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message 1: by Jacob (last edited Apr 11, 2013 05:00PM) (new)

Jacob Hott (jacobhottlifesucksthenwedie) | 48 comments Mod
Here is a bit of info about the species in the world around us.

VAMPIRES
Vampires (also called The Cold Ones) are the primary supernatural creatures of the Twilight universe. They are immortal beings who feed and survive on the blood of humans or animals.

Vampires are one of the three known supernatural species in the world, with the others being the shape-shifters and the werewolves.

History:

The origin of the vampire race remains a mystery. Contrary to popular belief, vampires deviate from those of traditional myth; a fact often alluded to in the w2orld, usually for humor. For example, all vampires have refined and perfected physical features (including their scent and voice), allowing them to lure in prey.

Their skin is flawless and textured with a marble-like substance much harder and stronger than granite. Due to the crystalline properties of their cells, when a vampire is exposed to sunlight, their body will sparkle like diamonds. For vampires who feed on human blood, their eyes reflect a deep red, as opposed to those who drink animal blood, whose eyes will reflect a medium gold color. Vampires also possess superhuman powers, such as speed and strength. Vampires also have incredibly keen senses and are able to hear for miles and see in total darkness.

Vampires are indeed immortal unless destroyed. Vampires are unable to sleep, and thus spend all days and nights awake. After transformation, a few vampires show special abilities such as foresight or telepathy. Most of them, however, do not, and show a prominent personality or physical trait magnified from their human life. Vampires are unharmed by garlic, holy items, or wooden stakes; they have reflections and shadows, and are able to walk freely in the sunlight without being physically damaged by it.

Physiology:

Nutrition
Vampires subsist on blood as their only food source. Human blood is by far the most common source and the most appealing, and subsequently the most difficult to resist.

As blood is the only component of a vampire's diet, failing to drink blood (whether human or animal) for an extended period of time will physically and mentally weaken a vampire. The longer a vampire abstains from blood, the more likely the vampire will lose their rationality and mental faculties until they give into their thirst, because their throats are described to be in burning pain which will get worse the longer they lack blood in their systems. Animal blood is less appealing to vampires though it still gives them nutrition, and a vampire that feeds on human blood is fractionally stronger than another vampire the same size that feeds on animal blood.

Vampires are also seen to ingest human food and drinks, but, since their bodies can no longer digest them, they must cough them up later. This is usually done by vampires who wish to blend in with human society. On occasion, the appeal of human blood can be so enticing that a vegetarian vampire will lose their control, especially if their self-control is weak. When a vampire comes across blood that smells very appetizing, their throat starts to "burn" and all they will think about is their thirst, and thus lose all sense of self. To a vegetarian, carnivores' blood is more appetizing than herbivores, though still not quite as good as humans.

On the moral grounds that all human life is precious, a very small proportion of vampires in the universe receive their sustenance from animal blood, jokingly calling themselves vegetarians. The only examples known are the Cullen family and the Denali coven.

Singers
The blood of each human has an individual taste and smell; sometimes a certain vampire finds a particular human whose blood he or she finds nearly absolutely irresistible. The Volturi call these humans "La Tua Cantante" - singers - as their blood "sings" to that particular vampire. To most vampires, such discovery is an experience to be savored.


Physical appearance
After the change, vampires' physical appearance and muscle mass is enhanced and perfected, eye color changes, and they no longer need to breathe, though they often still do so out of habit, and feel uncomfortable without their sense of smell - the first warning of an impending threat or the smell of potential prey. The ability to cut off airflow from their lungs allows them to remain submerged underwater for as long as they wish, and contributes greatly to their excellent swimming capabilities.

Vampires are extraordinarily beautiful, some more attractive than others, such as Heidi and Rosalie. Their beauty is described as angelic or even god-like. This is one of the several features meant to attract their prey - more specifically, to attract, fascinate, and (if necessary) seduce, unsuspecting humans. How physically appealing their prey finds them is determined by how desirable they were as humans themselves. If an already attractive human were to be transformed, their physical beauty would be "breathtaking". If they were of average interest, their attractiveness would be lower. If however they were not particularly pleasing to the eye, they would become average (as shown with James), but this is a rare occurrence, as vampires normally select exceptional humans to turn.

A vampire's skin is described as "chalky", alabaster, or marble (because of its texture and feel, as well as its appearance). Regardless of original ethnicity, a vampire's skin will be exceptionally pale. The hue varies slightly, with darker-skinned humans having a barely discernible olive tone to their vampire skin, but the light shade remains the same. They owe their unnatural pale complexion to their lack of blood flow; once they reach the first anniversary of their transformation, they no longer possess blood of their own (though they still become slightly flushed after feeding). When the venom spreads, it also leeches pigment in the skin, so after the transformation is complete, the vampire loses nearly all its skin color, as well as any moles, freckles, scars, or any other part of the skin with pigment from their human life. Their strong resemblance to marble statues rests also on their skin's granite-like appearance and impenetrability, as well as the now useless need to blink - the venom-based fluid that resides in the eyes now fulfills the function of eyelids and also lubricates the eye so that it can move easily within its sockets. The vampire also is unable to produce tears after the transformation, as tears are used to remove objects harmful to the eye, and those objects would be unable to harm a vampires eye. A vampire may not move at all, if need be, and if they stay immobile for several thousand years, they will start showing the appearance of fragility or petrification, though their physical capabilities will remain unchanged. Aside from Aro's clouded, "milky" eyes, Bella notes that his skin - as well as that of his brothers, Marcus and Caius - looks like paper. However, though they feel closer to shale than granite, they are no more fragile than those remaining active.

Their body's natural changes no longer occur. They cannot age or grow (things such as fingernails, toenails, and hair will no longer be able to grow. However, if an arm, leg, nose, or other such appendage should be removed, albeit painfully, it can be easily reattached. Vampire venom is noted to be the only thing that scars a vampire. Since the venom is adhesive, coating the severed end with it will help it heal faster. They show no physical or mental illnesses and defects, and their voice becomes more alluring, melodic, and seductive. Their heart no longer beats.

The venom, and venom based liquids replace all of the natural chemical processes and functions in the body. It wets and pools in the mouth instead of saliva. It coats the eyes, burning through contacts after only a few hours, protecting them from damage and thus eliminating all necessity and reason to produce tears. It also lubricates them, allowing them to move around more easily within their sockets. A similar venom based liquid lubricates between the vampires cells allowing their hard stone bodies to move. If a vampire were to remain motionless over thousands of years, dust will actually begin to petrify in response to the venom based liquids, turning their skin powdery and similar to shale in texture, as well as their eyes which develop a milky film over their red irises making the eyes appear pink in color. This can be seen with the ancient Volturi members. These imperfections, however, do not affect the vampires impenetrability or compromise their vision, a vampire that stays motionless would be just as indestructible and sharp as a vampire remaining active.

As vampires describe themselves, they are unchanging, "living stone" beings frozen exactly as they were when they were transformed. (Though to another vampire, the granite-skin feels smooth, soft, and warm and not the icy-hard touch a human would feel). Requiring little or no change to produce sperm, males can still breed, while female vampires cannot; their bodies no longer accommodate the changes related to pregnancy. In male vampires, the venom takes on a form so similar to seminal fluid that it can bond with a human ovum, making possible the creation of a human-vampire hybrid. The underlying biochemistry and physiology is currently unknown.

Their bodily scent is based on their venom, which is pleasant, not only to humans, but to other vampires as well.

