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Apuleius - The Golden Ass > The Golden Ass -- Books 5 & 6

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message 1: by Everyman (new)

Everyman | 7718 comments Wow.

There is so much in this story of Cupid and Psyche that my brain is reeling. I need to read it several more times to process it before I'm able to start discussing it intelligently. There are layers within layers, psychological aspects galore (all the thousands, probably, of analyses of the Cinderella story are likely to be highly relevant; but also there's Regan, Goneril, and Cordelia, isn't there? And how many others?), all waiting to be unpacked.

Fortunately, others are, I'm sure, ready to step in and start the comments on it going, so let's get unpacking.

That story occupies almost all of these two books, but at the end we get the cliffhanger of all cliffhangers. Egad. How will Lucius get out of this fix? And will he be able to save Charite from a fate, well, not worse than death, because it IS death she faces, but from a horrible, torturous death?

This beats anything that those serial cliffhangers of my youth could dream up. Sewn up alive in the skin of a dead donkey? Egad.


message 2: by Tiffany (last edited Oct 28, 2014 09:28PM) (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments I'm very curious about the history of Cupid and Psyche. Cupid is from the Roman Pantheon while Psyche is from the Greek Pantheon. I know that Cupid was 'borrow' from Greek god Eros. So why didn't Psyche get a Roman name/role? And even if she wasn't considered a Roman god (and therefore had no Roman equivalent), why use her in this story? Why wouldn't Apuleius have chosen another Roman deity? Or is all of this just a translation thing, e.g., it sounds more socially acceptable in English to say Cupid and Psyche rather than Eros and Psyche?


message 3: by Tiffany (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Something else that I noticed in this story was the dying and rising myth (as my religious studies teacher put it). Psyche had to 'die' or visit the underworld and escape or 'rise' again. This particular myth occurs frequently in world mythology (Isis saving Osiris, Ishtar from Babylon, Izanagi from Japan, etc.) I mention this because in a previous discussion others have noted similarities with Christianity and this similarity really stood out for me.


message 4: by Tiffany (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Patrice wrote: "I also thought that this must have been the template for all of those fairy tales and King Lear did come to mind. I saw a friend of my daughter-in-law (it was my grandaughter's fifth birthday)this..."

And if we widen the concept of three daughters to sets of three, things get really interesting. Some of them that first come to mind are: Plato's three parts of the soul; Freud's id, ego and super-ego; the idea of three parts of being a women (maiden, mother, crone) - which Jung discussed extensively. Also, one of the most popular video games, the Legend of Zelda, has a triad of key characters for the storyline. I think as a society we like the idea of three - perhaps that's why three daughters tends to occur so often in fairy tales.


message 5: by Tiffany (last edited Oct 29, 2014 02:47AM) (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Patrice wrote: "The two older girls would naturally be jealous of the youngest but the youngest has no one to be jealous of. I say this because I was an only child but lived for awhile with my two older girl cousins. They were alternately affectionate and mean and jealous, just as in this story. The youngest doesn't feel that intense jealousy that a new baby causes. I have found that to be true of with my three children as well..."

As an only child who was very much a loner growing up I appreciate this insight in how children in one family interact.


message 6: by Tiffany (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Patrice wrote: "And usually when they rise again they are changed ..."

I seem to only recall positive changes when they rise again. I wonder if any stories portray this dying and rising as a bad thing, something to be feared or regretted.


message 7: by Tiffany (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Patrice wrote: "I think A is mocking the importance of appearances..."

Agreed! Just looking at what Lucien wanted versus what he got. I think it's safe to say that most people consider the owl to be more beautiful than the ass.


message 8: by Everyman (new)

Everyman | 7718 comments Tiffany wrote: " Or is all of this just a translation thing, e.g., it sounds more socially acceptable in English to say Cupid and Psyche rather than Eros and Psyche? "

It was Psyche and Cupid in the original Latin text, at least if this version of the Latin is accurate:
http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/apulei...


message 9: by Everyman (new)

Everyman | 7718 comments Patrice wrote: Could this be a re-play of the Paris story? "

Definitely could be.


message 10: by Everyman (new)

Everyman | 7718 comments Tiffany wrote: "Patrice wrote: "I think A is mocking the importance of appearances..."

