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Man and His Symbols

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Man and His Symbols owes its existence to one of Jung's own dreams. The great psychologist dreamed that his work was understood by a wide public, rather than just by psychiatrists, and therefore he agreed to write and edit this fascinating book. Here, Jung examines the full world of the unconscious, whose language he believed to be the symbols constantly revealed in dreams. Convinced that dreams offer practical advice, sent from the unconscious to the conscious self, Jung felt that self-understanding would lead to a full and productive life. Thus, the reader will gain new insights into himself from this thoughtful volume, which also illustrates symbols throughout history. Completed just before his death by Jung and his associates, it is clearly addressed to the general reader.

415 pages, Mass Market Paperback

First published January 1, 1964

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About the author

C.G. Jung

1,212 books9,037 followers
Carl Gustav Jung (/jʊŋ/; German: [ˈkarl ˈɡʊstaf jʊŋ]), often referred to as C. G. Jung, was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of extraversion and introversion; archetypes, and the collective unconscious. His work has been influential in psychiatry and in the study of religion, philosophy, archeology, anthropology, literature, and related fields. He was a prolific writer, many of whose works were not published until after his death.

The central concept of analytical psychology is individuation—the psychological process of integrating the opposites, including the conscious with the unconscious, while still maintaining their relative autonomy. Jung considered individuation to be the central process of human development.

Jung created some of the best known psychological concepts, including the archetype, the collective unconscious, the complex, and synchronicity. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular psychometric instrument, has been developed from Jung's theory of psychological types.

Though he was a practising clinician and considered himself to be a scientist, much of his life's work was spent exploring tangential areas such as Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, and sociology, as well as literature and the arts. Jung's interest in philosophy and the occult led many to view him as a mystic, although his ambition was to be seen as a man of science. His influence on popular psychology, the "psychologization of religion", spirituality and the New Age movement has been immense.

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Displaying 1 - 30 of 1,178 reviews
Profile Image for Owen Spencer.
128 reviews25 followers
July 23, 2010
My university professors never introduced me to Carl Jung. I understand why, I guess, but it's a shame that I didn't read Jung's work until now. Jungian psychology is amazing. It addresses the unconscious and the "self"/"psyche" in a unique and enlightening way. And, unlike most other psychologists, Jung did not shy away from unexplained phenomena and the so-called "paranormal". His theory provides insights into "unexplained" phenomena and is the only major psychological theory that includes the paranormal in a way that doesn't dismiss it as nonsense. I can't recommend this book highly enough. I strongly encourage whoever is reading this sentence to purchase a copy of Man and His Symbols immediately. You won't regret it. It's one of the best books I've ever read. I plan to read the rest of Jung's writings now.
Profile Image for Trevor.
1,301 reviews22.1k followers
May 25, 2010
I have a strange love / hate relationship with Jung. There are so many things about him that I find utterly fascinating and then others that I think are just crazy. I would rather think one thing or the other, but since he was obsessed with dualities, perhaps he would be happy with my conflicting and opposite feelings towards him.

There are things about his ideas that I find incredibly appealing. A personal story might help make that clear. I started reading this book a while ago now – before I started Uni this year – and one of the things that made me continue with it was the idea of what I would call ‘metaphorical illnesses’. I’ve forgotten what Jung called them, but since my name is better than his could possibly be (no matter what it was) we will go with that. The idea is that sometimes in life you have an ‘illness’ which has symptoms which mirror the psychological conditions you are suffering from. You may not be able to walk, for example, but this has little to do with your legs, but much to do with how you feel trapped in a particular relationship in which you feel you can’t escape from, even though on a deep level you know escaping would be the right thing to do. So, it is as if your mind has said, ‘if you can’t walk away from this then don’t walk at all’.

Now, I’m the first to tell you that I would find such metaphorical illnesses a bit over the top and hard to believe being possible in any but the most troubled and deeply psychotic – I mean, can you really ‘make yourself’ blind because your ‘unconscious mind’ is ‘trying to tell you something’? Does this really sound likely? Well, possibly not. But then again, last year I left an intolerable job, but while I was there I found I had developed terrible headaches, or at least, not headaches as such, but more a scorching pain across the top of my head. This, I found out, was caused by the clenching of my teeth in my sleep. This year has been incredibly busy and often quite stressful, in many ways as stressful as anything I put up with last year. I’ve had more reading than I can keep up with and more work to do than can be done – both of which I guess are good predictors of stress – and yet the thing that has surprised me is that I haven’t been grinding my teeth at all this year (trust me, I would know if I had been).

