Hannah | 22 comments I feel like this is just an information dump.


message 16: by Ryan (new)

Ryan Knight | 7 comments Honestly, this is an impressive amount of work. The word count alone is wild. Might I suggest though, Instead of posting such a massive amount of information here, maybe you can write it down on paper and make it a book. It seems like you have the passion for it and nothing beats pen and paper.


message 17: by Erik (new)

Erik Rodriguez | 1 comments We should consider if we talk about physical, mental or cultural differences. Physically there is an obvious difference between genders, mentally I believe in equal opportunities and thinking. But, culturally, there is a protectionism that cannot be denied and which I do not consider harmful, on the contrary, it is a natural condition of the human being and of the evolution of the species.


message 18: by Beatriz (new)

Beatriz Oliveira | 10 comments About the physical differences I recommend this book: "The gendered brain" by Gina Rippon. It's good to read a bit of 21th century science and see what's going on right now.


message 19: by Colleen Chi-Girl (new)

Colleen Chi-Girl (colleenchi-girlakacolleensnapped) | 40 comments This last excerpt seems like it’s from the 1920’s or 1950’s and you didn’t give dis-credit to the silly author.


message 20: by Colleen Chi-Girl (new)

Colleen Chi-Girl (colleenchi-girlakacolleensnapped) | 40 comments Hmmm...I just don’t see it as an aphorism, but more to the point, whose work is it and what are you saying about it by posting it here?

“An aphorism is a short, witty statement that usually reflects some truth about life.” Whereas...

“An epigram is a short poem that also expresses some truth, but it might have a sarcastic or humorous tone.”


message 21: by Debra (new)

Debra | 20 comments Evgeny, thank you for sharing your important insights.


message 22: by Pam (new)

Pam | 1070 comments Mod
Troll in the thread!

Trolll!

I thought you all should know.


message 23: by Mathemilda (last edited Feb 05, 2020 10:22PM) (new)

Mathemilda | 15 comments Hannah wrote: "I feel like this is just an information dump."
Is it too much for you to digest? Or you do not like scientific approach as whole?
I see it as an attempt to start a discussion.


message 24: by Humpel (new)

Humpel | 2 comments Well this is a topic that heats the mind. It is important not to impose an opinion on anyone but to be open to other views. Interesting information so far.


message 25: by Mathemilda (last edited Feb 05, 2020 10:09PM) (new)

Mathemilda | 15 comments Evgeny wrote: "The wife is about her husband:
- I don't know what's going on. I have a beautiful husband, I love him. He's a great father, often working with his son, and you can rely on him for a lot of things. ..."

It is an interesting situation, and it is always helpful to "mirror" them to a man. Say a man claims that he does not want intimacy with his wife anymore. And his friends immediately reply that it is natural, any woman can become boring with time and it means that he needs a mistress. But I never heard the same advice to a woman. Somehow for a woman seeing a husband as too familiar and being interested in other men is not even considered as a good reason for a lover. Only if he cannot perform in bed. Or she fell in love, and it is a great feeling, with connections on so many levels! But seeking diversity in sex is still a taboo.


message 26: by Ari (new)

Ari | 4 comments this whole thread is a yikes from me as someone who isn't cis


message 27: by Holly (last edited Feb 14, 2020 05:48AM) (new)

Holly (goldikova) Evgeny, I find this line of thought fascinating. I became a mother at the age of 41 and waiting to have a child was a really good decision for me. In my twenties I didn't have the emotional maturity to be a good mother.

Here is an interesting fact about mother/offspring relationships in non-human mammals. Puppies who remain with their mother and littermates a full ten weeks instead of the usual six or eight weeks have fewer behavioral problems, bond more closely with their humans and are easier to train.

Equines are another matter. It is often noted that on the racetrack, fillies don't recognize colts as competition and therefore don't bother to get ahead of them in a race. This is due to their societal herd structure. However, successful racing mares like Zenyatta, Goldikova and others were born to mares that were high in the herd structure. Their mamas taught them how to be the boss, and gave them the desire to be out in front of the group, even if there were colts racing against them.

