Ilib4kids's Reviews > Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning

Make It Stick by Peter C. Brown
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bookshelves: w_nf_education, w_nf_all

370.1523 BRO
CD 370.1523 BRO

Similar book "How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where, and Why It Happens" which focus on history instead of giving practice tips

Ideas I learn most useful:
1. Learn more by testing than re-reading; re-reading create illusion of mastery.
2. Spacing and interleaving are more useful than sequential learning and mass practices.
3. Growth mindset is extremely important not only in learning, but in everything. Setback and mistakes are only ways to success. Do not afraid of them, as a way to judge your ability as so many people snare in this trap.
3. Memory is available vs. Accessible (Means what we have learned in the life time still stored in our memory, but not accessible at any given time. Memory need to be able accessible must have some cues in order to activate them)

px 2 primary learning principle: spaced repetition of key ideas; interleaving of different but related ideas.

p3 Claims we make in this book
1. Learning is deeper and more durable when it's effortful
2. We are poor judges of when we are leaning well and when we're not.
3. Rereading text and massed practice ... least productive.
4. Retrieval practice - recalling facts or concepts ..form memory is more effective than review by rereading. e.g Flashcards
5. Space out practice at a task and get a little rusty between sessions, or interleave of two or more subjects...produce longer lasting learning.
6. Trying to solve a problem before being taught the solution leads to a better learning.
7.The popular notion that you learn better when you receive instruction in a form consistence with your preferred learning style, e.g auditory learner is not supported.
8. Extracting the underlying principles or rules that differentiate types of problem...This skill is better acquired through interleaved and varied practice than massed practice. e.g interleaving practice at computing the volumes of different kinds of geometric solids.
9. Build mastery when use testing as a tool to identify and bring up areas of weakness.
10.Elaboration is the process of giving new material meaning by expressing it in your own words and connecting it with what you already know.
11. People who learn to extract the key ideas from the new material and organize them into a mental model and connect that model to prior knowledge show an advantage in learning complex mastery.
12. It is true that we start life with gift of our genes, but it's also true that we become capable through the learning... In other words, the elements that shape your intellectual abilities lie to a a surprising extent within your own control...Striving and setbacks...are essential if ..surpass your current level...Making mistake and correcting them build the bridges to advanced learning.

p15 Rereading (rising familiarity with text and fluency ..) can create an illusion of mastery
chap2 To learn, to retrieve

chap3 Mix up your practice (Spaced practice; interleaved practice;Varied practice)
p46 The myth of Massed practice: feel like a productive strategy, ...but most of material will be long forgotten.
p58 Book learning is not enough in these cases; actual hands-on practice is needed.
p62, it's all there: retrieval, spacing, interleaving, variation, reflection, and elaboration.
p65 In interleaving, you don't move from a complete practice of one topic to go to another. You switch before each practice is complete.
p66 One difference, between those who do and don't (learning from experience) is whether they have cultivate the habit of reflection. Reflection is a form of retrieval practice. (what happened? What did I do? How did it work out?), enhanced with elaboration (What would I do differently next time?) --my comment: reflection and elaboration I think is most critical aspects in learning well.

Chap3 Embrace difficulties
Desirable difficulties.: they trigger encoding and retrieval processes that support learning, comprehension,and remembering. If however, the learner does not have the background knowledge or skills to respond to them successful, they become undesirable difficulties. p98
p72 How Learning Occurs: Encoding; Consolidation; Retrieval.
p87 Generation:the act of trying to answer a question or attempting to solve a problem rather than being presented with information or the solution is known as generation.

Chap4 Avoid illusion of knowing
Cause of illusion and memory distortions p109
Hunger for narrative; Imagination inflation; Suggestion; interference; curse of knowledge; feeling of knowing; Fluency illusions; social influence; false consensus effect.
Chap5 Avoid illusion of knowing

Chap6 Get beyond learning styles
p141 On any list of difference that matter most for learning, the level of language fluency and reading abilitywill be at or near the top.
learning styles
p143 Belief in the learning styles credo is pervasive...It is not supported by science, and it instills a corrosive, misguides sense of diminished potential
Neil Fleing VARK
Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles Questionnaire
p145 The premise of learning styles is that we learn better when the mode of presentation matches the particular style in which an individual is best able to learn. This is the critical claim...In 2008, Cognitive psychologist Harold Pashler... were commissioned to conduct a review to determine whether this critical claim is supported by scientific evidence... The answer is NO...Moreover, their review showed that it is more important that the node of instruction match the nature of the subject being taught; visual instruction for geometry and geography...
Fluid intelligence; Crystallized intelligence
p147 Howard Gardner 8 multiple intelligence
p150 Robert Sternberg 3 part of intelligence: Analytical; Creative; Practical

Chap7 Increase your abilities
Carol Dweck Growth Mindset
Anders Ericsson Deliberate Practice"
Memory Cues

Chap8 Make it stick
Learning tips for students
Practice retrieving new learning from memory; Space out your retrieval practice; Interleave the study of different problem types; Elaboration; Generation; Reflection; Calibration; Mnemonic Device.

Tips for teachers p225--239
p228 Bloom's taxonomy classifies cognitive learning in 6 levels: Knowledge; Comprehension; Application; Analysis; Evaluation; Synthesis

p252 We have talked throughout this book about learning, not about education. The responsibility for learning rests with every individual, whereas the responsibility for education rests with institution of society. Education embrace the a world of difficult questions.
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Reading Progress

January 3, 2015 – Started Reading
January 3, 2015 – Shelved
January 3, 2015 – Shelved as: w_nf_education
January 21, 2015 – Finished Reading
September 7, 2015 – Shelved as: w_nf_all

Comments Showing 1-1 of 1 (1 new)

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message 1: by Krishna (new)

Krishna Kant Thanks for the summary. I like your style of note taking. Adding page numbers next to the note.

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