This had been one of those little facts about life that had fallen into the ‘isn’t that odd’ category until I read this book and learned of Jung’s metaphorical illnesses. The whole time I was working at the union – at least for the last four or so years – I felt unable to say anything about the direction in which the union was heading. I think Jung would have had no trouble in diagnosing my night time teeth grinding. As someone ‘unable’ to talk during the day, the fact I kept my jaw clenched tight shut at night was clearly a sign from my sub-consciousness of my own self-imposed voicelessness.

Of course, the things that are nice about that story are also the things that make we feel uncomfortable about Jung in general. It is all too neat. There are lots of stories in this book and these stories are joined with lots of explanations of what certain symbols mean – but one of the things that I’ve learnt in life is that people love to hear good explanations of what something vague and obscure MEANS. If someone tells you their dream and in it there is a naked black man walking about the streets of Paris (as there is, for example, in one of the dreams described in the book) it might well be that the people in the country of the man having this dream do associate Paris with a certain kind of sexual liberation and relaxed mores and perhaps associate nudity with the ‘naked truth’ and even intend the black man in the dream to represent the inverse of the white man who is dreaming the dream – or it could all just be an example of homo-erotica – or it could be an example of lawlessness – or it could be that dreams in themselves aren’t actually all that meaningful.

How could we ever really know?

I think we find it quite appealing to believe that people are more or less like books, in that they have plots and themes and characters and that we can somehow become the perfect book reviewer with people’s dreams and lives and thereby judge and explain people in much the same way we might judge and explain The Da Vinci Code. The problem is that really no one is summed up by the face they present to the world – no, not even the dumb people – and no one is so shallow as to have dreams that have only one meaning and that the meaning a therapist helps you find. Repeatedly during this book we are told that symbols mean different things depending on the meaning they acquire within the context of the dream and the life in which they appear. And this is to the good, but also time and again we see the therapist tell the patient how to interpret a particular symbol (like the number four) in a single way from the therapist's ‘deep’ knowledge and understnding of how symbols ‘mean’. For Jung the number four is the number of completeness – I believe in Chinese it is the number for death, although this is not the kind of completeness Jung is talking of, I feel. I worry when people are reduced to texts that can be studied and interpreted and understood on the basis of a subtext that is not apparent to the character, but is clear and unambiguous to the reader.

I guess it is inevitable that Jungian psychology might come about given the rise of literary criticism over the last couple of hundred years – for isn’t that as good a definition of Jungian psychology as any other? The search for the sub-textual meaning in the lives of people when read as texts. My problem is that it is very difficult to know if the ‘reading’ by the psychologist is a valid or accurate reading, if this reading does in fact really illuminate something essential in the life of the person being read and finally just how efficacious such a reading is in ‘treating’ someone’s neurosis. All of these are problems that are not helped by the fact that it is highly questionable if there is any such thing as a ‘sub-conscious’ in the first place.

To me, the idea of there being a hidden driver of our actions, one who can’t speak to us directly but who knows the truth of our situations and leaves before us Sybil like clues and riddles as answers to our deepest troubles seems remarkably unlikely. That this veiled women who lurks in the depths of our psyches can only speak to us in dreams and is invariably right about how we should live out lives seems a hypothesis that would be impossible to prove. Even if our sub-conscious did exist, how could we ever be certain that it only ever meant to offer us clues to help us live our lives? Why couldn't our sub-conscious be occasionally as destructive as our consciousness clearly often is. Like that wonderful story of Apollo who after being repeatedly asked by someone if they should invade a city finally says yes because it will mean they will be killed and hence finally shut up and not ask him stupid questions any more.

The problem that needs answered first is whether or not the images thrown up in dreams are any more meaningful than those elicited from ink blots. And if not, how can we know if our interpretation of these symbols is any more than ‘an’ interpretation. Unfortunately, as much as I enjoyed some of the interpretations described in this book, I was left feeling very uncomfortable by the idea that people were being reduced to characters in books. And while I understand (possibly all too well) the power our narratives have in framing our lives, I also understand that like all truly great books there simply are more than one reading that is both satisfying and meaningful to any cluster of symbols. I would recommend hesitating when coming to conclusions based on the images thrown up at us from the sub-conscious – much more hesitation than we might expend in coming to conclusions on the sub-textual elements in a novel.
Profile Image for Ahmad Sharabiani.
9,564 reviews34 followers
June 14, 2020
Man and His Symbols, C.G. Jung

In this book, Jung deals with the role of the culture and myths of each nation in the personality of the people that make up that society, and introduces the ancient concept of the model.