The nurturing that living creatures are given as babies will affect them all through their lives and it's interesting to see how this changes among the different species. We can learn a lot from animals.


message 28: by Ari (new)

Ari | 4 comments "pity ruins a man"? tf.


message 29: by Holly (new)

Holly (goldikova) Evgeny wrote: "The truth about pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood

Researchers at a university located in Tel Aviv have studied the nature of stress experienced by women after childbirth. It turned out that the..."


My own personal experiences with pregnancy, childbirth and mothering couldn't be more different than what is described in this study. I enjoyed my pregnancy, I was happy and healthy. I chose a drug-free labor and I don't recall it as being anything too painful. I can definitely say that I've had far more painful experiences in the dentist's chair. The lack of sleep and food was more of an issue than pain. I didn't have any post-partum depression, either; I would have to say that it would more accurately be called a post-partum euphoria, but I've never heard that phenomenon being discussed.

I definitely wasn't a young mother, though, I was 41, so perhaps that made a big difference.


message 30: by Pam (new)

Pam | 1070 comments Mod
Holly wrote: "Evgeny wrote: "My own personal experiences with pregnancy, childbirth and mothering couldn't be more different than what is described in this study."

Makes sense Holly. The study was very, very tiny. Only 89 people were surveyed and of them only 3.5 people had the condition. This study also was trying to show that post-partum has the same effects on the brain as PTSD.

But it's either a failure of the study or from the journalists reporting to see how the researchers collected their data. Were the 89 women's brain's scanned? Was this all verbal survey?

What sort of conditions did they have prior to childbirth? Did the study being in Israel and everything going on in the middle east have an effect? What does " a classic set of psychological traumas mean? Is that "terrorist seizure, rape, a car accident or a natural disaster" again, one doesn't need to have these items happen to them to have high levels of anxiety, especially with the idea of bringing a child into the world.

I think more research needs to be done before we think that postpartum = PTSD.


message 31: by John (new)

John Molloy | 2 comments Evgeny wrote: "The truth about pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood

Researchers at a university located in Tel Aviv have studied the nature of stress experienced by women after childbirth. It turned out that the..."


Excuse me for coming into your sacred space about child berth, as a male I may have no right to intrude. What drew me in was the mention of Tel Aviv, because I've read quite a lot on old Jewish laws about conception and it is one subject that is not addressed in the U.K. or Ireland. When you think about it having a baby is the most important decision a couple will make in their life time. Bringing another human being into the World is such a huge decision and commitment, but sadly this is not always the consideration of couples. How many children are conceived on a whim of too much wine or a drug, couples who barely know one another? Well this should not happen but unfortunately does. But for couples who are seriously deciding to have a family there is not enough education about conception times with the female, as most people know nowadays a female is only fertile for twelve hours a month, and conception during this short time can sometimes if not planned be hazardous to say the least if the egg is fertilised near the end of its twelve hour life cycle. There is an old Jewish Law 'NIDDAN LAW' which advises couples when to have intercourse to have a healthy conception. Now the Jewish race have the lowest percent of mentally challenged children in the world, unfortunately U.K. and Ireland have an ever increasing number of these unfortunate children.
Take a look at this ancient LAW and see what you think of it's credibility. I hope by writing this I am not intruding on peoples privacies and sensibilities.


message 32: by Ari (new)

Ari | 4 comments Evgeny, can you stfu?


message 33: by Briana (new)

Briana Louisa (brianalouisa16) | 1 comments Ari wrote: "Evgeny, can you stfu?"


lol They've been going since November...


message 35: by Florian (new)

Florian (laughingflow) | 215 comments @Ari and Briana: does Evgeny hurt anyone by writing those posts? Are we forced to read them?
Let him write it as long as nobody is harmed. Not a fan of this member but here does not seem to do anything wrong 😉


message 36: by Golita (new)

Golita | 4 comments @Goodreads Member

Thanks for the good topic. The LGBT community and the new feminists, unfortunately because they do not study well enough, attack people like you and JK Rowling and quickly label them as transphobic.
These people and extreme gender ideology activists are don't know neither history, biology, sociology, anthropology nor feminism.


