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The End of History and the Last Man

3.51  ·  Rating details ·  3,763 Ratings  ·  246 Reviews
In 1989, Francis Fukuyama began an explosive debate about the future of the world in the post-Cold War era with an article entitled ‘The End of History and the Last Man’. This seminal book expands on his original work to address the fundamental and far-reaching themes of the new millennium. The result is nothing short of an historical and philosophical primer for the onsla ...more
Paperback, 418 pages
Published September 1st 2010 by Penguin Books, Limited (UK) (first published 1992)
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Fukuyama has been an ideological whipping boy since 2001 for his supposed remarks on the 'end of history' being interpreted as triumphal praise for the United States for winning the cold war. Much of this criticism is largely misplaced. He does start off with the bold assertion that liberal-capitalist-democracy is the end point of history, but uses the rest of his chapters to back off from this assertion into a more tepid series of observations.

He does not support liberal-capitalist-democracy f
Mar 03, 2010 rated it liked it  ·  review of another edition
Fukuyama has been much ridiculed since the publication of this book, and the piling-on only increased in intensity after the towering cataclysm of September 11th seemed to herald the exact opposite of what Fukuyama allegedly proclaimed. I say allegedly because Fukuyama himself backed away from the logical implications of his own theory long before the final page—in a review of Trust, another Goodreads member accused Fukuyama of incessant hedging, an imputation with which I concur. This is the wa ...more
K.D. Absolutely
Nov 03, 2009 rated it liked it  ·  review of another edition
Recommended to K.D. by: 501 Must Read Books
Shelves: 501, history, non-fiction
Intelligently written history book that is included in the 501 Must-Read Books. Published in 1992 and based in the authors earlier essay, The End of History, this book says that since the end of Cold War in 1989, history also ceases because there is no balance of power and so liberal democracy will prevail unopposed. The essay came out of course after 9/11 when the landscape of the world was changed especially because of the economic crisis that followed the attack.

Fukuyama expounds on the earli
محمد إلهامي
نظرية متهافتة وتافهة، كتبها تحت تأثير "الوهم المُسْكِر" بنهاية التاريخ بعد سقوط الاتحاد السوفيتي.

ليست المأساة فقط في أن قصة "نهاية التاريخ" هي قصة متكررة في الفلسفة الغربية، كلما وجد القوم فكرة أعجبتهم وحققت بعض النجاح سارعوا إلى القول بأن هذا نهاية التاريخ.. إنما المأساة في أن الكاتب لم يجتهد لضبط نظريته الفكرية بل انساق وراء أحلامه وصار يحشد المعلومات لتحقق فكرته المسبقة حشدا غير منطقي ولا متماسك.

المهم في هذا الكتاب هو نظرته -كغربي- إلينا كمسلمين، أو كما يسمينا عالم ما قبل التاريخ.. هذه النظرة
Dec 19, 2007 rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
I normally dont get down with political philosophy books, but this one really explores some serious ideas while putting them in the context of history. Fukuyama bases almost all of his ideology off of Hegel and Kojeve, a modern Hegel scholar from Czech Republic. I love history yet have found Hegel incomprehensible and too dense to even consider buying one of his tomes - for people who are interested in history or the idea of dialectics, read this book. Fukuyama explains Hegel while placing him i ...more
Apr 16, 2013 rated it did not like it  ·  review of another edition
نهاية التاريخ لا تعني نهاية الحياة وحركتها بالنسبة للكاتب وانما وانما نهاية مرحلة تاريخية وسابقة وبداية مرحلة اخرى ومن الذين نظروا لنهاية التاريخ
هيجل حيث راى أن التاريخ انتهى عام 1860م، لأنه رأى في دحر نابليون للملكية البروسية في معركة (يينا) انتصاراً لمُثل الثورة الفرنسية
ثم ماركس الذي قال ان التاريخ سيحقق نهايته بانتشار الشيوعيه
ثم فيبر الذي راى الرأسمالية نهاية للتاريخ
وبعد سقوط الاتحاد السوفياتي وانتصار امريكا على الدول الشيوعية جاء فوكوياما وقال ان الليبرالية الديمقراطية هي نهاية التاريخ