A wise vampire will avoid exposure to direct sunlight in public, so as not to be seen by humans during the day, unless the sky is overcast, since their skin sparkles like diamonds; their cells have become hard and refractive as if they were so many small prisms.


message 2: by Jacob (new)

Jacob Hott (jacobhottlifesucksthenwedie) | 48 comments Mod
VAMPIRES CONTINUED

Eye color

A vampire's eye color changes with both his/her age and diet. Newborn vampires show bright red eyes regardless of how long they abstain from blood, or their diet. A diet of human blood would eventually darken them to a rose red color. However, a diet of animal blood would instead dilute the eyes to a golden color. A vampire who has recently fed on animal blood will have light, honey gold eyes, while a vampire who has recently fed on human blood will have vivid crimson eyes. All older vampires' eyes darken perceptively as they abstain from blood, until their eyes become onyx, or coal black. The process usually takes one to two weeks before the eyes are turned completely black.

Only the Cullen and Denali covens are known to be vegetarian vampires, feeding only on animal blood instead of human. Their eyes are liquid topaz, or honey-gold, reflecting their diet. These eyes, however, are viewed as strange and somewhat unnatural by other vampires whose diet consist of human blood, such as James and Victoria, and whose eyes are of a vivid deep crimson, becoming even more vivid as they continue to feed on human blood, and a darker burgundy as they abstain.

Newborn vampires are known for having incredible strength as well as brilliant crimson eyes. Both traits are caused by their own blood that still lingers within their tissues, producing the shockingly bright red eyes that "fade slowly over the course of a year" and incredible speed.

If a Cullen were to drink human blood, his/her eyes would instantly turn burgundy, and if two weeks were to pass without blood, his/her eyes would grow dark. If he/she were to return to a diet of animal blood, his/her eyes would become dark gold, and a lighter golden color, if they were to continue on animal blood. As a vampire's thirst grows, his/her eyes grow darker with it, until they at last become a coal black. In contrast, as vampires feed, their eyes become lighter. In addition to the thirst, the purplish-black bruises under their eyes become more pronounced as their thirst grows. Though if they have recently fed the bruises becomes less noticeable, and all but disappear (depending on how well-fed they are). The bruises indicate that vampires never sleep.

Teeth
The bite of a vampire can sever the limbs of their opponents, as vampires are known for having extremely sharp and strong teeth. A vampire's teeth appear no different than regular human teeth. They do not possess fangs. However, a vampire's teeth are flawless, unbreakable, and razor sharp at the edges. They are also incredibly strong, able to bite through almost any solid substance, including vampire skin. Their teeth are also venomous, affected by the vampire venom that flows in their mouths.

Abilities and limitations:

A vampire's physical and mental abilities far exceed those of a human being. These traits vary between different vampires depending on what they were more capable of as humans. Certain vampires also develop one extra supernatural power manifested from their strongest trait as a human.

Speed
One of the most amazing among their abilities is their speed. They are able to run in excess of a hundred miles per hour, substantially faster than the human eye can see. When vampires run, they become "all but invisible". The Quileute wolves are noted to be one of the few things that can keep up with them. This suggests that vampires are meant to move to a new location every so often.
They can lay down and sit up within the same fraction of a second, almost without having to even think about going through the motions. After being turned into a vampire, Bella describes her movements as being instantaneous.

Strength
Another enhanced trait is their unstoppable physical strength. A vampire is said to be thousands of times stronger than any human, able to lift objects hundreds of times their own weight. A vampire's strength is only able to be matched by that of a Child of the Moon. They can crush granite boulders, subdue any prey, throw cars, crush metal, and uproot trees with their bare hands. Edward feared his strength when first meeting Bella, and explained that there was barely a difference to him in strength between caressing her head and knocking it off. A good example of their strength is seen when Bella decides to arm wrestle Emmett after becoming a vampire. She describes the power in his one arm to be about the same as a cement truck moving downhill at over 60 miles per hour. She beats him, however, because she is a newborn at the time. Newborn vampires are always stronger than older ones, since their strength derives from the lingering human blood left in their body. Diet does not have a massive impact on strength, since it always depends on the individual vampire. A vampire's strength also enables them to leap incredible distances. Edward was able to leap over a 50 yard wide river with ease during Bella's first hunt, while Bella was able to leap over twice his distance, while only using slightly over half of her full force.

A diet of human blood makes a vampire stronger than animal blood (though only fractionally). Vampires who feed on animal blood (vegetarian vampires) find that "big game" - predators like bears or wildcats - not only smell more appealing to them, but also make them stronger than the "weaker" blood of herd animals such as deer or cattle. Strength, of course, is not always physical. If a vampire possessed great mental strength and willpower as a human, he will find it easier to control his wild, animalistic instincts. Even so, if a vampire has not fed for a long time, he will be less likely to think clearly and more likely to give in to his thirst, attacking the first living thing he detects and draining it of blood within seconds, all without a single thought (human or animal). If, however, an unlucky human were to be near their vicinity, they will preferably attack him/her rather than the animal.

Senses
A vampire's senses are also greatly enhanced, which enables them to see, hear, smell, feel, and taste things imperceptible to humans.

Sight: While running, a vampire can see and sense everything that is around them, allowing them to keep tabs of their surroundings and avoid hitting anything unnecessarily. A vampire's vision is incomparable. Everything is much sharper, and more defined as a vampire, and their vision is unhindered by darkness. As a vampire, colors are much more vibrant. Humans are considered blind or mud-eyed in comparison. Bella described looking back at her human life as like looking through a thick, dark veil because of her new incredible vision. Their sense of sight exceeds by far that of a hawk: They can see objects in microscopic detail, and can see into the invisible spectrum of light. Vampires also have much better depth perception than humans.

Their enhanced vision allows them to see the smallest details, and extends into the ultraviolet region of the light spectrum. Vampire vision is unhindered by darkness, and is so acute that they view humans as blind, or "mud-eyed", in comparison. Bella describes her sight as being better than an eagle's. Vampires find wearing glasses or contact lenses to be uncomfortable or irritating because they see the smallest imperfections such as very small scratches and optical aberrations imperceptible to humans.

Smell: When a vampire hunts, he uses his sense of smell to find prey and hearing to track its movements. Vampires can smell objects several miles away in a good breeze. Smell is most intense to vampires, because one can smell the blood of his prey. By not breathing, they feel uncomfortable due to the lack of smell, though they can survive without it.

As they grow older and more disciplined, vampires can learn to smell differences between the scents of various humans' blood, as well as scents of other things (like fabrics - the unique scent of denim). The range of their senses can be increased (though only fractionally) through concentration.

Hearing: Vampires can hear the most muted sounds. When Bella completed her transformation into a vampire, she listened to the sound of rap music until it slowly faded away. She then realized that it was coming from a car with its window rolled down on a freeway, miles away from where she was. When she went on her first hunt, Bella could hear the fluttering wings and heartbeats of small birds flying through the forest. She could also hear the scurrying noises of animals that were beneath the ground, as well as an army of ants on the ground. They also have an instinctive reaction to danger, usually from ill-willed vampires.

They can hear sounds coming from several miles away, and even with their eyes closed, they can be sure that there are multiple people in a room thanks to their varied breathing patterns. They can hear the sound of a heartbeat, a pulse thudding in a vein, and words spoken too quietly or too fast for humans to detect.

Touch: Despite being indestructable and hard-skinned, vampires can feel the things they touch, no matter the softness; such as fur, the coolness of wind, etc. When their skins meet sunlight, they can also feel its warmth. Physical pain is implied when their bodies are being ripped apart by something with similarly powerful strength.

Sixth sense: Vampires also have a keen sense to danger, usually from something as strong as vampires. Sometimes, they may even detect danger before they know it consciously.

