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Brand Sense: Build Powerful Brands through Touch, Taste, Smell, Sight, and Sound

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Draws on a large-scale study of how the five senses impact brand creation to outline the author's six-step program for twenty-first-century sensory branding, citing the examples of such companies as Cadillac, Disney, and Louis Vuitton to explain how to es
Title: Brand Sense
Author: Lindstrom, Martin/ Kotler, Philip (FRW)
Publisher: Simon & Schuster
Publication Date: 2005/02/01
Number of Pages: 237
Binding Type: HARDCOVER
Library of Congress: 2004056438

256 pages, Hardcover

First published January 1, 2005

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About the author

Martin Lindstrom

37 books347 followers
Martin Lindstrom (born 1970) is the author of the bestseller The Ministry of Common sense - How to Eliminate Bureaucratic Red Tape, Bad Excuses, and Corporate Bullshit.

Through unconventional thinking, Martin Lindstrom reveals how to get closer to our customers by eliminating bureaucratic red tape, bad excuses, and corporate BS, whether we’re in the office or behind our screens.
An eight-time New York Times best-selling author, Lindstrom’s books have sold 4.5 million copies and been translated Into 60 languages. His books include The Ministry of Common Sense, Buyology, and Small Data. TIME Magazine named Lindstrom "One of the World's Most Influential People," and Thinkers50 listed him one of the world’s top-20 business thinkers of 2021.

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Displaying 1 - 30 of 45 reviews
12 reviews2 followers
November 2, 2011
Chapter 1
Types of Branding Proposition

There are currently 6 types of branding proposition.
1. Unique Selling Proposition (USP)
No two products are alike.
Occurs in 1950s.

2. Emotional Selling Proposition (ESP)
Products were perceived as different primarily because of an emotional attachment. (Similar brands are perceived as different primarily because of an emotional attachment, eg Pepsi and Coke)
Occurs in 1960s.

3. Organizational Selling Proposition (OSP)
Organization behind the brand in fact became the brand (Organisation’s
philosophy distinguished it from others, eg Nike)
Started in 1980s

4. Brand Selling Proposition (BSP)
Brand was stronger than the physical dimensions of the products (Brands like Harry Potter. Brand name is found on sheets, stationary, etc. Books and movies aside, the consumer has become more fixated on the brand than the stories)
Occurs during the 1990s.

5. Me Selling Proposition (MSP)
Consumer taking ownership of their brands. (Consumer able to customize their products, eg Dell)
Occurs now.
Which is weideng’s idea of customizes shirt

6. Holistic Selling Proposition (HSP)
HSP brands are those that anchor themselves in tradition and adopt the characteristics of religious sensory experience to leverage the concept of branding as a holistic way of spreading the news. (i.e. your brand is like a sport team (Ferrari, Man Utd) and religion.
Author said this will be the future of branding.
I think this is the way we should build our brand towards as if a brand is as addictive as a sport team or religion, the brand is damn powerful, is no longer a brand but a way of life.

Chapter 2
Building Brands requires Building Perception – Nothing more, nothing less.
Creating the perfect perception requires the perfect sensory appeal
Currently, branding is a 2D experience, which is based on sight and sound. However, every details of brand should be created with a true sensory experience. Thus when building a brand, the key criteria is to select the channels, tools, and senses to tap into when building the brand.
In our case, I think we can make use of sight, sound, touch and maybe smell (maybe smell can be incorporated in when we do the packaging). Taste is definitely OUT since is impossible to ask customer to eat the shirt.
Next step is to determine the degree our brand depends on the senses.

Examples of good brands are Disney and Singapore Girl. Once you see a Singapore Girl, you will know of Singapore Airlines.
Main point is to create each element so strong that yet at the same time integrated and synergistic that it can take the brand to a whole new level of familiarity.
Which is why the idea of a story is important, to create characters that people will be familiar with.

Chapter 3
Smashing our Brand
Smash your brand into many different pieces and each piece should work independently of the others, although each is still essential in the process of establishing and maintaining a truly smashable brand.

• Smash your picture
Benetton is a brand that will survive. The image and design are its own statement and are part and parcel of the Benetton “heart”.

• Smash your colour
Logo of major outlet (BK, Mac, Body Shop, and Ikea) reveals that colours create clear associations and these associations will benefit our brand.