Aug 04, 2016 rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition

كتاب نهاية التاريخ وخاتم البشر - الإنسان الأخير - ,, للامريكي - الياباني فرانسيس فوكوياما مستشار مؤسسة راند كوروبوريشن.
خلاصة هذا الكتاب انه ليس بالامكان ان يكون افضل مما كان وليس بالامكان ان نقدم افضل مما كان (من الديمقراطية الليبراليه كمنظام حياة للمجتمع البشري) ببساطة انها نهاية التاريخ !! (بمعنى افضل ما يمكن للعقل البشري تقديمه لا بمعنى توقف الحياة عن التقدم). وللتتديل على صحة هذا القول فقد استعرض الكاتب بعض الانظمة التي اثبتت فشلها امام هذا - النظام الديمقراطي الليبرالي - كالشيوعية وبقية الأ
Fayyad N. Maali
Dec 26, 2015 rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
كتاب نهاية التاريخ وخاتم البشر, للامريكي - الياباني فرانسيس فوكوياما مستشار مؤسسة راند كوروبوريشين, خلاصة هذا الكتاب انه ليس بالامكان ان يكون افضل مما كان وليس بالامكان ان نقدم افضل مما كان (من الديمقراطية الليبراليه كمنظام حياة للمجتمع البشري) انها نهاية التاريخ (بمعنى افضل ما يمكن للعقل البشري تقديمه) وقد استعرض بعض الانظمة التي اثبتت فشلها امام هذا كالشيوعية النظام الذي حقق البقاء بسبب قدرته على ذالك وتكيفه مع حاجيات الانسان ومتطلباته ببساطة انها نهاية التاريخ وختام البشر, فالديمقراطية الليبر ...more
“But it is not necessarily the case that liberal democracy is the political system best suited to resolving social conflicts per se. A democracy's ability to peacefully resolve conflicts is greatest when those conflicts arise between socalled "interest groups" that share a larger, pre-existing consensus on the basic values or rules of the game, and when the conflicts are primarily economic in nature. But there are other kinds of non-economic conflicts that are far more intractable, having to d
ميقات الراجحي
The End of History and the Last Man
Francis Fukuyama
أن يتم تحديد نهاية التاريخ بحقبة زمنية ذات أفكار متشابهة هو أمر مضحك وهى نظرية نادى بها (هيجل) منذ عقود طويلة ولم تنجح لا بسقوط نابليون ولا بمن جاء بعده وكذلك لم ينتهي التاريخ بسقوط الإتحاد السوفيتي حيث أن نهاية التاريخ هنا ليس الزمن بقدر ما هو مرحلة ما في نطاق ايدلوجية محددة كفترة الكشوفات الجغرافية والاستعمار والحرب اللباردة والاتحاد السوفيتي.

وكذلك لن ينتهى التاريخ بالمحاولات التي يسوقها المؤلف ((العنصري)) الذي يسعى جاهدًا لإزاحة العنصر الإ
John Morgan
Dec 08, 2015 rated it liked it
While I certainly disagree with this book's thesis - that the spread of globalist capitalism and liberal democracy to all parts of the world represents the goal and end point of the historical process - it certainly remains the archetypal work for the American political outlook of the 1990s, during the brief, magical period between America's triumph in the Cold War and 9/11. And, of course, this dream of the '90s remains a potent force in many quarters of America today, even if the events of the ...more
The main thesis of this book is that the combination of free market capitalism and liberal democracy (based on human rights) represents 'the end of history'. To wit, all countries and peoples in the world will eventually attain this supposedly homogeneous state of government, and it will be stable and self-sustaining. The justification for this thesis is based predominantly in philosophy, although also in history. It is interesting to note that far longer is spent on justifying the long-term sus ...more
Ray Hartley
May 12, 2013 rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Francis Fukuyama must hold the title for Most Misunderstood Intellectual. He is derided for having predicted in this seminal work written after the fall of the Berlin wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union that history had "ended". Of course history didn't end and that was not what Fukuyama was suggesting. He was positing that that there would be no "higher stage of development" which would follow capitalism and liberal democracy. Instead, there would be a continuous refinement and adjustment ...more
Mohamed Ateaa
Jun 18, 2012 rated it liked it  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: owned
كالمرة الاولي ايضا لم اقتنع بما حاول ان يقنعني به ف 300 صفحة
Gordan Karlić
Feb 25, 2018 rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
I didn't plan on writing a long review but because of Marko Pustaj, it will be quite long but even then I will only scratch the surface.
I will start with the questions what is liberal democracy? And who was the victor of the Cold war?
Let's answer the second question first. Primarily victor of the Cold war isn't liberal democracy as Fukuyama thought, it is capitalism. Sure countries with liberal democracies lead capitalism toward victory, but during 45 years of Cold often too often did those coun
Arun Divakar
When I was done with this book, all I had in my head was a faint buzzing. I took it initially to be a sign of incomprehension but later figured it out to be one of weariness. The weariness stemmed from the theories that the author postulates in the book. A quick look at the reviews tells me that I am not the only one with the same ideas. According to Fukuyama, we reach the end of history when we achieve the liberal-capitalist democratic form of government. He is quick to tell us that this does n ...more
Mohammad Aboomar
I am mesmerized by how clear and convincing this book was. Ideas like the directional interpretation of history, the master/slave relationship, the struggle for recognition and thymos were new to me. Now I have to read Hegel, Nietzsche and Koheve to get more into the author's frame of mind.