Flexibility
A vampire's body movements are uncannily flexible. Their agility is more advanced than humans, which allows them to rapidly respond to change by adapting to its initial stable configuration; They can make numerous gymnastic, or martial arts implements with little effort using a combination of strength, balance, reflexes and speed. They can even swing, flip and swing themselves without failure due to their enhanced sense of balance and flexibility. Using their physical senses as allies, they can find motions at human speed too slow for them to miss.

In battle, vampires can swiftly dodge an attack without having to think how to move their bodies first. In general, only something that moves at vampire-speed can render a vampire unnoticed to the motion.

Part of this enhancement is based on the enhanced activity of their brains, which allows them to think and move much faster than humans.

Venom
When a vampire catches his prey, he bites into its neck and injects his venom into its bloodstream while feeding. This serves as a useful way to immobilize his prey while also initiating the conversion from human to vampire, allowing the predator to feed on his prey without it trying to resist, even though it would not have done any good. While the venom is transformative to humans, it is deadly to animals and shape-shifters.


message 3: by Jacob (new)

Jacob Hott (jacobhottlifesucksthenwedie) | 48 comments Mod
VAMPIRES CONTINUED


Special abilities
Most vampires find their key personality characteristics intensified by the vampire transformation in the same way their physical abilities are strengthened, but relatively few have abilities that can be classified as supernatural. More common would be a human with a love of learning becoming a vampire with an insatiable scholarly curiosity, or a human with a deep value for human life becoming a vampire with the strength to avoid human blood.

But a few vampires do develop additional abilities that go beyond the natural. These extra abilities are due to psychic gifts in the original human that are intensified in the resulting vampire. For example, a human who was very sensitive to other people's moods might develop the vampire ability to read thoughts or influence emotions. A human who had some limited precognition might develop into a vampire with a strong ability to see the future. A human with a good instinct for hunting might become a powerful vampire tracker. If a human already possessed a certain supernatural gift, this talent will be amplified many times after he is transformed into a vampire.

The proportion of supernaturally talented vampires to "normal" vampires is greater than the proportion of psychically gifted humans to "normal" humans. This is due to the same factor of temperament that results in more beautiful humans being selected to become vampires. Vampires are also drawn to gifted humans when they look to create companions. Some vampires actively seek out the gifted in the hope of utilizing that extra ability in their coven.

According to Eleazar, most vampire gifts are manifested in the mind, though there are certain exceptions. Benjamin was the best case - his power over the elements of nature is completely physical.

No gift ever works in the exact same way in two vampires, because no person (human or vampire) is ever exactly the same.

Lifestyles

Though there are a range of vampire lifestyles, the most common is nomadic. The majority of vampires move frequently, never settling permanently in one place. This pattern is partly an attempt to hide from the notice of humans. If too many humans disappear from one area, suspicion might be aroused and the Volturi might take notice. Also, if a vampire interacts regularly with humans, eventually the humans will notice that the vampire isn't aging. Another aspect is boredom; vampire lives are so long that many keep up a continuous search for novelty.

A few covens are exceptions to this rule, and maintain semi-permanent or permanent homes. Doing this requires a great deal of subterfuge - if the coven wants to avoid suspicion and keep the Volturi from becoming involved - and most vampires don't care for the hassle.

Vampires usually travel alone or in pairs. It is said that James' coven, which included three vampires (members: Victoria, James and Laurent), was considered large. The only exceptions are, in order of decreasing numbers, the Volturi, the Cullens and the Denalis.

So the Life styles are:
Nomadic-Always moving around to avoid conflict.
Permenant-Staying in one place to grow and expand.

Psychology

Characteristics: When a human becomes a vampire, all of his natural behavior, needs and characteristics are frozen within him forever, though they are also heightened at the same time. From the moment a vampire is made, his interests, dislikes and personality are permanently petrified. For instance, if a human with a loving character becomes a vampire, his or her passion is magnified, allowing him or her to love others even more intensely. Another example is if the human was ambitious and cunning, those characteristics become magnified as a vampire, thus making him a ruthless killer. The only aspect that does change is the vampire's outlook on the world.

Instincts: Aside from their original personalities, they also have ferocious instincts and a compelling drive for consuming blood. The moment they give in to their thirst, all of their human characteristics disappear and they could risk hurting one another by competing for prey. The longer they abstain from blood completely, the harder it becomes for them to resist, and eventually they will give in to their thirst.

Vampires are feral, predatory creatures, and far more savage and beast-like than their human appearance suggests. They growl, hiss, snarl, and curl their lips back baring their teeth as signs of aggression when provoked. They also have a sense of self-preservation; when they are confronted with danger that proves too overwhelming for their capabilities, they will immediately evade the area, unless there is something holding them back.

Bonding factors: Though vampires are mostly territorial and nomadic, there are few possibilities for them to bond with one another and with other species. The first bonding force is romance: If a vampire falls in love, that feeling never fades away and that love is bound for eternity. As a general rule, only the bond between mates is strong enough to survive the competitive drive for blood. Larger covens are less stable, and usually end because of internal violence. If a vampire was romantically bound to someone before he turned, that love will remain as a permanent aspect in his characteristics after the transformation. It is also possible for a vampire to fall in love after he was turned, and that love will be just as permanent as any other.

Another prevalent vampire trait is that of a vengeful nature. Related again to their unchanging state, vampires are not forgiving; they do not move past an insult or injury. The most common example of vampire vengeance is the aftermath of the loss of a mate. When a vampire loses his mate, he never recovers from the pain. He cannot rest until the party responsible is eradicated. Centuries can pass without lessening the ferocity of his need for vengeance. However, it is possible to suppress that desire if they compel themselves to focus.

The second bonding force, and one that is able to keep a large coven stable, is ambition. Vampires are competitive by nature, and some vampires have been able to evolve this competitive disposition into a greater cause capable of uniting many individuals into a secure whole. The pursuit of power is that bonding cause for vampires. The Romanians were the first to do this successfully for a significant length of time.

The third, and rarest, bonding force is the vampire conscience. Very few vampires are born with or develop a value for human life. The consumption of human blood is such a known aspect of vampire life that few ever question it; the driving thirst for human blood seems irresistible. However, those who do learn to value human life in spite of this reality are able to subsist on animal blood. Vampires who live this way are sometimes referred to as "vegetarians". Animal blood is unappealing to vampires, and thus a difficult diet to maintain. Those who make the sacrifice, though, experience related benefits. In the absence of human blood, the competitive drive disappears. Vampires are able to form bonds of love in addition to the bond between mates. The weak coven alliance is replaced by a strong, family-style union. The Cullen and Denali covens are the only known groups to have successfully adjusted to this diet.

Transformation

It is known that humans can be changed into vampires from another vampire's venomous bite, and vampire venom is nothing more than a deadly poison to animals.

Transformation from human to vampire is described as being "the sharpest memory they have of their human life." Once a human is bitten, the venom from glands inside the vampire's mouth is injected into the bloodstream and will travel throughout the body to change every living cell.

Depending upon "how much venom is in the bloodstream, and how close the venom enters to the heart", the transformation could last anywhere from two to five days. During this time, the human will endure indescribable pain. Once the venom is injected, it is described very close to being burned alive. The venom will then make its way throughout the body. Next through the heart, and it will pump again and again in the heart until it starts meeting itself in the veins. Then it will burn all the veins until the heart stops beating. It moves slower than blood because it is thicker, which makes the transformation long-lasting. Each beat of the heart can only push it so far. The changing/burning process is slow. The venom has to saturate every cell in the body before the process can be completed.

There is no medicine that is strong enough to numb the pain; the best one could do is to immobilize the body.