عنوانها: انسان و سمبولهایش؛ انسان و نمادهای هنری (به سوی شناخت ناخودآگاه انسان و سمبولهایش)؛ نویسنده: سی.جی یونگ؛ تاریخ نخستین خوانش هفتم اکتبر سال 1981میلادی

عنوان: انسان و سمبولهایش؛ نویسنده: سی.جی. یونگ؛ مترجم: ابوطالب صارمی؛ تهران، امیرکبیر، 1352؛ در 543ص؛ واژه نامه دارد؛ چاپ دیگر تهران، پایا با همکاری امیرکبیر، چاپ دوم 1359؛ موضوع: به سوی شناخت ناخودآگاه، سمبولیسم (روانشناسی) - سده 20م

عنوان: انسان و سمبولهایش؛ نویسنده: سی.جی. یونگ؛ مترجم: محمود سلطانیه؛ تهران، نشر جامی، 1377، چاپ چهارم 1383 ، در 494 ص؛ چاپ هفتم 1389؛ چاپ هشتم 1391؛

عنوان: انسان و نمادهای هنری (به سوی شناخت ناخودآگاه انسان و سمبولهایش)؛ نویسنده: سی.جی یونگ؛ مترجم: حسند اکبریان طبری؛ تهران، یاسمن، 1376؛ در 174ص؛ شابک: 9649141561؛ چاپ دیگر تهران، نشر دایره، 1383، در 174 ص، چاپ چهارم 1390؛ چاپ بعدی 1393، شابک 9786005722284؛

پس از درگذشت کارل گوستاو یونگ این کتاب توسط م.ل فون فرانتس ویرایش شده است؛ یونگ در این کتاب به نقش فرهنگ و اساطیر هر ملت در شخصیت افراد تشکیل‌ دهندۀ آن جامعه می‌پردازند، و مفهوم کهن‌ الگو را مطرح میکنند؛ پس از درگذشت ایشان کتاب در سال 1964میلادی به چاپ رسید؛ ترجمه محمود سلطانیه: کندوکاو در ناخودآگاه؛ اساطیر باستانی و انسان امروز؛ فرایند فردیت؛ نمادگرایی در هنرهای تجسمی؛ وجود نماد در درون تجزیه و تحلیل فردی؛

تاریخ بهنگام رسانی 24/03/1399هجری خورشیدی؛ ا. شربیانی
Profile Image for Mohammed.
447 reviews582 followers
January 31, 2019
هل فكرت يومًأ في أن حلمك رسالة من الأعماق، من شخصك الآخر، يحاول أن يحذرك، أن يبشرك أو يخبرك بما لا تود سماعه؟ هل فكرت في أن بداخلك كيانًا أقدم منك وأكثر حكمة، لا يظهر إلا في أوقات معينة وبطرق ورموز خاصة؟

إذا كانت الإجابة نعم فأنت إنسان طبيعي.

إذا كانت الإجابة لا فـ.... دعني أنقل لك اقتباسًا عن د.يونغ نفسه :

"أرني شخصًا عاقلًا وسوف أعالجه!"

أوجعتك العبارة، إليس كذلك؟

هذا الكتاب ثري جدًا وعميق. فليست معلوماته مرتبطة بعلم النفس فحسب، بل بالأديان والأساطير (الميثولوجيا)، وكذلك الفنون والتاريخ. يستجلب يونغ وزملاؤه هذه المعارف لربطها بمفهوم اللاشعور وبالأحلام ومقاصدها.

يؤمن يونغ بأن لكل منّا ظلّا، يمثل صفات متنحية –ليست بالضرورة سيئة- ينبغي علينا التعرف عليه والتصالح معه. كما يعتقد العالم السويسري أن الأحلام ماهي إلا صدى لصوت وجداننا للاشعوري، الذي يستخدم رموزًأ مستمدة من معتقدات وموروثات أزلية قد لا تتعرف عليها أنفسنا الواعية بسهولة.
هناك العديد من الأفكار المقنعة في الكتاب، إلا أن مذهب تفسير الأحلام لدى يونغ معقد جدًا. أتفق معه جدًا بأنه لا يمكن الخروج بصياغة ثابتة للتفسير الأحلام عامةّ، بل يجب أن يخضع التفسير إلى تحليل لخبرات الشخص وسلوكه ومعتقداته. إلا أن القارئ لا يمكن بأي حال من الأحوال –مالم يكن مختصًا- أن يطبق ذلك المذهب على نفسه أو غيره. فهو معقد ويحتاج إلى جلسات مُطولة.