Agreed! Just looking at what Lucien wanted versus what he got. I think it's safe to say that most people consider the owl to be more beautiful than the ass. ..."


True. But the ass is more useful, and more valuable.


message 11: by Zippy (new)

Zippy | 155 comments Everyman wrote: "Tiffany wrote: "Patrice wrote: "I think A is mocking the importance of appearances..."

Everyman wrote: "True. But the ass is more useful, and more valuable."


But only to the person who enslaves him!


message 12: by Everyman (new)

Everyman | 7718 comments Patrice wrote: "So like Lucien Psyche is warned again and again but she doesn't listen....But she is naive and weak.
"


I didn't see her as naive and weak. She held out for a considerable time, but she was just too nice to keep refusing her sisters time and time again.


message 13: by Tiffany (last edited Oct 29, 2014 09:17PM) (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Oral traditions are pretty common. Perhaps the Golden Ass is the first time this myth was written down .


message 14: by Nicola (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Myths and legends/religion constantly reinforce the downfall of humans from their curiosity, overreaching themselves and not staying in their ‘proper place’. For myself who considers the intelligence of humanity the main prop for keeping us out of the sludge, this is probably a major reason I have never taken any of it seriously. In Greek mythology the main example would probably be considered the opening of Pandora’s box (good old Eve, she always gets the blame…) and in this story of Psyche, misfortunes befall her because she has the temerity to want to see the real form of the disembodied creature she sleeps with at night when exhorted to by her sisters and backed up with the fear from the prophecy that she will be married to a hideous monster. Silly Psyche, total ignorance is the only proper condition for mankind you deserved the suffering which befalls you.

This is nicely contrasted with Lucius turning into the Ass, that is a genuine case of overweening curiosity being the cause of the downfall. But I’d be interested in know if Lucius thought that they were equivalent. Did the writer see Psyche’s predicament a mirror to the protagonists not only in general terms but also in fault?


message 15: by Tiffany (last edited Oct 30, 2014 01:02AM) (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Nicola wrote: " But I’d be interested in know if Lucius thought that they were equivalent. Did the writer see Psyche’s predicament a mirror to the protagonists not only in general terms but also in fault?..."

Perhaps it's not so much a warning of the don't-be-curious-and-step-out-of-place kind but rather be-ready-to-deal-with-the-fallout kind. Especially since Psyche, in the end, got her husband and became a god; she just had a lot of work to do to reach that end.

Now that I think about it, it appears that many myths are about make a choice and learning to deal with (or simply live with) the consequences. Paris's judgement, Pandora chose to open the box, Psyche was warned but in the end made the choice to look at husband, etc.


message 16: by Thomas (new)

Thomas | 4433 comments Nicola wrote: "Myths and legends/religion constantly reinforce the downfall of humans from their curiosity, overreaching themselves and not staying in their ‘proper place’. For myself who considers the intellige..."

But Psyche is finally rewarded for her curiosity, isn't she? Certainly she has to undergo some trials, but instead of a downfall, she becomes a god and enters the pantheon herself.

But why does the old woman tell the kidnapped girl this story in particular? Is it just an entertainment, something to calm her down?


message 17: by Everyman (new)

Everyman | 7718 comments Thomas wrote: "But why does the old woman tell the kidnapped girl this story in particular? Is it just an entertainment, something to calm her down? "

That's a question I'm pondering also. Plus, why does Apuleius make such a major commitment to a story that has no apparent direct connection with Lucien as an ass? This is not just a brief story, but represents two full books worth of the novel. How does it fit in?


message 18: by Genni (new)

Genni | 837 comments I am curious about the oracle of Psyche. In a lot of Greek tragedies, the oracles usually come true, no matter how hard the protaganist may try to prevent it. In this case, Psyche's oracle was that she would be married to a barbaric, snake-like monster. Instead, she marries a god. Is it inusual that the oracle is shown as false?


message 19: by Nicola (last edited Oct 31, 2014 12:07AM) (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Thomas wrote: "But Psyche is finally rewarded for her curiosity, isn't she?