Weaknesses

Vampires are not known to be killed by human effort, are unharmed by sunlight, garlic, holy water, silver, any kind of stake or cross, and can enter homes without permission. Also, any kind of human weapon, including bullets, bounces off of them without any pain or harm done. The only known way to kill a vampire is to dismember his or her body and burn the remains before it can reconstruct itself. Thus their weakness is the strength of their kind or something as strong, which cannot be copied by humans, and fire that consumes them. If a human were to succeed in lighting a vampire on fire, the vampire could simply take a quick high-speed bound to put it out. This is why it is necessary to rip a vampire's body to pieces before incinerating them into ashes, to prevent them from putting out the fire before it can do serious damage.


message 4: by Jacob (new)

Jacob Hott (jacobhottlifesucksthenwedie) | 48 comments Mod
Newborns


Newborn or newborn vampire is the term for a vampire that has been transformed for less than one year. On average, a newborn's physical strength, senses and speed greatly surpass that of an older vampire because they still have their own blood lingering in their tissues. As time passes, however, the venom in them will consume that blood, and the newborn's physical capabilities and thirst will slowly diminish until it reaches that of a normal vampire, by the end of its first year. A newborn's thirst for blood is overwhelmingly and relentlessly painful, described by Bree Tanner as being a "fire in the throat", and they will feed as much as possible to curb it.

Some indications which show a newborn are their bright crimson eyes (due to the blood left in their body at the time of changing), uncontrollable thirst that makes them more ferocious than most vampires, and superior physical abilities. In the Olympic Coven, Emmett Cullen was the hardest to contain when he was a newborn because of his superior physical strength, though he did become a vegetarian successfully.

Physiology

Newborns appear much like normal vampires with the exception of their eyes. A newborn's eyes are an incredibly bright crimson, indicating that their own blood is still in their system, though their heart is no longer beating. In the months that a vampire feeds on animal blood, their eyes will change from red to amber and then to gold. If he reverts to feeding on human blood, the eyes will darken to be almost a burgundy color.

Newborns are also incredibly powerful in the physical sense, being much stronger and faster than a regular vampire, which allows them to easily crush an older vampire. As they become older their strength begins to wane, and after the first year, their strength will be reduced to that of an average vampire. Bella arm-wrestles with Emmett and wins easily because of her newborn strength.

Psychology

Newborns are often bloodthirsty, violent and uncontrollable. Their enhanced emotions are hard to control and they anger easily. They are also likely to kill one another to compete for blood. When they catch the scent of blood, their hunting instincts will take over and cloud their ability to focus, even the thought of the word "blood" is enough to make their thirst unbearable. The thirst is so maddening in the first year that most newborns are more animalistic and wild than their older counterparts. However, as time passes, their thirst will slowly diminish and become easier to manage. Their secondary human emotions and desires will mostly be dormant for a while, and resurface slowly over time.
Bella Swan is an exception to this rule, as she had time to think about her decision and therefore did not have the first brutal year that most vampires encounter. Carlisle Cullen showed an amazing control of his thirst for human blood as a newborn, which kept him from feeding on humans and redirecting his thirst to animals instead. Rosalie Hale had never drunken human blood, though she had killed her attackers and their bodyguards by torturing them to death.

It is impossible to predict how long a newborn or an average vampire will remain vicious and bloodthirsty before their secondary desires and personality resurfaces, since every person is different. Certain vampires may have to wait for at least a few years after their first year ends.

History

In the 19th century, a vampire named Benito invented the idea of raising an army consisting of newborn vampires, since their strength and speed were much greater than regular vampires and were therefore more powerful as a whole. His invention triggered the vampire wars of the south, and devastated their population as a result. The threat of exposure caused the Volturi to arrive and stop them. Though the wars continued after they left, they fought on a smaller, less noticeable scale.

In Seattle, a Newborn army also appeared, created by a vengeful vampire named Victoria to destroy the Cullen coven and Bella Swan. The newborns wreaked havoc in Seattle, with many humans dying at their hands. When the Cullens find out that the army is moving in on them, they form an unusual alliance with the Uley pack and initiate a battle against them, and win with much ease due to Jasper's knowledge of newborn movements and weaknesses.

Jasper mentions a Mexican vampire named Maria who had previously created an army with his help. When the newborns reached the end of their first year and became of little use, he was to dispose of them. Except for one case, Peter, who was kept as a babysitter for the newborns. Later he ran off with Charlotte, after her newborn mark, to save her from execution. Years later, they came back to him, inviting him to the North and its better life. He accepted the invitation.


message 5: by Jacob (new)

Jacob Hott (jacobhottlifesucksthenwedie) | 48 comments Mod
Immortal Children


Immortal children are human children who have been turned into vampires at a very early age. Creating immortal children has long been outlawed by the Volturi. There is no absolute age limit set as to what constituted an immortal child; it was a subjective definition, based on the child's ability to behave himself in a way consistent with vampire law.

Physiology
Like all vampires, immortal children are frozen at the mental and physical age at which they were transformed. Post-transformation, these small children continued to exhibit childish behaviors, including impulsive acts, tantrums, irresponsible activities, and a general lack of circumspection. It is said that an immortal child's tantrum can kill people, since restraint is basically impossible for someone so young.

Another aspect was their appeal; they were both beautiful and endearing that any human or vampire would automatically love them. Carlisle described them as adorable little children with smiles and dimples that would destroy a village in one of their tantrums.

It is presumed that while their mental maturity is frozen at the age they were transformed, they still have the vampiric gifts of enhanced strength and speed as well the supernatural gifts of certain vampires.

History


The uncontrollable, childish behaviors of immortal children battled the vampire laws of secrecy, and these children often attracted the notice of humans.

Because they were too young to be controlled, the Volturi killed all those who could be found. Under this law, anyone who knows about or stands by the child is also punishable. Countless humans and vampires were massacred because of these creations. The creators of immortal children and those who knew of them were utterly devoted to the children and opposed the Volturi at all costs to protect them, and were destroyed in the process. Sasha, the adopted mother of Tanya, Kate and Irina, was killed for creating such a child named Vasilii. Jane and Alec were barely above the age of immortal children before they turned.

The Volturi found themselves punishing individual covens for the behavior of their immortal children with a much greater frequency than other occurences of lawlessness. Because of the devotion inspited by immortal children, the Volturi were forced to destroy full covens in order to destroy one immortal child. After some study into the matter, the Volturi decreed that immortal children were not capable of following the law, and therefore it was made illegal to create them. Creating one had since become the worst crime in the vampire world, under penalty of death for both the child and its creator, whether the child had broken the law or not.

Even after the law was established, the Volturi kept two children to experiment on. However, no matter how many centuries they'd spent teaching the children, they still could not be controlled or taught. Carlisle Cullen stumbled across these children during his stay in Volterra and learned of this law. After they determined that immortal children could not be tamed, they had the children destroyed.

Irina misidentified Renesmee for being an immortal child due to her inhuman capabilities and beauty, prompting her to report the child to the Volturi.

Currently

The Volturi have at last dropped the laws no longer focused on secrecy and immortal children are being kept in covens jsut as normal vampires and newborns.

The Volturi look to rule not jsut the secrecy of the vampire world anylonger, but to develop and adapt out of secrecy into the eyes of humans. The immortal children creation laws were dcropped to prompt an accurate reaction from the mortals.

Legends

Libishomen
Libishomen is the word that people in South America (tribes like the Mapuche or the Ticunas) use to refer to vampires. Libishomen are blood drinking demons who prey exclusively on beautiful women.
the vampire Joham, who believes that he is creating a new race by impregnating women with half-mortal, half-vampire babies (like Renesmee), would be called Libishomen. Joham has created half-mortals which include Nahuel and his half-sisters. An alternate term for this being is "incubus."