لطالما أثار مفهوم الظل اهتمامي، أعتقد بأن كل منا صفات يقمعها الشخص ولا يسمح لها بالخروج، وهو يفعل ذلك بطريقة آلية لا يلاحظها ولا يعرف لها سببًا. وقد ساعدني هذا الكتاب على معرفة المزيد عن ذلك المبدأ. بالإضافة إلى ذلك، أكرمني الكتاب بالعديد من المفاهيم النفسية الشيقة مثل: الأنماط الأولية، الأنيما (المكون الأنثوي للنفس لدى الرجل)، والأنيموس (المكون الذكوري للنفس لدى المرأة)....والعديد من الأفكار الشيقة التي تستحق التأمل. وكما ذكرت فالكتاب مُثقل بالحكايات الأسطورية من جميع الثقافات، والقصص الدينية من شتى الكتب المقدسة، حتى قصص الأطفال تكررت هنا وهناك. كل سبق تم طر��ه بتفسير رمزي، قد يكون مغايرًا تمامًا لم كان في ذهنك. من بينها قصة الخضر عليه السلام التي وردت في سورة الكهف، كان لها تحليل رمزي خاص في الكتاب. ينطوي الكتاب أيضًا على العديد من الصور لتماثيل ولوحات وأعمال فنية حديثة وعتيقة.

لا أنكر أن قراءة الكتاب –على الرغم من أنه مُوجه للقارئ العادي- كانت مهمة شاقة. فالمصطلحات جديدة، والتكرار لذات الأفكار مستفز نوعًا. هذا إلى جانب أن المنهجية المتبعة للتعامل مع الأحلام أوصلتني –لا شعوريًا- لليأس بسبب صعوبة تطبيقها. أضف إلى ذلك أنني قلّما أحلم، وإذا حلمت أنسى، وإذا لم أنسّ فأنني لا أكترث. على عكس الكثير من الحالات في هذا الكتاب، لم أجرب أن يتردد علي حلم معيّن بنفس السيناريو والتفاصيل، هل حدث هذا معك، عزيزي القارئ؟

يجدر التنويه بأن نقاشي لأفكار الكتاب قد يفتقر إلى الدقة من حيث أنني قارئ غير متخصص، وأطرح الفكرة من مفهومي أنا، ومفهومي... (استر ما ستر الله)

أخيرا وليس آخرًا شكرا للصديق مازن الذي نصحني بقراءة أعمال كارل يونغ.
Profile Image for Nandakishore Mridula.
1,255 reviews2,301 followers
May 27, 2015
This is one of the three books which influenced my literary and mythical outlook (The Hero With a Thousand Faces and The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales being the other two). All my life, I have been fascinated by symbols and their near-universality: the weird way they recur in dreams and the way they keep on popping up in mythologies. I have also been fascinated by journeys in literature, myth and movies.

Jung tied it all together for me, in this collection of essays which is very much accessible to the layman. Especially interesting are the third chapter on the process of individuation and the final one, the case history of one man's dream analysis.

Well worth reading.
Profile Image for Sidharth Vardhan.
Author 23 books699 followers
March 29, 2019
Hands down, it is one of the best books I have read and I wish I had read it earlier. This book is a perfect gateway into Jung's ideas written expressly for the layman (like yours truly) to understand them.

I think even if you don't know the details, you know that his ideas provided a new dimension to psychology, taking it beyond nightmares and childhood traumas. Freud took away the extraordinary - the possessing demons as well as fantasies etc from psychology, Jung provides us with a hope that not all our time spent with those things is wasted.

There are though two more ways of gaining from the book for a curious mind. For one, you gain an additional perspective, another angle of looking at things - at art, literature, philosophy, political and social conflicts, even natural sciences.

Again, it seems to show the very limitations of rationalism which seems to be the basis of all our social sciences - economics (with its capitalist logic), politics and diplomacy (the 'carry a stick and talk politely' approach), culture (consumerism).

"There is, however, a strong empirical reason why we should cultivate thoughts that can never be proved. It is that they are known to be useful. Man positively needs general ideas and convictions that will give meaning to his life and enable him to find a place for himself in the universe. He can stand the most incredible hardships when he is convinced that they make sense; he is crushed when, on top of all his misfortunes, he has to admit that he is taking part in a “tale told by an idiot.”