She obtains forgiveness from her punishment, I don't think that is quite the same thing. Had she obeyed her invisible husband she may very well have been rewarded much sooner and without all the suffering.


message 20: by Nicola (last edited Oct 31, 2014 12:06AM) (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Everyman wrote: "Thomas wrote: "But why does the old woman tell the kidnapped girl this story in particular? Is it just an entertainment, something to calm her down? "

That's a question I'm pondering also. Plus, w..."


Well it has a connection in that they are both stories of trials and hardships and they have similarish endings. I won't say more in case it is deemed a spoiler. I knew how it ended before starting to read because it's written down all over the place but other people may have avoided seeing it somehow.

The great joke is that Psyche is the most beautiful woman in the world and seeking her husband, Eros, son of goddess of love. Her loveliness and patheticness obtains her assistance from even ants who pity her plight whereas Lucius is a comical ass trying to find a quiet moment to eat a dew drenched rose and he obtains no assistance whatsoever. His time is spent in hard work, beatings, constant fear of death and the most sordid of situations at various times


message 21: by Nicola (last edited Oct 31, 2014 12:10AM) (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Nicola wrote: "His time is spent in hard work, beatings, constant fear of death and the most sordid of situations at various times

Thinking about it I wonder if that is somehow meant to indicate that this is a 'true' story as opposed to the idealised myth.


message 22: by Nicola (last edited Oct 31, 2014 12:39AM) (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Genni wrote: "I am curious about the oracle of Psyche. In a lot of Greek tragedies, the oracles usually come true, no matter how hard the protaganist may try to prevent it. In this case, Psyche's oracle was that..."

Very unusual, however oracles are infamous for being vague (sound familiar?) so you can point after the event and say 'oh look they got it right'. In this case they might argue that Eros is like a serpent. There has been a lot of imagery over time depicting love as a serpent biting at the heart and 'love' can certainly be a ferocious thing, bringing destruction and devastation in its wake.

Here I think the prophecy could have gone either way, Eros fell in love with her beauty (another thing I find really irritating about myths and legends) and so substituted himself. Lucky Psyche.


message 23: by Nicola (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Patrice wrote: "I also wondered how Cupid could possibly be in danger from a burn if he was a god. I know that gods can be injured but how can they be in danger?

I also got a kick out of how the fine got all of ..."


Gods can die, it's not common but it did happen in the past. Here however it's pretty ridiculous...


message 24: by Nicola (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Patrice wrote: "Tiffany wrote: "Nicola wrote: " But I’d be interested in know if Lucius thought that they were equivalent. Did the writer see Psyche’s predicament a mirror to the protagonists not only in general t..."

Moral philosopher’s are still arguing about that today. Again, I'm no religious scholar but isn't there an argument between 'free will' and 'everything is ordained by God and occurs according to the divine plan'? If everything is predestined then, as you say, how can you have moral responsibility for your fate?

And, to take it further, if we take the saying that a man's character determines his Fate' then surely that is just the same thing at one remove? His character being set at birth as well.

I really hate philosophy :-) I've just got no patience for these sort of things after about 5 minutes!


message 25: by Lily (new)

Lily (joy1) | 5030 comments Nicola wrote: " I've just got no patience for these sort of things after about 5 minutes! ..."

Grin!


message 26: by Nicola (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Patrice wrote: "Nicola wrote: "Patrice wrote: "I also wondered how Cupid could possibly be in danger from a burn if he was a god. I know that gods can be injured but how can they be in danger?

I also got a kick ..."


It was very early on, Zeus killed his own father.


message 27: by Nicola (new)

Nicola | 249 comments
Should I delete my post? ;-)


Definitely not! Some strange people 'like' philosophy! ;-)


message 28: by Thomas (new)

Thomas | 4433 comments Aphrodite is wounded by Diomedes in the Iliad, so we know that the gods (and goddesses) can suffer injury, both physical and emotional. We also learn in the Iliad that the gods are subject to Fate.