• Smash your shape
Think bottle shapes of coke, Absolut Vodka or Chanel No 5. Particular shapes have become synonymous with certain brand.

• Smash your name
McDonald uses Mac or Mc. Their naming philosophy is an essential part of their brand. Sub-brands become intuitively recognizable and tap into the broad set of values already well established by parent brand.

• Smash your language
Disney’s language survives this test. Pick a word, a sentence or a column from any Disney publication, remove each brand reference and the brand is still recognizable.
I not too sure about this example but that what the author stated.

• Smash your icon
Icon need to have a build in flexibility to cross channel and be graphically sophisticated so that they can be equally understood on a billboard, computer screen or cell-phone display.

• Smash your sound
Brand can be build on sound, think of British Airways’ feather duet (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZKShi... ) and Calsberg’s I love you baby (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JwwcL... ).
Sound that plays on website, in-stores, on-hold buttons on telephone or even ring tone.
Think someone think to go look on the legal rights if we are really using music

• Smash your navigation
Navigation is one of the most essential tools that can be leveraged in building and maintaining consistency. Example is Nokia phone, even if with Chinese or malay language we will still know how to navigate the phone.

• Smash your behaviour
Richard Branson leads the Virgin empire with a sense of irony, hmor, satire and casual, straightforward communication. Virgin style, in turn, takes good-natured shots at established values.
Brands must also be consistent, layout and stuffs.

• Smash yours service
An unqiue service will enhance the brand.
Customer service is important to keep customer happy.

• Smash your tradition
Tradition like Christmas is hard to smash. So is James Bond, audience expects pretty girls, and stuff

• Smash your rituals
Most rituals are generated by consumers. To date, few brands have seen the value in supporting consumer-generated rituals despite enormous bonding that they can give rise to.
I think Harley-Davidson is in this category as their bikers normally have rituals of riding around together, to Malaysia, etc.

Chapter 4
From 2-D to 5-D Branding
All 5 senses are important in any form of communication and life experience.
• Sound
Hearing is passive and listening is active. The sound of your brand should target both the hearer and listener, since each important in influencing purchase behaviour. Hearing involves receiving auditory information through the ears, listening relies on the capacity to filter, selectively focus, remember and respond to sound. If we don’t hear them, we miss them. Sound of a brand adds to the perception of product being diluted. This it is important to access the role of product-generated sound because, increasingly, consumers are becoming more aware of this phenomenon.

The rest of the stuff in this chapter are a repeat of the topics mentioned in Chapter 3.

Chapter 5
Building a Bond
Ultimate goal is to create a strong, positive and loyal bond between brand and consumer.
Sensory Building will add 4 important dimensions to your brand,
• Emotional engagement
To build this bond, brand must be unique and become habitual. Loyalty will result if the brand maintains a distinct sensory appeal that is not imitated by any competing brands.

• Optimized match between perception and reality
Too many brands allow a wide gap between consumer perception and product reality. To narrow this gap, flower shops add artificial fresh-flower odour to the store.
Goal is for the reality to match if not exceed the consumers’ perception.

• Creation of a brand platform for product extensions
(This is for the future, so you guys can ignore it for the moment, BUT you can read it for your information.)
As brand develops brand extension, links between the many products may erode unless careful brand-extension strategy is put in place.

• Trademarks
Trademarks are important to distinct your own brand.

Six Steps Sensory Process
Step 1: Sensory Audit
Brand should be aiming for sensory excellence. In order to achieve this,
the following criteria should be evaluated
• Leveraging existing sensory touch points – The objective is to be aware of the dynamics of all our sensory touch points with a view to making them exclusively ours.
• Synergy Across Sensory Touch Point – A synergy between our senses takes place with startling result. Each channel must make sense and reflecting the core values of the brand.
• Innovative Sensory Thinking Ahead of Competition – Innovative sensory thinking ahead of competitors is relative to the business you belong to, so do not be discouraged when making a comparison with more advanced industries.
This is a good point, we should also compare our products with a better product. Even though we are aiming for Freshbox or Espirit range t-shirt, we should also look up to higher quality shirt like United Colors of Benetton, etc.
• Sensory Consistency – Sensory consistency is to build loyalty. It builds trust and generates repeat purchase as people trust familiar signal. Consistency also generated history and history forms tradition and traditions leads to rituals.
• Sensory Authenticity – Things have to feel credible, real and genuine. We must ask ourselves Does it feel REAL? Does it feel RELEVANT? Has it become a RITUAL? Is it part of a RECITAL(i.e. does it conjures up emotion)?
• Positive Sensory Ownership – If brand owns a distinctive sensory touchpoint, then it belongs to a select group. (e.g Disney owns 2 semicircular black ears, Nokia owns its tune)

Step 2: Brand Staging
We should also check up other industries involved in innovative approach and not just on our competitors.

