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The purpose of this novel was to portray how destructive high society, and possibly even the middle class, was in the 1920's. Because the message doesn't contain a timeless moral, is there something to be taken from it, or is it only useful for understanding that time period? If the 1920's were careless and destructive, what is our time period like?

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Sarah I would argue that there are in fact 'timeless morals' if you take the events outside of the historical milieu. What Fitzgerald seeks to communicate is the tale of misguided men and women who attempt to be something they are not, forgoing their individuality so that they are accepted or can achieve their desired result. Gatsby does this whole-heartedly in an attempt to win over Daisy, and Nick also partakes due to his growing relationship with Gatsby; however, he still remains reticent to take on a completely new persona.

If you maintain the moral that the high society was destructive in the 1920's, you can take a step further and say that the high society and its associated pressures to maintain homogeneity is destructive in every era, as it catalyzes the need to compromise one's own character to join that society. The 1920's was a particularly effective decade for Fitzgerald to communicate his message, firstly in that it was the current state at the time of publishing, and also because the destructiveness and deception was so blatant at the time.
Emily Maybe that is the timeless moral- Every era is self-destructive in our own ways. We have, as a society, changed what is deemed acceptable, but we still have groups of people who push the envelope or rebel against the norm. The Moral then being maybe something along the lines of feel free to push the boundaries but stay accountable to your actions or else?

Not sure just a thought.
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