If you do not know the difference between the sex and gender and do not fight against gender, you are not a feminist at all. It does not matter if it is radical feminism or socialism feminism, psychoanalysis feminism or liberal feminism. All feminist constructs, while recognizing sex differences, call for disappearances gender-related sociopolitical and economic norms.


SEX IS REAL, gender is not.
Gender, Family, misogyny, Homophobia and ect are patriarchy legacy. 
Gender is harmful
If you are supporting gender ideology in the name of LGBT support, it means you are absolutely ignorant. read more for god sake.


Creating new genders and removing the words of women does not create equality, you continue the path of patriarchy to oppress, #FemaleErasure and #WarOnWomen


message 37: by Katja (new)

Katja | 1 comments I think the main problem throughout this debate is that "sex" and "gender" are regarded as two independent issues when it comes to defining these two terms. While the term "sex" is reduced to a person's biology, the term "gender" is used to describe the gender role or the gender identification of a person which is often linked to social and cultural norms that have evolved over decades.
Don't get me wrong, it's totally okay and important to differentiate and to examine the phenomenon how and why cultural traditions and social expectations influence our gender identity.
However, the mistake which is constantly being made in this discussion is to not acknowledge the fact that human biology/sex does affect gender identification and behaviour due to hormonal processes in the human body as testosterone or oestrogen have impacts on the development of the brain. This serves well as an explanation as to why most individuals who are biologically born male or female identify themselves as male or female without having to think about that fact. Recent studies conducted on transgender people have shown that their brains have similarities with brains of people of the opposite "sex"which leads to the assumption that this might be due to hormonal imbalances or hormonal development failure in the embryonic period. The hormonal development process of an embryo can be interrupted on different levels of the development for example when there is a gonadal aberration or when the receptors for testosterone/oestrogen are malfunctioning. As a consequence, individuals affected by these embryotic developmental incidents happen to be born as intersex people, so among researchers of this topic there is the deliberation if transgender might be a subcategory of intersex phenomenons. This is my point of view as a medical student as we were told in university that hormons intervene indeed brain evolution so I think that it's wrong to consider "sex" and "gender" as thoroughly independent from each other.


message 38: by Narges (new)

Narges  | 1 comments Oh thats right
My hysband need to read that he is the chef now 😂


message 39: by Debbyanne (new)

Debbyanne Southwell | 12 comments so many different opinions and a lot to read and take in but brings up some valid points. I find that people say as a woman we are more emotional and that men are more the stand back and access the situation. My husband is a facts man. Give him an idea I would like to do and he wants the measurements,direction etc. While I am more just interested in doing it and enjoy the challenge. Being different to each other can be great as he has taught me a lot. Especially about being confident in myself and confident and free to state my opinion. Our differences can be a blessing most of the time! At times we log heads because one of us likes to rule the roost but I am learning that backing away can make you stronger and happier then ending up hurting each other. We have a wonderful marriage and both are survivors of domestic violence and abuse and unacceptable from family members but have a lot of community country support as well. God made us different and we just have to accept each other and learn to see that our differences can be a blessing and a time for us to heal from past and move into a bright future that God has for us. Hope this does not offend anyone ? I am new to this group but enjoying reading and commenting . Look forward to sharing more and reading! God Bless


message 40: by Helena (last edited Sep 26, 2020 01:16PM) (new)