Step 3: Brand Dramatization
Goal is to convert each of your core values into a sensory touch point by Stimulus, Enhance and Bonding.

Step 4: Brand Signature
Brand Signature is our unqiue statement.

Step 5: Implementation
5 steps of implementation.
1) Development of sensory touch points
2) Testing concepts of sensory touch points
3) Touch point integration
4) Testing with prototype
5) Natural environment study

Step 6: Evaluation
Chapter 6
Measuring Senses
Think about our brand and make a list of the sensory impressions it brings to mind. Then identified whether each impressions is positive or negative. Then for each sense on the list, identify the primary emotion that it may evoke.

Chapter 7
Brand Religion
• Unique Sense of belonging
• Sense of purpose – Brand need to reflect a clear purpose.
• Take power from your competitors – A visible enemy gives people an opportunity to show their colors and align themselves with the team or player that they most strongly identify with and that they may often be the underdog.
Like in sports, the tension between competitors generates excitement and involvement. Thus there passion and energy.
• Authenticity
• Consistency
• Perfect World – Brand need to product that consumers can project their perfect world ideas onto and take an active role within.
• Sensory Appeal
• Rituals – Rituals are needed to transform consumer loyalty to a community of believers.
• Symbols – Iconographic communication is on the rise. All religions and almost all computer games function around icons.
• Mystery – Unknown factors in a brand can be as inspiring as the known. The more mystic a brand can cultivate, the stronger the foundation it has for becoming a sought-after and admired product.

Chapter 8
• HSP brand embedded in every aspect of the brand, the message, sound, sight,etc
• HSP brand is visible everywhere. (online, national press)
• Consumers claim ownership rather than the company. If the brand were to experience difficulty or any sort, the consumers would rush to its rescue.
• HSP brand is enhanced by the attributes bestowed upon it by its consumer who develop rituals and traditions around its usage.
• Brand has its clear and well-defined enemies, leader and followers. Which is our target group. Firstly, we need to need out our target group age range and then to find out the needs of our target group.
• Customers would consider wearing an HSP brand as body decoration.
Profile Image for Miljana.
1 review11 followers
July 14, 2014
The best branding book I have read so far. The last 2 - 3 chapters were kind of dull, repetetive but the book is very good. It inspired me to come up with a 5D branding strategy for a travel agency. Thanks, Lindstrom.
Profile Image for Raminta Rusinaitė.
194 reviews8 followers
January 19, 2023
Ar žinojote, kad animacinio personažo Tarzano riksmas bei Kellogg‘s sausų pusryčių traškesys yra patentuotas garsas?

Vystant ir auginant prekės ženklą bei skatinant lojalumą svarbu tapo viskas, todėl kūrėjai siekia apčiuopti kuo daugiau vartotojo pojūčių: regą, klausą, lytėjimą, kvapą ir skonį. Ir kaip jiems sekasi?

📌5 pojūčių integracija į prekės ženklo rinkodarą
Vienas iš geriausiai visus pojūčius atliepiančių ženklų yra McDonald‘s. Iki kaulų pažįstamas burgerių kvapas ir skonis. Jų muzikėlė žinoma visame pasaulyje...mmm I‘m lovin it, o prekės ženklo įvaizdis toks stiprus, kad užkandinių iškabas atpažintume bet kuriame pasaulio kampelyje.

Pamenu, kai nusileidus po ilgos skrydžio Indijoje, ši užkandinė tapo pirmu pasirinkimu. Kodėl? MC asocijavosi su greičiu, patikimumu ir pažįstamu maistu, kuris pateisina lūkesčius. Tiesa, lytėjimo patirtis čia pati silpniausia, tačiau kiekvienas mūsų pažįsta traškų kompleksų pakuočių popierių ar bulvyčių vokelių formą.