Succubus
The Denali coven's female vampires, with the exception of Carmen, used to lure men to their deaths by seducing and engaging in sex with them before feeding on their victim. However, in the long term, the strain wore on them and the Denalis started to feed on animal blood. They, however, kept enjoying the company and nocturnal activities with men, both vampire and human, who by now could survive the experience. This may also be the origin of the succubus myth: a demon that assumes a woman's aspect, seducing men to have sex with it.

Deviations from traditional vampire legend
■Vampires in the Twilight universe are hard to destroy, as they are not harmed or deterred in any way by sunlight, holy water, running water, garlic, stakes, crosses, or human weapons.
■Rather than being viewed as supernatural beings, they are depicted in the series as more of an evolutionary anomaly race.
■Their bodies and skin are made of a material that is as hard as diamond (if not harder); to humans it is impenetrable.
■They are much stronger than most other vampires in fiction. Some are strong enough to stop a cement truck on a freeway with one hand.
■They sparkle like diamonds in the sunlight.
■They are reflected by mirrors and show up in photographs.
■They have no need for coffins; they do not sleep.
■They are not theriomorphic - meaning, they cannot transform their bodies.
■They do not have fangs as all of their teeth are unbreakable, and incredibly sharp and strong - strong enough to easily chew through steel, or their diamond hard skin.
■A vampire society has developed, with a conduct code that provides them with a greater chance of survival than if they were alone.

Enemies


Vampires are said to have two natural enemies: werewolves and shape-shifters; to each of the creatures the other smells repulsive. These smells are too enhanced for a human sense of smell. Vampires are said to be stronger than shape-shifters, and can usually overpower them easily. In Quileute history, one lone vampire was able to kill two wolves at one time, and the same vampire managed to kill three of the four wolves that hunted him another time, while the fourth managed to rip him apart. A true werewolf's greatest advantage to its battle against vampires is their immunity to vampire venom.

Vampires often fight amongst themselves. There had been many cases throughout history where vampires created armies of newborns to challenge one another and gain territory.

If a vampire's mate is attacked or killed, then he or she will likely seek revenge, hunting down and killing the attacker.

The Cullens and La Push shape-shifters become allies, mostly because of Jacob's imprinting on Renesmee.


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Vampire-human Hybrids

A human-vampire hybrid, also known as half-vampire, vampire hybrid, half-human and half-vampire, and half-immortal, is the resulting offspring of a successful mating between a female human and a male vampire, and shares many traits of both species. Male vampires have the capacity to pass on genetic material with a human female partner. However, it is beyond the ability of most vampires to be this close to a human physically and still resist the lure of his/her blood. Because of this, vampire hybrids are an extremely rare species.

The most noteable Hybrid vampires are:
Renesmee Cullen, Nahuel, and Nahuel's three half-sisters, Serena, Jennifer, and Maysun.

Conception

The whole process is extremely risky and can easily fail due to the fragile human body.

A hybrid is conceived by the sexual intercourse between a female human and a male vampire. Because most vampires have a hard time resisting the urge to kill humans, it takes a high level of self-control to be so close to the human and still resist the temptation of her blood.

Once the woman is impregnated, the fetus inside her grows much faster than human fetuses, and will grow extremely strong overtime. Should it cause too much trauma to her before birth, it can easily destroy its own existence by killing the mother. If the fetus is not often fed with blood, it will involuntarily deteriorate its mother's health, making the chances of survival even smaller.

The fetus is grown to full term one month after conception, and will utilize its own strength and teeth to break its way out. This will, however, result in the death of the mother, as the damage is too much for her body to take. The only known way to save the mother after the fetus's birth is by injecting vampire venom into her body and change her into a vampire. So far, only Bella Swan has survived this process.


Physiology
Vampire hybrids have both human and vampire traits.

They are immensely beautiful. Due to their beauty and superhuman abilities, they can be mistaken for immortal children from a distance when they are still maturing. They have well-developed physiques and smooth, flawless skin, which is paler than a human's but not as pale as a vampire's.

Unlike vampires, they have a functioning heart with blood flowing through their system. A hybrid's beats faster than a human's. They can sleep like humans and are capable of eating and gaining nourishment from both human food and blood, though they prefer blood, particularly human. Their body temperature is unusually warm, just a few degrees below that of shape-shifters.
Hybrids do possess the mixed scent of vampires and humans. This gives them a unique scent all their own, balanced between being both appetizing as a human's and sweet as a vampire's. Bella Swan described this as just enough vampire scent to keep the human scent from being too overwhelming.

They have 24 chromosome pairs, but it is unknown whether this is due to a sampling error or chromosome rearrangement. It seems, however, unlikely that they have any relation to the shape-shifters' chromosomes.

As with shape-shifters, hybrids are a blind spot in Alice's vision. This is later explained to be due to the fact that Alice has never experienced life as a shape-shifter or a hybrid, and therefore cannot relate to it.

It is currently unknown whether hybrids can reproduce or not. It may be possible that they are able to, since the primary limitation for female vampires is their inability to change - not the case with hybrids. There has been speculation that Renesmee and Jacob may reproduce, but there is not enough information to confirm this. Even at full maturity, hybrids are able to digest normal food, an additional sign of an active metabolism. Like male vampires, Nahuel produces sperm, though eventual children have not been mentioned.

Growth rate
Human-vampire hybrids grow rapidly early in their life, reaching full physical maturity at approximately age seven, when they physically appear in their late teens and will cease aging altogether, allowing for the same unchanging state as vampires, as demonstrated by Nahuel's lengthy life of 150 years with no further apparent change. Nahuel's oldest sister, Serena, is known to have lived for over 200 years.

Powers and abilities

They are supernaturally much stronger and faster than humans, with sharper senses, but are not as strong, fast, or sharp as a pure vampire (Bella described Nahuel as "not quite as fast nor fluid in his run as the vampires with him"). Like the hybrid's amniotic sac, her/his skin is almost as durable as a vampire's. They have perfect memory recall and develop mentally at a rate far faster than their chronological and biological age, speaking in complete sentences and walking just days after birth.

So far, no known hybrid females have been shown to be venomous, though Nahuel, the only male hybrid, has; it is unknown if this is generalizable. Despite both male and female hybrids showing the supernatural healing capacities of vampires, in such a case as an injury like dismemberment, only male hybrids may perhaps 'repair' themselves as completely as vampires. Since the known females apparently lack the venom necessary for the process, it may be supposed that their healing is not as extensive as males, and they would not survive such an injury. There is, however, a recurring idea about hybrids and the venom they produce. Female hybrids, such as Renesmee and Nahuel's three sisters, may have received prominent traits from their human mother, hence their lack of venom. Nahuel seems to have received most traits from his vampire father, which would make him venomous. It would appear that a venomous hybrid has the same venom-based fluids throughout their body as a full vampire. Non-venomous hybrids may have them to a lesser degree (as they have the sweet-smelling scent of vampires). Nahuel, a venomous hybrid, may display the same scent that full vampires have, without even a hint of human blood (his recently turned aunt Huilen was not tempted by the scent of his blood).

Supernatural abilities
hybrids can develop supernatural capabilities like certain full vampires, though not all do. Renesmee is the only hybrid known to show supernatural gifts, which she had inherited from both her parents, and altered to work differently. It is unknown if other hybrids also show special talents, or if they are inherited or uniquely their own.