Helena Oda | 1 comments Great conversation! When we consider an "objective" question, can we conclude why we choose to entertain or acknowledge the qualifications or disqualifications of a craft based on sex? My opinion is that we can't answer a question formed on biases with an objective view. However, I think women are less praised for being chefs due to the investment in celebrity status. For many women, I imagine that the pursuit of acknowledgment amongst other women holds less awe than the praise that comes from men with authority. Historically men have claimed food as the scientific pursuit of men. Therefore, women find themselves challenged by men's barriers held by bias (and other women who reinforced biases against women) like many other crafts of industry or systematic study. Interestingly, maybe some of what we taste is not just the food but our desire to experience something definitively. Therefore, we unconsciously conclude that one sex is better than another by critical acclaim.
On this matter, Debbyanne made a great assessment of what defines a valid opinion. I agree that confidence in our own experiences or preferences and then appreciating the differences of opinion forms a higher evaluation than a famed conception.
Overall, I believe that food is one of those rare crafts were the outcome is better when a person intends to spark care and happiness. Although a chef with access to training and food education would also influence the outcome of food. If a food critic were to assume that only male chefs were of special notice, then they would surely be misguided.
Women chefs that I would love to meet and try their food would be Rosalia Chayotes Chuc, Chisaki Iba, Mashama Bailey, and Dominique Crenn.

To your point about the creation of women's role in cooking -- one of Chisaki Iba's quotes is:

"I didn't choose to be, Japanese, I didn't choose to be a lady, but still this is something I am...If you cannot face the reality of how you are created to be you cannot be anybody."

In this way, I think it's important to distinguish the barriers or standards of how a woman is shaped into society. Only then do I think women will be able to fairly evaluate their talents and break barriers.

On another note, I don't think women should discount themselves as not being as competent compared to men because of heavy equipment. Men do not discount themselves when they hire women assistants to manage their schedules, reports, meetings, errands, purchases, and other essential roles. Maybe there is an opportunity to make traditional cooking machinery more refined. Perhaps the chefs' future prestige will be found in the innovation of what a school or kitchen offers all sexes.
Thank you for your post! As the saying goes, lots of food for thought!


message 42: by [deleted user] (new)

Transnational shadow market for trafficking in women

Trafficking in women for sexual exploitation is a shadow market with a multimillion dollar turnover. Women are sold to, from and through each region of the world, using methods that have become new forms of slavery. The volume of global trafficking in women as a commodity for the sex industry is estimated at seven to twelve billion dollars a year. Such trafficking in women is a highly profitable enterprise with low risk compared to drug and arms trafficking. The beneficiaries are transnational organizations of traffickers and pimps who rely on the ignorance of women seeking employment and future opportunities. The activities of these organizations threaten the welfare and status of women as well as the social, political and economic well-being and stability of the nations where they operate. Transnational trafficking in women is based on supply and demand from supplying and receiving countries. Countries with advanced sex industries create demand and are host countries, while countries where traffickers can easily recruit women are supply countries. For decades, the main supply countries have been Asian countries such as Thailand and the Philippines.

Contemporary slave trade: the International Shadow Market for Women

The growth of shadow economies and transnational criminal organizations in newly independent states are negative indicators of globalization emerging from economic, political and social ties that are increasingly beyond local and state control. An important component of globalization is the transnational links resulting from migration. Members of organized criminal circles establish links with voluntary collaborators in diasporas around the world and work within migratory populations, building transnational criminal networks. Increasing migration also serves to hide the traces of women traffickers while transporting them to their destinations. Privatization and liberalization of markets have created wider and more open markets around the world. Another important component of globalization is computer technology, which has made it possible to increase the volume and complexity of international financial settlements, thereby increasing the opportunities for transnational crime and reducing the likelihood of detection and repression. This technological aspect of globalization has made it possible to transfer and launder money derived from illegal activities such as trafficking in women.