Whether Apuleius was concerned with these niceties is not clear to me, but at least he is not completely contradicting Greek mythology. I think it's probably the case that he is preserving those aspects of mythology that support his story, the parts that emphasize the "humanity" of the gods.


message 29: by Cass (new)

Cass | 533 comments Patrice @2 wrote: "I think Cass caught on early, in the last chapter"

Genni @ 30 wrote:"In this case, Psyche's oracle was that she would be married to a barbaric, snake-like monster. Instead, she marries a god. Is it inusual that the oracle is shown as false? "

I think the Grave version simply makes it clearer:

"On some high mountain's craggy summit place
The virgin, decked for deadly nuptial rites,
Nor hope a son-in-law of mortal birth (so we know she will marry an immortal, demi-god, or god).
But a dire mischief, viperous and fierce,
who flies through aether and with fire and sword
Tires and debilitates all things that are,
Terrific to the powers that reign on high.
Great Jupiter himself fears this winged pest (Cupid)

So the prophecy reads:
"On a high mountain summit, the virgin will marry. It will not be a mortal man, it will be the mischeivous Cupid that even Jupiter fears."


message 30: by Cass (new)

Cass | 533 comments Nicola @ 32 wrote: "The great joke is that Psyche is the most beautiful woman in the world and seeking her husband, Eros, son of goddess of love. Her loveliness and patheticness obtains her assistance from even ants who pity her plight whereas Lucius is a comical ass trying to find a quiet moment to eat a dew drenched rose and he obtains no assistance whatsoever. His time is spent in hard work, beatings, constant fear of death and the most sordid of situations at various times "

Well put.


message 31: by Cass (new)

Cass | 533 comments Nicola @ 41 wrote: "Again, I'm no religious scholar but isn't there an argument between 'free will' and 'everything is ordained by God and occurs according to the divine plan'? If everything is predestined then, as you say, how can you have moral responsibility for your fate?

...

I really hate philosophy :-) I've just got no patience for these sort of things after about 5 minutes! "


My take on this is simply an intimate father/child relationship. I can tell you how my daughter will react to certain situations. I know without a shadow of a doubt what her response will be... That doesn't mean that she does not have free will, just that I know her intimately.

I always think of God being so omnipotent and all-knowing that he knows every single aspect of the world, include us, so intimately that he can knows exactly how the world will respond. Even as a weather man tries to predict the weather, God knows it all. Such is his power and knowledge.

So he is not controlling us, and we do have absolute free-will, but his knowledge of us is simply so immense that can see how every atom on earth will interact with each other until the end of time.


message 32: by Cass (new)

Cass | 533 comments Just following up with some other translations of the prophecy:

Adlington:
Let Psyches corps be clad in mourning weed,
And set on rock of yonder hill aloft:
Her husband is no wight of humane seed,
But Serpent dire and fierce as might be thought.
Who flies with wings above in starry skies,
And doth subdue each thing with firie flight.
The gods themselves, and powers that seem so wise,
With mighty Jove, be subject to his might,
The rivers blacke, and deadly flouds of paine
And darkness eke, as thrall to him remaine.

Paints a very different picture to the Grave version:

"On some high mountain's craggy summit place
The virgin, decked for deadly nuptial rites,
Nor hope a son-in-law of mortal birth
But a dire mischief, viperous and fierce,
who flies through aether and with fire and sword
Tires and debilitates all things that are,
Terrific to the powers that reign on high.
Great Jupiter himself fears this winged pest
And streams and Stygian shades his power abhor.

Kilne:
“High on a mountain crag, decked in her finery,
Lead your daughter, king, to her fatal marriage.
And hope for no child of hers born of a mortal,
But a cruel and savage, serpent-like winged evil,
Flying through the heavens, and threatening all,
Menacing ever soul on earth with fire and sword,
Till Jove himself trembles, the gods are terrified,
And rivers quake and the Stygian shades beside.”


message 33: by Cass (new)

Cass | 533 comments Another thing worth talking about is how Psyche took on the tasks set for her by Venus.

