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The Open Society and Its Enemies - Volume Two: Hegel and Marx (The Open Society and its Enemies #2)

4.03  ·  Rating details ·  1,605 Ratings  ·  58 Reviews
Written in political exile in New Zealand during the World War II and first published in two volumes in 1945, Karl Poppers The Open Society and its Enemies was hailed by Bertrand Russell as a vigorous and profound defence of democracy. Its now legendary attack on the philosophies of Plato, Hegel and Marx prophesied the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and exposed th ...more
Paperback, 470 pages
Published July 11th 2003 by Routledge (first published 1945)
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Clif
Jan 10, 2016 rated it it was amazing
This is the second volume of Popper's work that warns of the great influence of thinkers who were no friends of the open society, a society in which the rights of the individual are valued over the glory of the state.

In volume one, Popper uses Plato's writings, quoted extensively, to indict Plato very effectively as an advocate of totalitarianism. In this volume, it is Hegel and Marx that are up on charges of abandoning reason for historicism, Popper's term for a mythological belief that there i
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Dan
Apr 26, 2007 rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: critical, philosophy
I don't know what I would do without this book.

Popper fled the Nazi takeover of Austria, and set out to write a book that would somehow fight bad ideologies. He succeeded. If only anyone actually read it.

Open Society begins with an attack on Plato. Popper argues that we need to realize that Plato chose Sparta over Athens, and every other vaguely cosmopolitan city. He spends time describing just how controlled, misogynistic, and totalitarian Spartan life really was. Popper then moves on to show
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hayatem
Mar 23, 2016 rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: أخرى
في هذا الجزء يستمر بوبر في نقده القاسي واللاذع ، ل-الفكرين القومي والاشتراكي
اللذان يدعوان إلى أنظمة شمولية تمجد الأفكار اليوتوبية ، والمتمثلة في هذا الجزء بالمدرستين الماركسية والهيغلية.

*كان ماركس رغم مزاياه نبياً زائفاً.لقد كان نبي مسيرة التاريخ، ولم تتحق نبوءاته.
لعبت أفكاره دورًا هامًّا في تأسيس علم الاجتماع وفي تطوير الحركات الاشتراكية. واعتبر ماركس أحد أعظم الاقتصاديين في التاريخ.
كما كان ماركس، يعتقد بأن النبوءة التاريخية هي الطريقة العلمية لمعالجة المشكلات الاجتماعية وهو ما ينتقده بوبر.

هو
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Gabriel Thy
Jan 28, 2008 rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Recommends it for: all serious citizens of the West, especially now that capitalism is under fierce assault.
From Plato to Hegel, the philosopher king is the summit of socialism everywhere, a system in which the "good" thinker knows what is best for all individuals. Karl Popper prefers the free society and counts neo-Platonism among his enemies.

Having been raised in an authoritarian Communist culture in Austria, Popper rejected "historicism" in ascertaining that the growth of human knowledge is a causal factor in the evolution of human history, and since "no society can predict, scientifically, its ow

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C. Derick
Jun 15, 2012 rated it it was ok
While Popper's critiques on the dangers of total ideas can be helpful, but ultimately this is a fairly vapid critique.
blakeR
Not nearly as engaging as Volume I. It might be because the material of Hegel's and Marx's philosophies are necessarily more complex than that of Plato and Aristotle. But I also got the impression that Popper, through a large part of the volume, left the discussion of an "open society" off to the side while he treated his preferred topic of historicism, along with other, less relevant tangents (many having to do with Marx's economic theories). The result was a book that I labored to get through, ...more
Robin
Aug 21, 2011 rated it it was ok
Well written, and some interesting insights, but generally disingenuous towards Hegel and Marx, and I think unfairly and quite incorrectly attributes 'methods' to them that are not quite right, but which become convenient anchors for Popper to "deconstruct" them and show their inherrant weaknesses.In this regard he is dishonest and disappointing. But like many conservatives, his criticisms do apply to a certain clique within the left, and no doubt has won him many admirers.
Bilgehan
Feb 08, 2013 rated it it was amazing
Popper birinci ciltte Platon'un Devlet ve Yasalar'ını çözümlüyor ve eleştiriyor. Herakleitos etkisinde kalan Platon onun gibi elit bir zümrenin iktidarını tasarlıyor. Platon'a göre insanlar farklı kalitelerde doğarlar ve devletteki görevleri de bu kalitelere göre belirlenmelidir. Platon üç sınıfa karşılık üç kalitede insan çeşidi tanımlar. Popper bunun ırkçı bir yaklaşım olduğunu söylese de orta çağın soylu-ruhban-köylü ayrımına veya kast sistemine daha çok benzer. Platon'un tasarladığı devlet b ...more
Ali
Dec 16, 2016 rated it it was amazing
Shelves: politics, philosophy
گزیده ای از ضمیمه کتاب تحت عنوان "واقعیتها و شاخصها و صدق: انتقادی دیگر از نسبیگرایی" که در سال 1961 توسط پوپر افزوده شده است:

ممکن است اعتراض شود که صرف نظر از اینکه آراء من درباره ی ماهیت معرفت اخلاقی و وجدانیات اخلاقی پذیرفتنی باشد یا نه، به هر حال نسبی یا ذهنی است، زیرا هیچ شاخص مطلقی را در اخلاق تسجیل نمی کند و فقط نشان می دهد که تصور شاخص مطلق، تصوری تنظیمی است و تنها به کار کسانی می آید که قبلا به این عقیده گرویده اند و حال می خواهند درباره ی شاخص های اخلاقی خوب یا حقیقی یا صحیح بیشتر بدان
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Tom
Oct 10, 2011 rated it really liked it
4 1/2 stars. This is a pretty extensive refutation of Marx's (inspired by Hegel's) historicism. "Scientific Marxism is dead," Popper claims, and that's also an apt summary of the work as a whole. I think that he is undoubtedly right in the main in his treatment of Marx, and I'm obviously not going to go through the arguments he proffers against Marx's historicism, but I'll just provide some general remarks and one criticism.

First, although it's clear that Popper abhors historicism, his treatment
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Kraig Grady
Aug 08, 2007 rated it it was amazing
Recommends it for: politics, philosophy
I had never heard of Popper until Ligeti used a title of his for his pieces "Clouds and Clouds". So when in a book store, i search it out but ended up buying this one . Now here was a philosopher who didn't need to use big terms to impress you. His language is as simple as he could make it. And he ask the really important question-how open in terms of individual rights does a citizen have within a society. He takes Plato as a starting point and shows how much he was against such an idea and how ...more
Maggie Koerth Baker
Oct 16, 2007 rated it really liked it
Recommends it for: Anyone who ever wanted a better reason to dislike Plato
Still reading currently. Will definitely have more to say about it when I'm done. Given the time frame this is written in, Popper is talking about issues between liberal democracy and the communism-based totalitarian states. But really, a lot of what he's talking about is also applicable to religion and tribalism-based totalitarianism and is, thus, still pretty relevant today.
Joel
May 28, 2008 rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
I thought that this book was great (both Volume 1 and 2, although people more frequently refer to Volume 2, likely since it discusses Marxism which seems to be more near and dear to people's hearts). Popper wrote The Open Society during World War II when he thought that Europe might soon be under a totalitarian regime.
Mierrosamir
Oct 05, 2007 rated it it was amazing
- thinking in the solving problems need logics or an experience?

- are we should trade one way?
- are we all search for many answers at same time?
- is there an answer without a question?
Melusine Parry
don't agree with the angry man at all, but a good read.
Sherwin
It changed my mind about old good Plato. About Marx and Hegel, my mind had been changed beforehand!
Andrew Endicott
Apr 28, 2009 rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
This is the second part (the cover isn't correct, but oh well), and it's equally good. You should read this if you're uninspired to read anything else.
sologdin
Jun 11, 2011 rated it did not like it
Shelves: philosophy
very plausibly skips over 25 centuries to tie marxism directly into plato.
ali
Feb 26, 2007 rated it really liked it
Recommends it for: all
Shelves: philosophy
A book to learn more about marxism and democracy
David
Dec 05, 2009 rated it it was amazing
Volume 2, dealing with Hegel and Marx, with an in-depth critique of the moral theory of historicism and whether history has any meaning, in light of oracular philosophy and the revolt against reason.
Xander
May 17, 2017 rated it it was amazing
In Vol 2 of The Open Society, Popper describes how the historicist approach of Hegel forms the foundation of facism and how the historicist approach of Marx - never mind its good intentions - led to immense suffering. His treatment of Hegel's philosophy is somewhat irritating, due to the long list of witty comments on how corrupted and wrong Hegel was. (Nonetheless, I completely agree with Popper on this).