Methods of recruitment and export

The sex industry uses women physically and emotionally, regularly demanding fresh supplies, which makes recruitment and trafficking of women so profitable. Recruiters, traffickers and pimps who traffic women for sexual exploitation have developed common practices. One method of recruitment is newspaper advertisements that offer excellent, low-skilled jobs abroad, such as waitresses and nannies. Some advertisements offer good earnings to young, attractive women who agree to work as dancers or hostesses. A check of newspapers in Ukraine revealed that five to 20 suspicious ads were placed in each. Women are recruited through social events such as photo contests. The process is usually complex, and the deception is detailed to convince women that the employment opportunity is real.38 An estimated 20 percent of trafficked women were recruited through press advertisements. Another method of recruitment is through "marriage agencies" sometimes referred to as bride-to-bride mail or international dating services. According to the International Organization for Migration, all mail and bride agencies offering women from the former Soviet Union are controlled by organized criminal groups. Many of these agencies operate through the Internet. Recruiters use "marriage agencies" as a means to find women who want to travel or emigrate. This journey into the sex industry exists in several forms. Recruiters can be traders or work for vendors. A woman may meet a man who promises to get married. The man may use the woman himself for a while, then force her into pornography and later sell her to the sex industry, or directly deliver the woman to a brothel.


message 43: by [deleted user] (new)

GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE POLITICAL SPHERE OF MODERN SOCIETY

Gender is an integral part of social and cultural interaction of people and affects different aspects of life of each person. At present, the introduction of gender approaches in various studies is the result of the interaction of a number of historical, political, linguistic and sociological factors. This interaction is objective in nature and reflects the real relationship, as gender differences permeate all spheres of life.
Social notions about men and women politicians concern their behavior in society. They differ in their psychological and social qualities: a man is usually associated with an active and socially creative beginning, while a woman is perceived as a carrier of passive force. These gender stereotypes are taken for granted in society and culture, despite the fact that the above qualities are not gender characteristics, but rather individual characteristics. Gender stereotypes in the political sphere of each person. Certain behavioral norms and expectations are imposed on women politicians, which differ significantly from the requirements for male politicians. There is a misconception that women have no place in politics, and that only men can engage in political activities. Today, however, women politicians have made clear and significant gains in political activity. It is safe to say that gender mainstreaming generally strengthens the position of politicians in society. In political discourse, gender asymmetries play an important role in constructing discourse and selecting lexical material. The speech of women politicians is quite emotional. In an effort to establish themselves in the political world and to be taken seriously, women politicians exhibit their knowledge in an effort to equalize their status in political life with that of male politicians. At the same time, their speech in general is dominated by book vocabulary, various forms of politeness and mitigation (such as statement in the form of a question). In their speeches, they often use complex grammatical and lexical constructions, amplifying particles, question and exclamation points, introductory words expressing their confidence, evaluative adjectives, and often use the word "mother" when referring to themselves, all of which characterize their speech as purely female. As for male politicians, their speech behavior is characterized by a monotony of techniques when transmitting their emotional state or evaluation. They use in speech a huge number of verbs and many overbearing constructions that express the firm belief of the politician in the stimulus to various actions. Their speech is characterized by the use of nonproprietary sentences, vocabulary repetitions, sometimes even crude vocabulary. Research in this area becomes even more relevant because gender equality is a prerequisite for the development of all aspects of public life. The gender dimension brings clarity to understanding how different verbal, non-verbal and paraverbal tools function in political discourse, depending on socio-cultural stereotypes.


message 44: by [deleted user] (last edited Nov 06, 2020 03:40PM) (new)

Hello, everyone. Here's found an interesting book, I'm waiting for your comments.
https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/4...
Collection of articles by a major American psychologist and psychotherapist M. Kimmel (some of them are written in collaboration with experts in psychology, biology, medicine, cultural theory). Topics: sexuality, basic features of male sexual behavior, homophobia, violence.


message 45: by Veronica (new)