History/Fun Facts

Male vampires are known to father children with human women - said children are known in the Balkan folklore as dhampirs. They're reported to show many of the vampire powers, but not their weaknesses, and are known to be vampire hunters.[1]

Another creature that bears mentioning is a demon who is said both to induce nightmares in sleepers and engage in sexual activity with them, assuming the name "succubus" when it targets men and "incubus" when it targets women. Lilith is the most notable example of them.[2] Occasionally, offspring are born from this intercourse, Merlin being the best known example.[3] However, since the demon is sterile in itself, it must collect semen from the men it has sex with for later use with the women it seduces. These kinds of legends are found in various forms in European, Middle Eastern and South American folklore.

In Marvel Comics, the vampire hunter Blade is also a dhampir of sorts. His mother was changed on the night he was born. As a result Blade was born with all the powers of the vampires from his universe (as well as the need for blood), but not their weaknesses (earning him the nickname Daywalker).


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Werewolves


Werewolves come in two different species...
Both of which are natural enemies to almost all vampires.
Shape-Shifters & Children of the Moon/Werewolves

Shape-Shifters

Shape-shifters, often mistaken as werewolves, are descended from the ancient spirit warriors of the Quileute tribe. Back then, warriors and chiefs could leave their bodies and wander as spirits, communicate with animals, and hear each other's thoughts. However, a change impacted the tribe members hugely during Taha Aki's leadership and permanently changed their powers to shape-shifting into giant wolves.

When a member of the current generation comes across the scent of vampires, his physique will build before he phases for the first time.

Orgin
The legend goes that one spirit warrior, Utlapa, wanted to use this power to enslave neighboring tribes, the Hohs and the Makahs. Unwilling to use the warriors' powers for such monstrous purposes, his chief, Taha Aki banished him from the tribe. One day, the chief left his body in a hiding place to sweep through the valley in his spirit form, searching the area for anything that may pose a threat to the tribe. Utlapa followed him and possessed his body, then cut his own body's throat to prevent Taha Aki's return. The chief wandered for a while in spirit form, watching the thief do horrible things to his people. One day, the chief's spirit found a large, beautiful wolf in the woods. Though jealous of the wolf's physical form, an idea came to him. He asked the wolf to share his body with him, and the wolf agreed. Rushing back to the village as the wolf, he met a party of warriors, and tried to make himself known by yelping Quileute songs. One of the warriors, an elderly man named Yut, realized that the wolf was under a spirit's control, and, disobeying the usurper Utlapa's orders not to enter the spirit world, left his body to talk to the beast. The false chief, alarmed at Yut entering the spirit world as he feared that his treachery would be revealed, killed the warrior. Taha Aki became enraged, and lunged to kill the man; his emotions were too much for the wolf, and it transformed into a magnificent human, the glorious flesh interpretation of Taha Aki's flawless spirit. The false chief was killed, and things were rapidly set right. Taha Aki sired many children, and found out that his sons, at the age of manhood, could transform into wolves as well.

That is how the shifters came to be. The whole pack is made of the descendants (to however many degrees) of that original wolf. Thus far, Leah Clearwater is the only known female ever to phase.

Appearance



A shape-shifter's appearance vary in both human and wolf form. This is a list of what every well known shape-shifter looks like in their wolf form:
■Sam Uley: Sam is the wolf that scares Laurent away from Bella Swan in New Moon, and is described as enormous, jet black, as tall as a horse, but thicker and much more muscular, with dagger-like incisors, and a grisly snarl like a prolonged crack of thunder. His wolf form was even mistaken for a "bear".
■Jacob Black: As a wolf, Jacob grows to be bigger than Sam Uley, and has deep rusty-brown fur. In Eclipse, his fur becomes shaggier than the other wolves' due to the fact that he allows his hair to grow to chin-length. When the wolves rescue Bella from Laurent, she realizes that the russet wolf has Jacob's familiar, black-brown eyes.
■Paul Lahote: Paul is smaller than Sam or Jacob, and has dark silver fur.
■Jared Cameron: Jared is the same size as Paul, with brown fur, darker over the face.
■Quil Ateara V: Quil is described as being chocolate-brown, lighter over the face.
■Embry Call: Embry is slim and sleek, with pale gray, black-spotted fur.
■Leah Clearwater: As the only female member of the pack, Leah is much smaller than the males, with light gray fur.
■Seth Clearwater: Seth is tall and gangly with oversized paws, and has sand-colored fur.
■Brady Fuller: Brady has dark, ashy brown fur that almost appears gray.
■Collin Littlesea: Collin has reddish brown fur, with a darker color on his legs, face and tail.


Each wolf's distinctive color and characteristics correlates with each wolf's true self. Quil Ateara V and Sam Uley joke with one another that Sam's black fur is due to his "black heart", while Quil's chocolate-brown fur reflects how "sweet" he is. No real explanation of this phenomenon is given; none, perhaps, should be sought for - variability is the one fundamental of living beings.

Active shape-shifters crop their hair short, as the length of their hair correlates with the length of their fur.
The "monstrous size" of these creatures is emphasized repeatedly. This links clearly with the actual changes in the boys as well, which Bella notes, although she doesn’t connect the two phenomenons until later. She describes the shape-shifters as "four really big half-naked boys." As humans, they are between 6'0" and 7'0" tall, and after phasing become bigger, more muscular, and harder in look and substance. Their voices also deepen considerably.

The wolves become similar in their human forms, partly due to their appearances (hard-muscled bodies, unusual height and cropped hair) and the synchronization of their movements, so that they could be mistaken for biological siblings.

Phasing

The instinct to phase is only triggered when a tribal member crosses the scent of vampires and senses the tribe's need of protection. There's no exact age to determine whether the member is old enough for the gene to activate, only the numbers needed to counter the numbers of approaching vampires. The transformation generally occur roughly when a boy reaches manhood, and is accompanied by a sudden growth spurt lasting for about two months.

Only males were believed to be able to phase until the transformation of Leah Clearwater, which surprised everyone, even though "she is a direct descendant of the spirit chiefs."

The transformation can happen at any time, and is not dependent upon a full moon, unlike the Children of the Moon. In new shape-shifters, the change is involuntary, since they have not yet learned to control it. Phasing often occurs due to a loss of temper. The effects of this sort of transformation is shown in the relationship between Sam and Emily, and the disfiguring injuries she suffered when he lost control near her.

Transformation or "phasing" is a sudden and violent process. The initial transformation seems to be triggered by anger, as explained by Jacob when he tells Bella about his first transformation. He phased later than most due to his happiness with her, and then all it took was his father telling him he looked weird to set him off.

To become human again, the shape-shifter needs to calm down and concentrate on phasing back into human form. Jacob's point of view explains the transformation back into human form: "... closing my eyes and pulling myself together again. It felt like the air was trembling around me, shaking out from me in small waves. I lifted myself up on my hind legs, catching the moment just right so that I was fully upright as I shimmered down into my human self."

Jacob seems to find phasing between wolf and human form more swiftly than most. Jacob later explains to Bella that this swiftness may stem from his ancestry to Ephraim Black, a tribal chief. Generally, it takes practice for a shape-shifter to learn how to phase back and forth. However, he seems to have a better control over it than most, even able to phase in a flying leap.


Abilities and limitations

Speed
Quileute wolves reach great speed, in excess a hundred miles per hour, which often allows them to outrun motor vehicles. According to Jacob, it is better and faster than a motorcycle, and that is "the best part" of being a wolf. The comparison with the vampires' speed is quite clear, Bella herself notes that riding on Edward's back as he runs is "a hundred times better than on the motorcycle."

