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Sigmund Freud
"As regards intellectual work it remains a fact, indeed, that great decisions in the realm of thought and momentous discoveries and solutions of problems are only possible to an individual, working in solitude."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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Sigmund Freud
"A religion, even if it calls itself a religion of love, must be hard and unloving to those who do not belong to it."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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Sigmund Freud
"He who knows how to wait need make no concessions."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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Sigmund Freud
"Here is yet another important consideration for
helping us to understand the individual in a group:
Moreover, by the mere fact that he forms part of
an organised group, a man descends several rungs
in the ladder of civilization. Isolated, he may be a
cultivated individual; in a crowd, he is a barbarian—
that is, a creature acting by instinct. He possesses
the spontaneity, the violence, the ferocity, and also
the enthusiasm and heroism of primitive beings.
He then dwells especially upon the lowering in
intellectual ability which an individual experiences when
he becomes merged in a group."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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Sigmund Freud
"And, finally, groups have never thirsted after
truth. They demand illusions, and cannot do without them. They constantly give what is unreal precedence
over what is real; they are almost as strongly influenced
by what is untrue as by what is true. They
have an evident tendency not to distinguish between
the two."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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Sigmund Freud
"We can postulate that there must be diseases founded on a conflict between ego and super-ego. Analysis gives us the right to infer that melancholia is the model of this group, and then we should put in a claim for the name of "narcissistic psychoneuroses" for these disorders."
Sigmund Freud (General Psychological Theory)
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Sigmund Freud
"I am going to the USA to catch sight of a wild porcupine and to give some lectures."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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Sigmund Freud
"McDougall does not dispute the thesis as to
the collective inhibition of intelligence in groups
(p. 41). He says that the minds of lower intelligence
bring down those of a higher order to their own
level. The latter are obstructed in their activity,
because in general an intensification of emotion
creates unfavourable conditions for sound intellectual
work, and further because the individuals are intimidated
by the group and their mental activity is
not free, and because there is a lowering in each
individual of his sense of responsibility for his own
performances."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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Sigmund Freud
"Since McDougall contrasts the behaviour of a
highly organised group with what has just been described,
we shall be particularly interested to learn
in what this organisation consists, and by what
factors it is produced. The author enumerates five
principal conditions '
for raising collective mental
life to a higher level.
The first and fundamental condition is that there
should be some degree of continuity of existence in
the group. This may be either material or formal:
the former, if the same individuals persist in the
group for some time; and the latter, if there is
developed within the group a system of fixed positions
which are occupied by a succession of individuals.
The second condition is that in the individual
member of the group some definite idea should be
formed of the nature, composition, functions and
capacities of the group, so that from this he may
develop an emotional relation to the group as a
whole.
The third is that the group should be brought
into interaction (perhaps in the form of rivalry) with
other groups similar to it but differing from it in
many respects.
The fourth is that the group should possess
traditions, customs and habits, and especially such as
determine the relations of its members to one
another.
The fifth is that the group should have a definite
structure, expressed in the specialisation and differentiation
of the functions of its constituents.
According to McDougall, if these conditions
are fulfilled, the psychological disadvantages of the
group formation are removed. The collective lowering
of intellectual ability is avoided by withdrawing
the performance of intellectual tasks from the group
and reserving them for individual members of it."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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Sigmund Freud
"It has
long been our contention that ' dread of society [soziale
Angsty is the essence of what is called conscience."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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Sigmund Freud
"It has
long been our contention that ' dread of society [soziale
Angst] is the essence of what is called conscience."
Sigmund Freud (Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego)
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