Veronica  (shephoenyx) | 9 comments Why am I still getting notifications for this disgusting thread? This gross regurgitation of thoroughly outdated and debunked texts - written by people other than the OP - is the antithesis of feminism. How anyone here can read this and not see it for the copy-pasta sexist drivel that it is, is beyond me. This isn't intersectional feminism. This isn't even second or first wave "feminism". This is early 1900s trash. It wasn't relevant then and it's certainly not relevant or accurate now. User-bot Evgeny had already been banned before, at least once, as you can see from the above walls of text from "Goodreads member". Stop falling for this bait. If I can't figure out how to unsubscribe from this thread, I'm going to have to uninstall Goodreads, because these notifications and the fact that y'all are still engaging with this is beyond frustrating.


message 46: by [deleted user] (new)

It is important to remember that the division of feminism into three waves is conditionality, an attempt to structure and describe a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Within each of the waves there is a powerful internal development, and each of them should be considered in the context of a particular society. One should not perceive the waves of feminism as a certain linear, evolutionary sequence. In many cases, it is more appropriate to talk about alternative and even conflicting perspectives used to analyze the same topical issues. For example, in the second wave of feminism, prostitution is put on the agenda as an extreme form of objectifying and exploiting women. At the same time, a number of authors belonging to the third wave suggest abandoning the stigma of this type of employment and talking about sex work, which can be a free career choice for both women and men.


message 47: by [deleted user] (new)

In the 1990s, the third wave of feminism was born. This new turn in understanding gender inequality is associated with a rethinking of the category of experience itself. This rethinking has two main aspects. The first is the rejection of the perception of women (and men) as a homogeneous group that shares similar experiences and similar interests. Attention to the categories of class, race and sexuality makes it clear that some women - educated, wealthy, white, heterosexual - are privileged over other women and may be oppressed by them.
The second aspect is that experience does not exist outside its interpretation. While for the feminism of the second wave the key manifestation of discrimination was the practical difficulties experienced by women in everyday life, the focus of the third wave feminism is on discursive constructs that limit our ideas about ourselves and other people. The deep reason for gender inequality lies in the fact that our very thinking is subordinate to binary oppositions that separate the male and female, the mind and emotions, the gender norm, and deviations from it. Resistance to this matrix implies the construction of unfixed, "floating" quirtual objectivities.


message 48: by [deleted user] (new)

Veronica for the future. You should always start with the basics of movement. Stories of people of historical facts, events. This is first of all a real women's revolution for their rights and freedoms is what suffragette means. Deal with the question completely. For whom it was the meaning of life, I gave it my life, not having the benefits that we all have now. A little respect should be shown in this. These are real women.


message 49: by Evgeny (last edited Nov 16, 2020 06:13AM) (new)

Evgeny | 16 comments Gender Sociology studies the distribution of social roles of men and women. Scientists of this direction proceed from the fact that it is gender and power relations that are the basis of society. The feminist approach, in contrast to conventional sociology, seeks to change the methodology of study as a whole: "stratification research, education, family and household life course, health, employment, deviance and politics are reformulated from the position of women and women's experience". My goal is to identify the meaning of the category "gender" in social sciences. It is preceded by a brief excursion into the history of the feminist movement, which is necessary to understand the ideological background on which the new science developed. Lectures are written in living language, they have many examples from modern culture, which makes the material available even for those who know nothing about gender.
Description of the modern structure of gender relations is accompanied by excursions into history and finds its development in a new approach to understanding femininity and masculinity, as well as in the discovery of ambiguous dynamics of changes in gender policy - from working class feminism to "men's movement.


message 50: by Pam (new)

Pam | 1070 comments Mod
Veronica wrote: "Why am I still getting notifications for this disgusting thread? This gross regurgitation of thoroughly outdated and debunked texts - written by people other than the OP - is the antithesis of femi..."

Like anyone here, Evgeny is allowed to express their opinion. If you want to discuss the ideas expressed, feel free to do so. But you will follow our code of conduct.

Please note that Goodreads does not have a system in place to change notifications per topic. Should you want to never receive these postings you would need to leave OSS as well.


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