Astronomy and Space exploration discussion


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message 1: by Alok, Group founder (new)

Alok | 97 comments Mod
My Brain thought all the elements we are made of and surrounded by, were made inside the Stars from the fusion of elements, or By high energy Supernova Explosions ......But as it turns out, Elements like Lithium(commonly in batteries), beryllium and boron .were created by a process called COSMIC RAY SPALLATION.

It's principle very simple. these high energy cosmic rays from Interstellar space have enough energy to actually Split the Nucleons (protons and Neutrons) into smaller atoms. These elements are actually produced in the nuclear fusion inside stars but the fusion continues bypassing these elements and producing more heavier ones.

What I love to say is ......Due to this process, today we are able to have these mobile phones with batteries ......without this process, Maybe the world would very different from what it is today .....

message 2: by Starman, Moderator (new)

Starman | 64 comments Mod
i didnt know this too but after some research i am now aware that there is abundance of these elements and deuterium (not very abundant) because of this very process . I wonder how many processes are still mysteriously hidden out there just waiting to be discovered by us tiny beings damm this place is full of mystery

message 3: by Alok, Group founder (new)

Alok | 97 comments Mod
Actually.......... This was invented when scientists found out about the abundance of deuterium.they found out that there is more deuterium than there actually should have been if it were only produced by fusion.............But this process clearly explained the imbalance and ended up being the answer to the abundance of lithium and beryllium and boron too

message 4: by Ven (new)

Ven | 24 comments learnt something new today !!!! Very excited and very nice topic
Topics like these always keeps my inspiration afloat . Thank you Alok

message 5: by Aruna (new)

Aruna | 17 comments Hi everybody
Does this process occur above the atmosphere , if so how do the elements reach the Earth

message 6: by Alok, Group founder (new)

Alok | 97 comments Mod
No friend......It does not occur above the earth's atmosphere. It usually occurs in the interstellar gas clouds. When this Cloud collapse under their own Gravity.......and forms a planet or any celestial body ...These elements produced during Spallation can be found in it......

message 7: by Aruna (new)

Aruna | 17 comments Thank you friend

message 8: by Vivek (new)

Vivek Joshi | 13 comments Alok wrote: "No friend......It does not occur above the earth's atmosphere. It usually occurs in the interstellar gas clouds. When this Cloud collapse under their own Gravity.......and forms a planet or any cel..."take a look at this top (not of the atmosphere!) spinner:

>Local irradiation (10Be)
While most of the short-lived isotopes found in primitive meteorites could be products of stellar nucleosynthesis (Goswami and Vanhala, 2000), evidence indicates that 10Be may have also been alive in the early solar nebula (McKeegan et al., 2000). Beryllium-10 cannot be synthesized in stellar interiors, but can be formed by spallation reactions with energetic particles such as those that accompany stellar flares. The evidence for 10Be thus suggests that some short-lived isotopes were formed by spallation reactions near the surface of the nebula or in the X-wind region (Gounelle et al., 2001). However, the fact that 10Be does not correlate with the presence of evidence for 26Al or 41Ca (Marhas et al., 2002) implies that the mechanism that produced 10Be did not produce the 26Al and 41Ca. It has also been proposed that 10Be could have been formed by spallation in the debris associated with a core-collapse supernova (Cameron, 2001). Galactic cosmic rays might also have produced the 10Be in the presolar cloud (Desch et al., 2004). In addition, the short-lived radioisotope 60Fe cannot be produced by spallation reactions, but is produced by stellar nucleosynthesis, so the isotopic evidence still seems to require some synthesis in a stellar source, ejection from the star, transport across the interstellar medium, injection into the presolar cloud, collapse of the presolar cloud, and formation of centimeter-sized particles, all within ∼0.1 Myr. Such a scenario would seem to argue strongly in favor of a supernova trigger for the formation of the solar nebula (Cameron and Truran, 1977), perhaps in addition to whatever production occurred locally as a result of spallation reactions.

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