Hegel, according to Popper, was a scam. He developed a collectivist, historicist philosophy
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Miguel Figueiredo
Aug 28, 2017 is currently reading it
NOTES:
..........
CAPITULO 11
-Aristoteles aceita o facto de a democracia estar instalada e ser inevitavel, apesar de ser contra ela como Platao o era. Por isso mesmo esta disposto a estabelecer um compromisso com a democracia.
-Aristoteles é pro-esclavagismo, mas nao é tao severo quanto platao no comunismo da classe dirigente pois nao vê a partilha dos bens e dos filhos e mulheres como uma necessidade do seu estado perfeito. A sua nocao de democracia é exclusiva à classe dirigente nao trabalhadora,
...more
Angus Stirling
Aug 03, 2017 rated it it was amazing
The greatest work, in any field, I have yet read.
Aaron Crofut
Nov 27, 2010 rated it it was ok
Well, that was a let down. The cranks on Hegel are worth the while, as is the question of the use of history in the last chapter, but everything else...meh. Popper's thoughts on Marx are like a new invention that protects you against spears: not particularly important anymore, because I can't recall the last time I met a legitimate Marxist. Communists, sure, but out and out Marxists? A thing of the past.

Ironically, Popper spends a great deal of time justifying what I see to be the largest threa
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Rafal Pruszynski
Jul 23, 2011 rated it liked it
I liked this book, though not as much as the first volume. Though that probably has a lot to do with having read much of Plato while having read very little of Hegel and Marx. One thing that bothered me a bit here was how Popper never really gives a very good justification for his morality of interventionism and his take on humanitarianism. He asserts, often enough, that we have moral duties to help those in need, for example, without providing much of a defense for why we should. I do not share ...more
Jan Hasecke
Jun 04, 2015 rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Während Popper im ersten Band von "Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde" Platon mit dem Seziermesser zerlegt und sein totalitäres Denken enthüllt, schlachtet er im zweiten Band zunächst den preußischen Staatsphilosophen Hegel. Ein Fest für jeden, der das Geschwurbel dieses "platten, geistlosen, ekelhaft—widerlichen, unwissenden Scharlatans, der, mit beispielloser Frechheit, Aberwitz und Unsinn zusammenschmierte" (Schopenhauer) noch nie leiden konnte. Danach analysiert er – mit deutlich mehr S ...more
Leonardo
Jun 28, 2016 marked it as read-in-part
Shelves: maesfilo
…no sólo es imposible evitar un punto de vista selectivo, sino también que toda tentativa de hacerlo es indeseable, pues de lograrlo, no obtendríamos una descripción más “objetiva” sino tan sólo un mero cúmulo de enunciados totalmente inconexos.

Prognosis: enunciado que describe un suceso, explicación causal
Prognosis específica: conclusión

Ciencias históricas: ciencias que se interesan en hechos específicos y en su ‘explicación, en contraposición a las ciencias generalizadoras.

Lógica de la situac
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Lukas Szrot
May 31, 2015 rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Brilliant, overall. A great exegesis on both Marx and historicist philosophy. A bit uncharitable to Hegel (though not without reason) and somewhat off-base in the criticism of the sociology of knowledge (philosophers and sociologists of knowledge continue in many ways to talk past each other regarding whether epistemology is a somewhat a priori, criterion-oriented discipline or a socially constructed phenomenon. Having a background in both views, I would suggest that both have merit in their own ...more
Donald
Sep 05, 2012 rated it really liked it
In his second volume Poper turns his attention to the more modern philosophers Hegel and Marx. Again Poppers book doesn't tell anyone who has read Hegel or Marx things they didn't already know or suspect. What's interesting is the way Popper manages to place these philosophers and men into their time and place in history, They way he clearly sees why their theories fall and his suggestions for a successful way forward for an open society, many of which are common place in western democracies. It ...more
Dirk Buken
Jun 13, 2013 rated it it was amazing
This book is a classic of political thinking. It offers a compelling answer against all kind of totalitarian ideas.
Before reading I've never noticed that the totalitarian tendencies were founded by Platon. The contempt of Hegel felt by many liberal thinkers i could not understand......however an instinctive refusal of marxism i did feel all the time.

It's a strong plea for liberty and reason. One of the most convincing sentences was, that we are not all equal but all entitled to equal rights.

Ho
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Sir Karl Raimund Popper was born in Vienna on 28 July 1902. His rise from a modest background as an assistant cabinet maker and school teacher to one of the most influential theorists and leading philosophers was characteristically Austrian. Popper commanded international audiences and conversation with him was an intellectual adventure - even if a little rough -, animated by a myriad of philosoph ...more
More about Karl R. Popper...

Other Books in the Series

The Open Society and its Enemies (4 books)
  • The Open Society and Its Enemies
  • The Open Society and Its Enemies - Volume One: The Spell of Plato
  • After the Open Society: Selected Social and Political Writings