She performed typical 'hero tasks', is this unusual to see a woman performing these? They reminded me of the labours of Hercules.


message 34: by Cass (last edited Oct 31, 2014 03:27PM) (new)


message 35: by Cass (new)

Cass | 533 comments My favourite line (it needs to be on a t-shirt):

"The character of the whole female sex was on trial, and the judge was an ass!"


message 36: by Genni (new)

Genni | 837 comments Thank you Cass and Patrice. Seeing the oracle
In different translations makes things more clear. I can see how the wording in mine led me to a different conclusion. (Ruden's translation).


message 37: by Genni (new)

Genni | 837 comments What do we make of Psyche's vengeance against her sisters? Is she not supposed to beautiful both inside and out? Virtuous? But she lied to her sisters in vengeance that led to their deaths and afterwards there is no recorded remorse. ??? No guilt at all??


message 38: by Tiffany (last edited Nov 01, 2014 07:05AM) (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Genni wrote: "What do we make of Psyche's vengeance against her sisters? Is she not supposed to beautiful both inside and out? Virtuous? But she lied to her sisters in vengeance that led to their deaths and afte..."

Metaphorically, do any stories with a triad of sisters show any concern about the evil sisters after the 'happy ending'? I don't recall Cinderella caring about what happened to her sisters, or Beauty in the versions where she has sisters. Perhaps they do but it's never talked about.

Scientifically, studies say that in times of extreme stress we tend to act quite differently than we might under other circumstances. (Fight or flight, extreme strength, etc.) Losing your husband and your home while several months pregnant due to actions encouraged by your jealous sisters could be enough to send someone into a rage. And having nothing else to focus on she went after her sisters. Once that happened she then got wrapped up in the trouble with the gods and the ensuing panic/adrenaline/stress would have likely pushed any feelings of remorse from her mind.


message 39: by Nicola (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Patrice wrote: "I've been seeing sneaky Christian images and I think that is really fascinating. Half the time I think "Nah, it can't be Christian," but the next moment there is another image that makes me think he really is referring to the story of Christ. It's so hard to know what he was thinking what the situation was in roman Africa at this time. What sources he's read. He's definitely read widely in both greek and roman literature. Apparently he's very familiar with Egyptian religion. So why not Christianity? But it seems so odd, too early. .."

Couldn't it be the other way around? The New Testament was greatly influenced by Greek philosophy I thought and nearly all of the festivals and celebrations were pinched. In England lots of the old temples as well.


message 40: by Nicola (last edited Nov 01, 2014 07:48AM) (new)

Nicola | 249 comments Patrice wrote: "I've started counting the references to Fortune and there were 8 in two chapters. He refers to "her" as though she's a woman."

There are definitely Greek Goddesses of fate. 3 of them in fact.


message 41: by Nicola (new)

Nicola | 249 comments THE MOIRAI (or Moirae) were the goddesses of fate who personified the inescapable destiny of man. They assinged to every person his or her fate or share in the scheme of things. Their name means "Parts." "Shares" or "Alottted Portions." Zeus Moiragetes, the god of fate, was their leader,.
Klotho, whose name means "Spinner," spinned the thread of life. Lakhesis, whose name means "Apportioner of Lots"--being derived from a word meaning to receive by lot--, measured the thread of life. Atropos (or Aisa), whose name means "She who cannot be turned," cut the thread of life.
At the birth of a man, the Moirai spinned out the thread of his future life, followed his steps, and directed the consequences of his actions according to the counsel of the gods. It was not an inflexible fate; Zeus, if he chose, had the power of saving even those who were already on the point of being seized by their fate. The Fates did not abruptly interfere in human affairs but availed themselves of intermediate causes, and determined the lot of mortals not absolutely, but only conditionally, even man himself, in his freedom was allowed to exercise a certain influence upon them. As man's fate terminated at his death, the goddesses of fate become the goddesses of death, Moirai Thanatoio.
The Moirai were independent, at the helm of necessity, directed fate, and watched that the fate assigned to every being by eternal laws might take its course without obstruction; and Zeus, as well as the other gods and man, had to submit to them. They assigned to the Erinyes, who inflicted the punishement for evil deeds, their proper functions; and with them they directed fate according to the laws of necessity.
As goddesses of birth, who spinned the thread of life, and even prophesied the fate of the newly born, Eileithyia was their companion. As goddesses of fate they must necessarily have known the future, which at times they revealed, and were therefore prophetic deities. Their ministers were all the soothsayers and oracles.
As goddesses of death, they appeared together with the Keres and the infernal Erinyes.
The Moirai were described as ugly old women, sometimes lame. They were severe, inflexible and stern. Klotho carries a spindle or a roll (the book of ate), Lakhesis a staff with which she points to the horoscope on a globe, and Atropos a scroll, a wax tablet, a sundial, a pair of scales, or a cutting instrument. At other times the three were shown with staffs or sceptres, the symbols of dominion, and sometimes even with crowns. At the birth of each man they appeared spinning, measuring, and cutting the thread of life.
The Romans called the goddess Parcae and named the three Nona, Decuma and Morta.