I agree with Fukuyama about many points, above all his portrayal of liberal democracy as the end of history according the Hegelian approach. My main disagreement with him is that he puts the US and Europe in t
Steve Greenleaf
Feb 26, 2012 rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
At the Jaipur Literature Festival, I looked forward to hearing a program on “History Strikes Back & the End of Globalism”. It was dialogue between John Ralston Saul & Hubert Vedrine (a former French foreign minister). I hadn’t read either author, although Saul’s Voltaire’s Bastards is packed with my other books back in Iowa City). I wasn’t sure what to expect. The Glamorous Nomad and C joined me. We were in for a surprise.

Saul opened the session by singling out “some guy called Francis
Mar 27, 2017 rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: philosophy, politics
This is one of those books like The Bell Curve that's mostly maligned by people who've only seemed to read the introduction. As a whole, it's a fairly considered work, and most of it isn't exactly new or controversial (though Fukuyama overkills it on the Hegel commentary, which seems to go on and on and on). Take this, for example, which I think most people would underline and put little stars beside it if it appeared somewhere in Ernest Gellner:
The nationalist is primarily preoccupied not with
Feb 21, 2017 rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Is liberal democracy the highest state of evolution of the state/government so far ?
The book argues that liberal democracy is indeed the best form so far and goes further to argue that it is the best form that can ever be achieved. In that sense, it is the "end of history" and the middle-class human being is the "last man".
3-4 years ago, I read Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand which makes a great case for uninhibited/unfettered individual (economic) liberty with a "laissez-faire" (minimum) government
Michael Gerald
I read this book as part of my graduate class in Political Science.

This book started as an essay in the magazine The National Interest in 1989. The feedback it got led to it being expanded to a full book in 1992. Thus, the book was written in the euphoria over the collapse of communism in Europe.

In this book, Fukuyama (a former Assistant Secretary of State) suggests that there are two driving forces of history: the logic of modern science and the struggle for recognition. The combination of the
Úgy hiszem, a könyv fülszövegéből és jó néhány kiváló értékelésből bárki megismerhette, miről is szól ez a könyv és miképpen kell érteni a "történelem vége" vagy ezzel szoros összefüggésben a rousseau-i "első (és természeti) embert" ellenpontozó "utolsó ember" fogalmát. Ennélfogva néhány szót inkább annak szeretnék szentelni, miért érdemes elolvasni Fukuyama könyvét.
Kezdeném azzal, hogy a mű 1994-ben látott napvilágot. Ennek megfelelően, bár a szerző néha bátran megpörgeti az idő kerekét, és nem
Navid Asmari Saadabad
A collection of strong premises and notable historical facts followed by inaccurate conclusions.
Starting with Alexander Kojéve’s interpretation of Hegel and the concept of human consciousness, Fukuyama, asserts that desire, reason, and thymos (desire for recognition) are the main ingredients that constitute a human, each of which must be satisfied in the society.
He claims that the rapid progress in modern science and technology has provided the means for satisfying desire, while leaving the man
Said Abuzeineh
Sep 29, 2015 rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
على ما لهذا الكتاب الذي أجج الرأي العام في الفترة التي أعقبت زوال الاتحاد السوفييتي من دعوى عريضة يزعم فيها صاحبه ياباني الأصل ليبرالي الهوى والمنزع أن التاريخ اننتهى عند عتبة النظام الليبرالي الديمقراطي كما فهمه العالم الأنجلوسكسوني، فليس الخطير فيه هذه الدعوى بقدر خطورة المحل الذي نشأت عنه والمعين الذي غذيت منه ليقدمها صاحبها هذا الذكي بصيغة فلسفية متسقة ..