📌Radikalus fanatizmas
Pojūčių aktyvinimo tikslas – sustiprinti lojalumą ir būti „top of mind“ (lojalumo etapai). Tačiau kartais pirkėjų prisirišimas tampa fanatiškas. Atsiminkime eiles prie „Apple“ parduotuvių atsiradus naujam telefono modeliui.

O dar aštresnė istorija pateikiama knygos pradžioje P. Willis Gucci mados namus laikė savo religija. Jis apie tai nuolat kalbėjo su draugais, laikė Gucci vos ne savo šeimos nariu. Mados namų parduotuvėje jį užburdavo viskas: atmosfera, dizainas, muzika, kol galiausiai jis net išsitatuiravo Gucci vardą ant savo sprando. Skamba šiek tiek pamišėliškai? Tačiau prekės ženklai, naudodami skirtingus pojūčius, gali „užzombinti“ žmones ir pavergti jų sąmonę.

📌Beje, atlikus vartotojų apklausas buvo nustatyta, kad lytėjimui suteikiama mažiausia svarba. Svarbiausia - regėjimas.

📌Knygos +

❤️Daug pavyzdžių

❤️Informacija patvirtinta tyrimais

📌Knygos –

❌Labai prastas vertimas

❌2008 m. leidimas, tad daug informacijos pasenusi

Jei nori perskaityti pilną apžvalgą su pavyzdžiais, kviečiu https://kaciapaskaicius.lt/?p=2776
Profile Image for GDM Nagarjuna.
22 reviews17 followers
August 29, 2020
For someone who hasn't read the book "buyology", this book would be a good read with some repetitive parts, and for those who have read buyology, the whole book would seem like a repetition. Would recommend buyology.
Profile Image for shanghao.
261 reviews96 followers
June 4, 2016
A light smooth read, but not much different from his other book that I'd read previously (that was more novel for its time). Also, at points he seemed to be so adamant on his own views that he tried to fit data into his theories.

And I don't really agree with his views on some of the brands, such as Nokia or Singapore Airlines. Seemed to me he was just blowing the trumpets of the products that he's using.
92 reviews3 followers
July 27, 2011
I wasn't impressed. Very repetitive and not very insightful. The Cliff Notes version would have been better.
Profile Image for Kalle Wescott.
807 reviews8 followers
May 16, 2022
I read /Brand Sense: Build Powerful Brands through Touch, Taste, Smell, Sight, and Sound/, by Martin Lindstrom:


Super-interesting book, with background on our senses, the associative power of what we sense, and how that can be harnessed and is harnessed by some of the world's leading brands.

Read the book... here are a few tidbits/factoids:

* there are about 1000 primary smells, and then 100,000+ combinations

* as you would expect, smells we remember from childhood are changing from natural smells to artificial

* of people who have brand tattoos, 18.9% are Harley-Davidson!

* Americans, unlike citizens and residents of most countries, like that "new car smell."

* the best-known icons aren't brands (sorry, Apple), but rather are religious: the cross, the crescent, Buddha, the om, the ankh, and the Star of David

* Sanrio has earned $billions in profits from Hello Kitty

Most interesting is how brands are using touch and tactile sensations, sounds, and smells to enhance their brands... but you'll have to read the book for all those details.
April 2, 2018
It is indeed a magnificent book describing the factors that affect in building a Brand. As we all are aware that Product is in the hand whereas Brand is in the mind. The most memorable brands in the future will be those that not only anchor themselves in the traditions but also adopt religious characteristics. The impact of sound also helps in building a brand. The best examples are Intel, Airtel and Reliance. Smell is connected to memory and sound is connected to mood. Sound in fact creates mood as well as feeling and emotions. In order to smash a brand company needs to have an intimate understanding of what it is made of actually.