Even in their human forms, shape-shifters are easily faster and have greater endurance than all normal humans: "Then I turned and sprinted through the parking lot, across the road, and into the bordering forest. He flitted into the trees, swift and sleek as a deer." (Jacob Black, Breaking Dawn).

The wolves caught Laurent, showing that they are as fast as or faster than some vampires; however, they were unable to catch Victoria, who is an exceptionally fast vampire and gifted with self-preservation. Bella says: "I couldn't imagine the wolves running faster than a vampire. When the Cullens ran, they all but turned invisible with speed." This may have to do with the werewolves being quadrupeds (using four feet to run) as opposed to bipedal vampires. It seems that speed is their real weapon, along with the exchange of thoughts within the pack that makes them able to coordinate when they hunt.

Their reflexes are highly developed: "With stunning speed, Jacob yanked a can opener from the counter and launched it at Jared's head. Jared's hand flicked up faster than I would have thought possible, and he snagged the tool just before it hit his face." at the Quileute bonfire, Paul harassed Jacob into giving him his hot dog. When Jacob flung it across the circle, Paul caught it easily before it landed in the sand.

Leah and Jacob are the fastest members of the pack, closely followed by Embry.


Strength
In human form, their strength is extremely close to being superhuman, and in wolf form at its peak and nearly equivalent to that of a vampire. A full pack can easily overpower and kill any vampire, and is a formidable force when dealing with an army of newborns. Bella notes that Jake handles her "too roughly", and that, when he hugs her, it's so "crushing" that it nearly suffocates her. He doesn't seem as aware of his strength as the vampires, but this could be due to the newness of his phasing.

Discussing being a wolf with Bella in New Moon, Jacob explains, "It's what we're made for, Bells. We're strong, too," showing that the wolves are linked by both strength and ferocity.


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Jacob Hott (jacobhottlifesucksthenwedie) | 48 comments Mod
Shape-shifters continued

Physiology
Shape-shifters have a body temperature of about 108°F. Bella feels it first on the way home from the movies in New Moon, when she believes Jacob has got a fever. Vampires' temperatures are lower than humans'; it is possible that the wolves' and vampires' physiological differences reflect the tension between the two species.

This high temperature allows the shape-shifters to withstand very cold weather and makes it difficult for them to become overheated. It also makes it very difficult for vampires to harm them in combat, due to vampires being extremely sensitive to high temperatures. After Bella becomes a vampire, she describes Jacob's skin as like "touching an open fire" and "unbearable to the touch."

The shape-shifters can heal and regenerate very fast and completely. While not immortal if they choose to quit phasing, these capabilities allow them to continue fighting even after serious injury. In some cases, however, this accelerated healing can be detrimental. After Jacob was crushed by a newborn in battle with the Seattle Newborn army, his skeleton healed before Carlisle could set his bones, forcing Carlisle to break a number of them to induce proper healing. Jacob comments that even a bullet through his temple might not be enough to kill him. However, this healing factor is not completely reliable and can be neutralized if vampire venom is inserted into the shape-shifter's system. While venom alone isn't generally enough to kill a healthy shape-shifter, it can be fatal in combination with other injuries.

The actual transformation between human and wolf is described in the greatest detail. Certainly the initial transformation is not easy, and is very disconcerting and confusing.

While their skin is much more durable than that of a human being (to the degree that the bones in Bella's hand are broken when she punches Jacob in the face), it is not granite hard like a vampire's. In their wolf form, their fangs are strong enough to penetrate a vampire's skin. Bella witnesses this for herself during the climatic battle when she sees Seth easily biting through Riley's skin.

The wolves bear an animal scent that makes them unappetizing to vampires, making it easier for vampires to resist the temptation caused by their blood. It is possible that their scent is less revolting to vampire hybrids due to their half-human sides.

Senses
The senses of shape-shifters rival those of vampires. Like vampires, they can see, hear and smell things from miles away.

Their sense of smell is so adjusted to help them identify their one enemy, vampires. It is not clear whether it is heightened in other circumstances, but they certainly know vampires at a distance, finding their smell sickly sweet and repellent.

However, some shape-shifters can get used to the smell of the vampires, such as Seth Clearwater and Jacob Black. They both spent time with the Cullen family, and feel more comfortable than before around vampires.

Shape-shifters' eyes are extremely sharp and can see very far. Jared is known to have the best sight in the pack. their sense of sight is known to be ten times better than the average human, twice as good as the average bird of prey's. It is unknown if shape-shifters can see into the invisible spectrum of light, like vampires.

They all have excellent hearing even in their human forms. In Breaking Dawn, Jacob was able to hear Quil playing with Claire at First Beach from his bedroom. Seth Clearwater is known to have the best hearing in the pack.

Pack behavior
In their wolf forms, shape-shifters show the general behavior of their titular animals, though they retain their human intelligence, memories and character, up to and including showing their human eyes. Pack members are also telepathically linked with each other, enhancing their coordination during hunts and fights but allowing little or no privacy at any time. The Alphas of two different packs are able to communicate telepathically, and can control what thoughts they share, while the subordinates of different packs don't show this ability.

The dominant male, the Alpha, can force the other pack members to obey his orders against their will. So can the Beta, though he can't command his own Alpha. Even if it's implied, it is unknown whether this characteristic is also extended down the pack hierarchy.

Alpha status is related to lineage, with Sam being the exception due to Jacob, the born Alpha, having no interest in leading the pack. However, should a genetical Alpha be unavailable, it is possible for a pack to select a new Alpha from, possibly, its ranks. Though possible, it is not known whether a lower-ranking pack member can challenge the Alpha for status. Jacob never uses his voice to impose his will on his pack mates, even if he has a stronger power than Sam.

It is found out that Bella Swan is able to mentally shield a whole pack of shape-shifters by focusing solely on its Alpha, with the protection cascading down through the ranks. A comparison with a computer net appears therefore obvious, suggesting that a pack does not simply operate as a highly integrated group of intelligent and trained wolves but is almost a neural net with multiple consciousness foci operating together, the Alpha's being the coordinator. This link may also make them vulnerable to mind-based powers, making them easy targets to mind attacks.

Usage of the term

The term "shape-shifter" is used as a title applied only to the direct descendants of Taha Aki who have actually phased - that is the members of the Uley pack, the Black pack, and Ephraim Black's pack.

Being both descendants and fathers of shape-shifters, Harry Clearwater, Joshua Uley, Quil Ateara III and Billy Black have the right genetic makeup and the potential for phasing. However, they've never been mentioned to phase, making them indistinguishable from unshifting human beings; the title therefore is not applied to them.

Genetics

While treating Jacob, Carlisle takes a blood sample and runs some tests on it. He discovers that they have 24 pairs of chromosomes, one more than a human and one less than a vampire, but the same number as vampire hybrids. The exact nature of the extra chromosome is unknown, but it may carry the genes needed for the shape-shifting abilities of the bearer. The hypothesis is that it is somehow passed down only in Y-chromosome carrying sperm, which would explain why almost all shape-shifters are male, while the occasional extra chromosome being passed down in an X-chromosome carrying sperm could be the basis of Leah Clearwater's appearance. Or, alternatively, it may be that it is passed regularly by both sexes (both males and females) and that testosterone may be needed as a co-inducer for the shape-shifting complex together with whatever external trigger needed for phasing - Leah having a high concentration of testosterone in her bloodstream.

Tattoo


The tattoo features the image of two wolves to create the face of a third.

