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Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells Us about Morality
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Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells Us about Morality

3.85 of 5 stars 3.85  ·  rating details  ·  320 ratings  ·  35 reviews

What is morality? Where does it come from? And why do most of us heed its call most of the time? In Braintrust, neurophilosophy pioneer Patricia Churchland argues that morality originates in the biology of the brain. She describes the "neurobiological platform of bonding" that, modified by evolutionary pressures and cultural values, has led to human styles of moral behavio

Hardcover, 273 pages
Published February 2011 by Princeton University Press (first published January 1st 2011)
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Bruce Sanders
This is a brilliant work that accomplishes what the subtitle declares. In the introduction Churchland quickly deals with the notion that the project of the book is misbegotten because it falls prey to the naturalistic fallacy. She shows how the naturalistic fallacy has been misunderstood and that in fact her project follows in Hume’s footsteps. She concludes:

Naturalism, while shunning stupid inferences, does nevertheless find the roots of morality in how we are, what we care about, and what mat
Christopher Roberts
I ended up reading this after an extended argument with a philosopher of science in England about morality and science. My major beef came from him conflating the position held by Churchland and by Sam Harris. It is true that Harris and Churchland both advocate ethical naturalism, but to me the gaps between the two are huge, not small like he seemed to think. Also, this philosopher was an advocate of ethical naturalism and seemed to view anybody who was not as being "anti-science." He and I als ...more
Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells Us about Morality by Patricia S. Churchland

"Braintrust..." is the latest book from self proclaimed neurophilosopher Patricia S. Churchland, a fitting term for the accomplished author and philosopher. This book is about answering questions regarding moral values from a neuroscientist's point of view. Churchland uses a scientific sound approach to not only seek such answers but to tell us what we don't know about the brain and its relation with morality. This 2
Joshua Stein
Churchland's book is everything that the modern philosophy text should be. It is accessible, it is technically proficient and it straddles the great border between abstract philosophical theory and scientific fact. I must admit that I expected, from what I knew of Churchland, for there to be much more focus on neuroscience. There is plenty of discussion of brains, but it is well balanced with a qualification of historical philosophy and current events, a mark of a great writer, I think.

The conte
This book was absolutely wonderful. It was also somewhat paradigm shifting.

In particular, I'd really like to praise the chapter on behavioral genetics and the chapter on social cognition. The chapter on genetics takes a critical look at what it means to have a gene "x" for behavior "x". It discusses how genes work in networks and are not so simple. For anyone who wants a more in depth look at a modern understanding look at genetics I'd recommend The Epigenetics Revolution. As such it undermines
İlker Çağatay
This book will teach you all about origin of morality and neurobiology.
Miki Habryn
Wonderful read, interesting, and some absolute gems of dry wit hidden in the end notes. It has fewer good, solid answers than I'd like, but the data that it presents is interesting and the tone light and very readable–I inhaled it on a two hour flight. The author spends a fair portion of her time unpicking the basis of contrary opinions and models, but it doesn't wear unduly, and the chapters range over a broad set of subjects in support of the basic chemical thesis. An excellent read.
Sarah Schoonmaker
This is a fantastic book with a well argued case that morality is biological and environmental. "Actual human moral behavior, in all its glory and complexity, should not be cheapened by the false dilemma: either God secures the moral law or morality is an illusion. It is a false dilemma because morality can be--and I argue, is--grounded in our biology, in our capacity for compassion and our ability to learn and figure things out."
Mike de la Flor
Are you interested in learning about where morality comes from? Then this is a great book to read. In this easy-to-read book Patricia Churchland argues convincingly that morality comes from our biology. Churchland draws on current neuroscience and philosophy to support her arguments. This book is for the general audience and should be accessible to anyone with an interest morality, biology, and philosophy.
The thesis of this book, that morality arises out of biology, is both interesting and probable. I would have enjoyed a 10-page article describing it. This 200-page book provides Too Much Information for an average layman, from detailed brain anatomy and physiology to in-depth commentary on what various philosophers have said about morality.
The initial impressions of this book can be summed up in one word, interesting. I gave it four out of five because of the complicated terms and sometimes hard to follow. The book is only 194 pages, with the rest of the 87 pages are notes, references and a bibliography. I liked how there all that, so it's not like she just made everything up, she backs her claim. The book goes into great detail about how the brain gets morals and how chemicals play a role in it. It shows how that people naturally ...more
Excellent book. I got a much better appreciation for the biology of morality, and a much better sense for what the current state of neuroscience is.
I like Churchland's work and her writing. Braintrust is much more readable than her Neuroscience of Philosophy title from years ago.
Ginger Campbell
Look for my interview of Patricia Churchland on episode 81 of the Brain Science Podcast.
Churchland did her homework. She cites Hume as a large influence of her work in morality, which is highly reflective of this work (and a much better choice than Kant, might I add).

Though I viewed the content as more of a tentative framework than positing absolute claims about morality. In this regard Churchland does herself into a bit of a catch-22: she's so tentative about positing any sort of argument there is not really much of an argument rendered. She does well to say that speculation is st
Peter Mcloughlin
Churchland goes into the brain science of morality in this book. Along the way she touches on premoral behavior in social mammals (especially primates) and our evolutionary history. She talks about brain chemicals like Oxytocsin and Vasopressin which are used by the brain when we engage in nurturing behavior. She talks about parts of the brain used in moral reasoning like the anterior cingulate cortex and the prefrontal cortex. The anterior cingulate cortex helps us navigate the demands between ...more
This was a good overview of neurobiological bases of morality, so far as current science can tell us that there is a "why?" to certain types of social behavior in human beings. Fans of neurowhatsits will enjoy this.