The sensory rules of branding are as follows:-

1) Sense of Belonging
2) A clear vision
3) Enemies
4) Evangelism
5) Grandeur
6) Story Telling
7) Sensory Appeal
8) Rituals
9) Symbol
10) Mystery

Profile Image for Cosmin Nicolae.
19 reviews2 followers
June 28, 2021
Ok, so this is kind of a relic. If you wanted to know about the history of marketing to understand the pioneers of the brand senses... You need to read this. If you really want to know or to learn something new, it s outdated. Every company has already used and upgraded the understanding of user senses. It s a good book with good examples and real facts.
Profile Image for Viktor Reppo.
32 reviews
June 1, 2020
Loved this book when it came out and ever since have been looking at brands from multisense point of view. Maybe multisense branding has not become as big of a thing as Lindstrom was forecasting, but there are definitely interesting ideas to think about.
15 reviews
September 9, 2022
Uma.livro de cases que demonstram que mais que conteúdos todos os nossos sentido podem ser aprovados e levar a decisoes
Profile Image for Nura Yusof.
244 reviews15 followers
August 8, 2011
I bought this book because it was endorsed by Philip Kotler and The Wall Street Journal. And the fact that Martin Lindstrom is a renowned marketing guru. The WSJ hailed it to be “one of the five best marketing books ever published”. Was curious about this and I did some Googling.

Turns out that it was one of 5 books that Steve Cone (senior marketing executive at Citigroup and the author of "Steal These Ideas: Marketing Secrets That Will Make You a Star" ) thought was the best. See the WSJ article at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB11728...

It’s a thin book which could be even thinner if he didn’t repeat stuff or add those highlights section at the end of each chapter. On the latter, were they really necessary seeing that the chapters are short anyway?

I didn’t quite agree with everything he wrote.

On page 79, he wrote that Microsoft has a missed branding opportunity simply because there’s a lack of consistency of sound across all Microsoft channels, from software to the Internet. *snigger* For real, Lindstrom? I doubt that the millions of Microsoft adherents cares much about the sound, hardly misses it and still continue to use the products. The reason anyone ‘misses’ anything is because they knowingly or unknowingly heard/saw/touched/tasted something so frequently it became a habit. People use Microsoft not because of the sound! To suggest that the number of Microsoft users would increase if said company were to keep to a consistent sound is nonsensical!

On page 94, Lindstrom made it sound as if Coke’s poor performance is purely because of its weak tactile sensation. This means that it’s best asset i.e. Coke in glass bottles are not being sold widely enough. This to me, is preposterous as I am sure other factors contributed too.

On page 108, Lindstrom had unwittingly provided an alternative for those marketers who lack the financial wherewithal to incorporate very expensive, actual sensorial stimuli in the selling of their products. He did so in the description of that hot summer day and ice cream. This is a well-known trick used by advertisers, the long-drawn, descriptive copy. One cannot discount the power of the imagination. That’s why literature erotica is good business.

He also likens branding to religion or rather recommends that brands aspire to be like religions. A little controversial this. His examples of the Beckham Buddha and the Hello Kitty phenomenon proves that such an aspiration can be a reality. But to create devotional fervor for brands which are basically mere representation of products, things? That’s a different story. We wouldn’t want extreme brand loyalists to be like that Korean couple whose real baby died while their virtual baby thrived. Or that guy who tattooed Gucci on to himself.

So, did I like this at all? It had some useful examples but that's it.
Profile Image for William Blair.
79 reviews14 followers
July 19, 2010
This looked like it was going to be interesting to read, along the lines of pop psychology, and it was short enough and the dust jacket blurb was interesting enough that I figured it would be good for an evening or two.

But what the book turned out to be was essentially an advertisement for the services offered by the author's company. And some of his ideas are truly strange (to me).

But a small portion of the book was interesting, along the lines of the history of advertising and how it works (and is different) today (from how it used to be "before" the modern era -- say, 1975).

I didn't waste all of my time, but I sure skipped over at least a third of the text ... boring. I'm sure there must be better books on advertising psychology and advertising history than this thinly-veiled self-serving high school term paper.
Profile Image for Doug.
197 reviews12 followers
November 16, 2011
Offers neat insights into what goes into a brand and their efforts to make their brands more engaging and immersive to consumers. One thing that gives me pause is that the book seems to regard religion as the ultimate brand experience, complete with logos, rituals that engage all five senses, and a source of identity and well-being to its adherents. It seems that this book is great at explaining techniques for how to create a mystique around a brand, but I don't think any product is going to deliver that fulfillment that the brand promises. This is not a good book to read right after reading a book about how rampant materialism is destroying the planet while making people more unhappy.
37 reviews
July 1, 2016
Os sentidos criam uma terceira dimensão aos produtos. Marcas podem criar singularidade sensorial.
Intel - único caso de branding sensorial que fez um produto que ninguém viu, ouviu e tocou num sucesso através do som e imagem de marca.
O branding sensorial desperta o interesse, amplia o comportamento por impulso de compra e permite que as respostas emocionais dominem o pensamento racional.
Branding sensorial traz o compromisso emocional na relação marca x consumidor.
Autenticidade cria evangelização da marca.
Desconstrua a marca verificar todos os pontos de contato com o consumidor.
5 sentidos a explorar.
Profile Image for Cristian.
36 reviews2 followers
October 19, 2015
Uneori nici nu ne dăm seama de brandingul senzorial ... Nu am putea confunda sunetul de pornire al Windows XP sau soneria de apel Nokia sau iPhone, auzindu-le mereu ne vom da seama de brandul vizat.