Children of the Moon vs. Shape-shifters
During the confrontation with the Volturi, Edward reveals that the werewolves of La Push are actually shape-shifters and not Children of the Moon.[1] The Children of the Moon go along with what people usually associate with werewolves: they only transform during a full moon, and create other werewolves by infecting a human with a venomous bite, much like a vampire, rather than genetically like the Quileutes. Though they are not harmed by silver bullets. According to Edward: "There aren't very many of them left. Caius has had them hunted into near extinction."
However, with the rising power of vampires not only are numbers of Shape-Shifters rising, but also deep in the most remote parts of the world the Children of the Moon are beginning to thrive in number.

Imprinting

The issue of imprinting is also critical as it is how the shape-shifters find their soulmates. According to Jacob Black, "It's not like love at first sight, really. It's more like... gravity moves. When you see her, suddenly it's not the earth holding you here anymore. She does. And nothing matters more than her." Once shape-shifters have imprinted, they will feel the need to constantly be in their soulmate's presence and to unconditionally give them whatever they want or need. Should the imprintee be an infant, the shape-shifter will act as an older brother; romantic feelings will not develop until she comes of age. Imprinting works on both humans and hybrids. In Jacob's case, his hatred for vampires disappeared when he imprinted on a hybrid. It is shape-shifter law that no wolf may harm the imprintee of a fellow pack member, as this will lead to destructive in-pack fighting.

Only five members of the pack are known to have imprinted, all of them male. It is uncertain whether female members are able to imprint or be imprinted on. Here is a list of the known imprinting wolves and their imprintees:
■Sam Uley – Emily Young
■Paul Lahote – Rachel Black
■Jared Cameron – Kim
■Quil Ateara V – Claire Young
■Jacob Black – Renesmee Cullen


The Quileute packs

Seth is informed that Bella and Edward have returned home and that Bella has contracted a rare disease. Jacob soon finds out that she is pregnant with Edward's child, instead. Sam and the others fear the harm the child could bring and plan to destroy the Cullens including Bella and her hybrid spawn. Jacob and Seth leave Sam's pack and form their own, in defense of the Cullens. They are soon joined by Seth's sister, Leah, who wanted to get away from Sam and protect her brother. After the birth of Renesmee, Jacob imprints on her and the shape-shifters' feud with the Cullens is put to an end as it is strictly forbidden for any shape-shifter to harm the object of another shape-shifter's imprinting.

List of most noted Shape-shifters:

Ephraim Black's pack
■Ephraim Black - Alpha
■Levi Uley - Beta
■Quil Ateara II - Third-in-command


Uley pack
■Sam Uley - Alpha
■Jared Cameron - Beta
■Paul Lahote - Third-in-command
■Collin Littlesea
■Brady Fuller

Black pack
■Jacob Black - Alpha
■Leah Clearwater - Beta
■Embry Call - Third-in-command (book only)
■Quil Ateara V
■Seth Clearwater - Third-in-command (movie only)


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Children of the Moon




Children of the Moon are creatures similar to the traditional werewolves of myth, not to be confused with shape-shifters.
The rarely move in packs, but have recently created complete towns and villages all over the remote places of the world so the Volturi may not detect their presence. They are also never in much control of themselves.

Physiology

Children of the Moon change form only at night, and during the fullest phase of the moon. While in their werewolf form, the Children of the Moon lose their human consciousness; they are feral rather than rational. Usually, they run alone, or with one companion of the opposite gender. Children of the Moon cannot breed in their animal form; they can only spread their species only by infecting other humans through a bite. Infected humans who have children will not pass their abilities to their offspring.

In their animal form, Children of the Moon have heightened strength and speed that make them both deadly and difficult to kill; contrary to legend, these werewolves cannot be killed with a silver bullet, nor does silver repel them. Their amplified abilities make them capable of destroying a lone vampire while it took several shape-shifters to kill Laurent, a nomad. One advantage the werewolf has in both his/her human and animal forms is immunity to vampire venom, both the transformative properties and the pain-producing properties.

In their changed form, they do not entirely resemble actual wolves: Their forelegs are more powerful than their hind legs, and they still have usable hands with opposable thumbs. In addition, their stance is more upright, making their movement somewhat ape-like, rather than entirely canine.

Because vampires and Children of the Moon share the same food source and because each is an exception to the other's near indestructibility, they are natural enemies. Over time, however, the vampires have hunted the once populous werewolves into near extinction.


History

Not much is known about the Children of the Moon's history. It is known that Caius, one of the Volturi leaders, is terrified of them after he was nearly killed in a fight with one two thousand years ago. Aro and Marcus knew about Caius' encounter, and since werewolves pose a threat to vampires everywhere, they initiated a war against them, resulting in the near extinction of the werewolves in Europe and Asia. It is not known if they are found anywhere else in the world. In Eclipse, it also stated that James hunted one across Siberia though unaware of what it was.

The Volturi refuse to tolerate truces or alliances between werewolves and vampires, under likely punishment of death. This was something that Caius tried to stress when the Volturi put the Cullen family on 'trial' for creating an immortal child. But the werewolves the Cullens had allied with were really shape-shifters in wolf forms, and the law didn't apply.


Quileute shape-shifters
Due to the Volturi's initial assumption that the La Push shape-shifters were Children of the Moon, the two groups probably look very similar in their wolf forms.

While the shape-shifters run in hierarchy and organization, Children of the Moon rarely form packs, and they only run with one companion of the opposite gender. However, it was commented that true werewolves are disorganized compared to the shape-shifters.

It has been confirmed that they cannot breed in animal form, nor do they pass their abilities to their offspring. Like vampires, they change people into werewolves by biting them, infecting them with their poison. Unlike the legendary version they're based on, they are not vulnerable to silver bullets. Shape-shifters, however, pass their powers to their offspring, but they remain dormant until the carrier comes across a vampire, which will activate his gene, gradually building up his physical stature until he is ready to transform.

Like the shape-shifters, werewolves probably have enhanced strength and speed, rapid healing, and heightened senses. In addition, they are immune to vampire venom in both human and animal incarnations, and their stance is more upright, making their movement somewhat ape-like, rather than entirely canine. However, shape-shifters have a deadly response to vampire venom, while venom alone is not fatal, it can be with addition to serious injuries.


message 10: by Jacob (new)

Jacob Hott (jacobhottlifesucksthenwedie) | 48 comments Mod
Shape-Shifter-Human-Vampire Hybrids

Not much is known about this new species, except that very few exist in the world at all.

It happens when a Shape-Shifter and a Vampire Hybrid partake in sexual intercourse.
The development of the child is rather quick.
Happening within a two month spand of carrying the child.

Given that Female Vampire-Hybrids may bear children it is still rare as the only known ones in existence are the three sons and two daughters of Renesmee Black (Cullen) and Jacob Black.

These Hybrids are known as Shifter Vampires.
Both Male and Female have vampire venom of which can change other humans.
The also hold Special Abilities of their own.

As well as being able to shift into Wolves as apart of the Black Pack.

The can only survive off of animal blood where as human blood seems to be sickening to them.


message 11: by Jacob (new)

Jacob Hott (jacobhottlifesucksthenwedie) | 48 comments Mod
DeusVampires

The Volturi have experimented on some many unfortunate subjects, until at last they managed a creation of the DeusVampires....

The Stereo-typical appearance of a movie zombie...a souless dead body seeming to only hunger for flesh, but these creatures are all permenantly as strong as Newborn vampires...holding no actual special abilities they do have exceptional senses and an appetite4 for vampire blood. Being trained like hunting dogs or blood hounds they search and destroy the covens and enemies of the Volturi.

They are now made through the starvation of vampires only allowing them to live off of the blood of newborns and the death of other vampires.

This causes a horrid reaction causing them to become rather dead looking and aggressive toward all.


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