message 42: by Dee (new)

Dee (deinonychus) | 291 comments Patrice wrote: "I've been seeing sneaky Christian images and I think that is really fascinating. Half the time I think "Nah, it can't be Christian," but the next moment there is another image that makes me think he really is referring to the story of Christ. It's so hard to know what he was thinking what the situation was in roman Africa at this time. What sources he's read. He's definitely read widely in both greek and roman literature. Apparently he's very familiar with Egyptian religion. So why not Christianity? But it seems so odd, too early. "

Also, remember the Septuagint translation of the Jewish scriptures was made in Alexandria, so that is one possible source of influence as well.
One of the main centres of the Old Latin translation that preceded the fourth-century Vulgate of the New Testament was in North Africa.


message 43: by Genni (new)

Genni | 837 comments The New Twstament was written long before A. It was written from 40-90 AD, given the differences of opinion about when different books were written. A was writing about 150 AD


message 44: by Genni (new)

Genni | 837 comments I think he definitely could have read it, or parts of it, or even been familiar with Jesus' story, but I still don't think that it is incorporated into the novel, whether intentional or not. And I think by the end of the novel you will see why I don't think so?? :p


message 45: by Genni (new)

Genni | 837 comments Saying that, though, I think it's really interesting that you see that. I never thought about it and I can see why and how the different scenes you mention seem to give a nod to it. :-)


message 46: by Genni (new)

Genni | 837 comments Tiffany wrote: ".Scientifically, studies say that in times of extreme stress we tend to act quite differently than we might under other circumstances. (Fight or flight, extreme strength, etc.) Losing your husband and your home while several months pregnant due to actions encouraged by your jealous sisters could be enough to send someone into a rage. And having nothing else to focus on she went after her sisters. Once that happened she then got wrapped up in the trouble with the gods and the ensuing panic/adrenaline/stress would have likely pushed any feelings of remorse from her mind. "

That makes sense, although I am wondering if A was intentional in portraying her with this sort of Post traumatic stress syndrome. The recognition of this kind of psychological factor was very, very recent, no?


message 47: by Genni (new)

Genni | 837 comments Patrice wrote: "This is still Rome, not Christian Rome. It seems turning the other cheek has nothing to do with being virtuous, "

Good point!


message 48: by Dee (new)

Dee (deinonychus) | 291 comments Patrice wrote: "I was surfing the net and found an Italian site that calls the myth "Amore and Psyche". Does anyone have a Latin copy? I kind of like that title more because Psyche does fall in love with love. ..."

Interesting observations, however the Latin does call the god Cupid. Not that it's not a point worth making, as Cupid is the deification of love in the Roman pantheon, so the same image holds.

The latin text is available at www.latinlibrary.com (who usually have fairly reliable texts). The first reference to Cupid is in Book V, Chapter 6: http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/apulei...


message 49: by Tiffany (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Patrice wrote: " I kind of like that title more because Psyche does fall in love with love. And if Psyche mean soul...then her soul fell in love with love and it all feels so much more universal. Heart and soul. ;-) ..."

I really like this comment. For quite a while now I've been trying to figure out what it meant that Psyche fell in love with love. It seemed a little strange. But with your 'heart and soul' comment, I can see that playing out in Western literature over and over again. Thanks!


message 50: by Tiffany (new)

Tiffany (ladyperrin) | 269 comments Patrice wrote: "Cupidini! Sounds like little Cupid? lol Thanks so much for the links David. Even though I can't read Latin I can make out every tenth word or so and it just feels good to see the original."

I also thought that Cupidini was a cute name. Although, I wonder why translators changed it to just Cupid in English since the words are so similar.


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