أعني أن خلف هذا الكتاب من الفلسفات (من هيجل كما فهمه ألكسندر كوجيف .. إلى جون لوك وجيمس ماديسون وجفرسون ،، وقبلهما آدم سميث) والرؤى السياس
Sarah Shahid
لن أدخل في التأملات والأفكار الفلسفية التي خاض بها فوكوياما والتي حرفته عن الموضوع الأساسي وذلك بعرضه لأفكار هيجل المنشورة في كتاب موطننا لالكسندر كوجييف، لكنني سأنعت مقاله هذا كما نعت معاصرو كوجييف إطلاقته في نهاية التاريخ بأنها نوع من أنواع الشذوذ والعمى المثقفاتي

من المؤكد أننا لم نصل إلى نهاية التاريخ وهذا ما تؤكده أزمة الركود التضخمي لعام 2008 والتي لم يُعثر لها على حل حتى الآن، حيث سيكون لهذه الأزمة أبلغ الآثر على مستقبل العلاقات الدولية لما يُتوقع من انهيار المنظومة الرأسمالية أو على الأقل
Jason Williams
Jun 08, 2010 rated it did not like it  ·  review of another edition
Is this guy friggin serious? Leave it to a neocon to write such an ahistorical history. I'm reminded of a Frederic Jameson line: "this whole global, yet American, postmodern culture is the internal and superstructural expression of a whole new wave of American military and economic domination throughout the world: in this sense, as throughout class history, the underside of culture is blood, torture, death, and terror."
Apr 03, 2009 rated it did not like it  ·  review of another edition
The only interesting thing about this book is how it was so dominant when it came out, with everybody cheering for the conversion of the former "communist" nations to "democracy", and how irrelevant it is now.

This guy is kind of an asshole, and his sole accomplishment is that we can gauge which way the ideology of hegemony is pointing by the relative popularity of his cheerleading efforts.
Jun 11, 2011 rated it did not like it  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: philosophy
we are at the end of history, apparently, with so-called liberal capitalism. marx was right about method, apparently, but not about result. (cf. Spectres of Marx!)
Shalan al shammary
هذا الكتاب هو فعلا كتاب مرحلة
فاللحظة التاريخية لظهوره كانت عامل مهم في صياغته
نحن الأن على بعد ٢٥ سنة عن تاريخ صدوره،فهل انهارت فكرة نهاية التاريخ؟
وهل فشل ثورات الربيع العربي في الوصول لحكم ديموقراطي عادل يعود للأسباب التي ذكرها فوكوياما؟
كتاب يجب أن يقرأ سواء اتفقنا معه أم اختلفنا
Joseph Stieb
Dec 11, 2014 rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
The question to ask with a controversial book like the end of history is not whether he's too Western-centric, whether he overlooks race and gender issues, or whether he is politically incorrect at times. The question we should ask is simple: Is he right? After reading this challenging and original work, I have to say that Fukuyama is basically right about the course of history. He is right not in a teleological sense, but in an empirically observable and philosophically supportable way.

This is
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Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born 27 October 1952) is an American philosopher, political economist, and author.

Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese-American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church and received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago. His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fu
More about Francis Fukuyama...

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“It was the slave's continuing desire for recognition that was the motor which propelled history forward, not the idle complacency and unchanging self-identity of the master” 23 likes
“For Hegel, freedom was not just a psychological phenomenon,
but the essence of what was distinctively human. In this sense,
freedom and nature are diametrically opposed. Freedom does not mean the freedom to live in nature o r according to nature; rather, freedom begins only where nature ends. Human freedom emerges only when man is able to transcend his natural, animal existence, and to create a new self for himself The emblematic starting point for this process of self-creation is the struggle to the death for pure prestige.”
More quotes…