Mulţi nu ştiu cum arăta logo-ul Nokia, dar ştiau sunetul soneriei de apel. Un brand puternic, mai ales în sec. XXI trebuie să fie construit pe baza celor 5 simţuri senzoriale, pentru a-i capta atenţia consumatorului.

Ajung tot la ideea de pe prima pagina, citatul lui Benjamin Franklin: ,,Spune-mi şi voi uita,
Arată-mi şi s-ar putea să ţin minte,
Implică-mă şi voi înţelege."
7 reviews4 followers
August 11, 2010
Great case studies on branding to the senses. Sensory perception, sensory touch, sensory memories. Some background in cognitive and behavioral psychology, but a bit of a stretch. I believe in sensory branding, but could Abercrombie please stop with the in-store smell? It's nauseating. Did you know bakeries in France (and elsewhere around the world) have oven stacks that extend to the front windows, hence the awesome fresh-baked baguettes smell to lure ya in.
Profile Image for Joana Botelho.
56 reviews3 followers
March 19, 2014
Fruto da sua investigação, Martin Lindstrom na obra Brand Sense, verifica que as técnicas de comunicação actuais usam, quase exclusivamente, a visão e audição, mas nós temos outros sentidos que é importante estimular. O consumidor agora é diferente fruto do excesso de exposição à comunicação, exigem e reagem a comunicações mais breves, rápidas e directas.
Leia tudo em: http://blogbuythebook.wordpress.com/2...
36 reviews
November 2, 2015
Had a point. Spent whole 200 pages hammering the point home.

It was a good point, though I wish there were better insights rather than repeated brand examples and broad strokes that seem to assume that all brands need to do to succeed was incorporate more senses into their communications.

It's telling that some exemplars are now facing financial woes, e.g. Nokia.
Profile Image for Serdar.
7 reviews4 followers
January 11, 2011
Lindstrom's book opens your eyes for other sensual touchpoints between the brands and the consumers. The book gives detailed examples and elaborates on how brands use other sensual feelings to connect with consumers.
Profile Image for Adam Wiggins.
250 reviews95 followers
July 23, 2011
Argues that branding should be more than just copywriting, logos, and colorschemes: instead, engage all senses. "New car smell" is one example.

Reasonable enough, but I got bored at 18% (page 38 / 156).
Profile Image for Caroline.
289 reviews1 follower
September 11, 2014
Had to read this book for one of my grad school classes. Interesting premise and some valid points, but Lindstrom spends 150+ pages talking about things that could have been covered in 50. Nevertheless, it's an easy and semi-entertaining read overall.
Profile Image for Dana.
135 reviews1 follower
September 20, 2012
so cool. Nokia is taking over - and smell, as the sense most associated with memory, could someday be puffed out of your computer screen. Imagine a 3-d printer that makes smells instead. I smell a really cool sci-fi concept coming on...
Profile Image for Jacqueline Del fa.
5 reviews1 follower
August 4, 2014
In my opinion one of his best books. I even liked it better than Buyology. Would recommend to anyone who loves marketing. It is amazing how our five senses are crucial for choosing/buying products and services.
Profile Image for Jolanda Engler.
81 reviews
July 29, 2011
Ein sehr lehrreiches Buch über Markenführung. Warum wir bestimmte Marken lieber kaufen als andere und wie man als Unternehmen die Erkenntnisse des Neuromarketing/Brand Sense anwenden kann.
38 reviews
October 24, 2012
Interesting with lots of insight but as with other books from Lindstrom, there seemed to be far too much repartition.
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