I was a bit disappointed that Churchland didn't delve more into the philosophical side than she did, but this was a wise move on her part. The thrust of the book is the claim that a naturalistic morality is possible and plausible, and her goal here is to show how scientific findings
Sometimes I read a book and realize it is just not my kind of book. This book combines the knowledge of neuroscience, biochemistry and philosophy to look at human ideas of morality. I realized that I don't have any great interest in the technicalities of neuroscience nor do I care about philosophical debates on morality that have been ongoing for centuries. I learned a few interesting things reading this book but mostly I finished it with a desire to be done with it and participate in discussion ...more
Braintrust asks really challenging questions. The answers ( if answers they be) come from the latest understanding of neuroscience by a frontrunner in cognitive science. Well written and very clear, Churchland explores morality, and the questions any discussion of this topic raises in a way that makes the research accessible and the answers fascinating.
Ricardo Di Napoli
Interesting book. It shows how we are able to value moral laws as good or bad without any oder profound rules because our evaluation is grounded in the emotions and passions that are common in human beings since their childhood. The reason according to Churchland don't create value but grow up around them.
I'll confess to skimming this rather than giving it a close read, but that's because it was just boring. To her credit, Churchland gives the reader exactly what the subtitle promises, which in the end turns out to be either 'not much, really' or 'it depends', both of which are pretty boring. Now it may well be that neuroscience just doesn't have that much to tell us about morality, which is fine, and kudos to Churchland for her honesty. But it may also be that Churchland is the kind of writer wh ...more
Alexi Parizeau
Very well written and thoroughly enjoyable. Not to mention dense with insight. This book is effectively a "How-to" for evolving a moral species.
This was a solid 4-stars until the penultimate chapter, which was a bit disappointing. I'd still give it 3.5 stars, though. I will write more later.
Felix Hayman
Whether morality arises from the brain stem or from the development of interaction with others the fine line is constantly being analysed by both scientists and philosophers alike.Patricia Churcland's contribution is to try and use the caring process and the development of the child and their brains as a way of integrating the philosophy of morality and the science of neurology.Does it work?It depends on where you stand.I enjoyed this for the courage of argument presented, although there are som ...more
Roy Kenagy
Oct 23, 2011 Roy Kenagy marked it as to-read

"In Braintrust, neurophilosophy pioneer Patricia Churchland argues that morality originates in the biology of the brain. She describes the "neurobiological platform of bonding" that, modified by evolutionary pressures and cultural values, has led to human styles of moral behavior. The result is a provocative genealogy of morals that asks us to reevaluate the priority given to religion, absolute rules, and pure reason in accounting for the basis of morality."
Kent Winward
Writing about a book I finished two and a half months ago, it is clear I can't trust my brain to remember. So since my brain can't be trusted, I'd say that this book says that the evolutionary nature of our brain made it so the neural net that is me, finds morality quite appealing and necessary. Think of it as a treatise on materialistic morality and that it is a good thing our morality isn't based on our memory.
Tried to read some of Churchland's work, years ago. Found it impenetrable. Decided to give her another try, because she is a highly influential thinker in areas about which I am very interested. But this time around was no better than what I saw in her earlier work; her writing style is neither clear nor very engaging. I felt simultaneously bored and bogged down, from the outset.
Knowing the evolutionary and biological basis for morality is essential for anyone interested in the subject of ethics, at least so far as science currently understands it. Churchland's book is a good introduction to the topic for non-technical readers.
I read this to find out about the neuroscience. The book started out well, but started to bore me midway. It was not concise and fell into repetition or went into meandering digressions on moral philosophy. Not enough science, too much philosophy.
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Brain Science Pod...: BSP 81: Interview with Patricia Churchland 10 24 Feb 29, 2012 07:44AM  
  • Neuroscience and Philosophy: Brain, Mind, and Language
  • Who's in Charge? Free Will and the Science of the Brain
  • The Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach
  • The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience
  • The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey Into the Brain
  • Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong
  • The Folly of Fools: The Logic of Deceit and Self-Deception in Human Life
  • Sweet Dreams: Philosophical Obstacles to a Science of Consciousness
  • The Illusion of Conscious Will
  • Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain
  • The Character of Consciousness
  • Brainstorm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences
  • Connectome: How the Brain's Wiring Makes Us Who We Are
  • Conversations on Consciousness: What the Best Minds Think about the Brain, Free Will, and What It Means to Be Human
  • Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought
  • Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved
  • Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness: Julian Jaynes's Bicameral Mind Theory Revisited
  • The Evolution of Morality
Patricia Smith Churchland (born July 16, 1943 in Oliver, British Columbia, Canada) is a Canadian-American philosopher working at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) since 1984. She is currently a professor at the UCSD Philosophy Department, an adjunct professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, and an associate of the Computational Neuroscience Laboratory (Sejnowski Lab) at ...more
More about Patricia S. Churchland...
Neurophilosophy: Toward a Unified Science of the Mind/Brain Touching a Nerve: Our Brains, Our Selves Brain-Wise: Studies in Neurophilosophy The Computational Brain On the Contrary: Critical Essays, 1987-1997

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