Four Functions

One of the ideas that I already knew about and that was a key attraction for me was his ideas about how people are different - the four functions (sensing, intuition, feeling, thinking and feeling) by which we perceive (sensing and intuition) and order information (thinking and feeling) as well as their introversion and extroversion (which later led to invention of MBPT tests).

"When I use the word “feeling” in contrast to “thinking,” I refer to a judgment of value—for instance, agreeable or disagreeable, good or bad, and so on. Feeling according to this definition is not an emotion (which, as the word conveys, is involuntary). Feeling as I mean it is (like thinking) a rational (i.e., ordering) function, whereas intuition is an irrational (i.e., perceiving) function. In so far as intuition is a “hunch,” it is not the product of a voluntary act; it is rather an involuntary event, which depends upon different external or internal circumstances instead of an act of judgment. Intuition is more like a sense-perception, which is also an irrational event in so far as it depends essentially upon objective stimuli, which owe their existence to physical and not to mental causes."

"Sensation (i.e., sense perception) tells you that something exists; thinking tells you what it is; feeling tells you whether it is agreeable or not, and intuition tells you whence it comes and where it is going."

But even these four won't in themselves give the whole measure of humans (and thus the limitation of MBPT tests):

"The reader should understand that these four criteria of types of human behavior are just four viewpoints among many others, like will power, temperament, imagination, memory, and so on. There is nothing dogmatic about them, but their basic nature recommends them as suitable criteria for classification. I find them particularly helpful when I am called upon to explain parents to children and husbands to wives, and vice versa. They are also useful in understanding one’s own prejudices."

It was Jung's way of showing how each individual needs a separate treatment and how one psychologist cannot cure them all.

The individual is the only reality. The further we move away from the individual toward abstract ideas about Homo sapiens, the more likely we are to fall into error.

Jung's system thus seems to question all kind of institutions - nations, schools, marriages, etc, Obviously, I was gonna praise him.

A sane and normal society is one in which people habitually disagree because the general agreement is relatively rare outside the sphere of instinctive human qualities.

Collective Unconscious

The golden argument in Jung's theory is that not all our memories or mind is created out of lived experiences. In the book, he seems a bit defensive as this idea got him a lot of criticism. I think he defends it well. He talks of instincts that were a result of evolution (and thus for a large part shared with animals as well):

"Although the specific shape in which they express themselves is more or less personal, their general pattern is collective. They are found everywhere and at all times, just as animal instincts vary a good deal in the different species and yet serve the same general purposes. We do not assume that each new-born animal creates its own instincts as an individual acquisition, and we must not suppose that human individuals invent their specific human ways with every new birth. Like the instincts, the collective thought patterns of the human mind are innate and inherited. They function, when the occasion arises, in more or less the same way in all of us.
Emotional manifestations, to which such thought patterns belong, are recognizably the same all over the earth. We can identify them even in animals, and the animals themselves understand one another in this respect, even though they may belong to different species. And what about insects, with their complicated symbiotic functions? Most of them do not even know their parents and have nobody to teach them. Why should one assume, then, that man is the only living being deprived of specific instincts, or that his psyche is devoid of all traces of its evolution?"

When I read this passage (quite early in the book) I knew it would be a 5-star book. I could speculate that these instincts are coded inside our genes. And that it is of these instincts that a baby's brain is made of even when he has no lived experiences to make memories of.

This kind of answers a lot of things I used to wonder about - how does a baby know to suck at the mother's breast to gets its milk? how does it know to cry when it is distressed or need something? How does it know how to move its arms and legs or how to make the sound? how does it know not to be scared of all the sounds it hears? it also seems to answer why different civilizations developed in isolations seems to all have belief in some kind of gods. In this regard, Hawkins argues in 'The God Complex' that human beings, much like other animals, are evolved to wonder in terms of 'WHO did it' rather than 'WHAT did it?'

The best example of the collective unconscious that comes to my mind is a short science-fiction story 'Cutie-Pie' in which a baby boy exchanges ideas from his collective unconscious (example hunter's instincts) with alien's ideas.

Jung argues that all our instinctive behavior is explained thus:

"The medical psychologist is constantly confronted with otherwise intelligent patients who behave in a peculiar and unpredictable way and who have no inkling of what they say or do. They are suddenly caught by unreasonable moods for which they themselves cannot account.
Superficially, such reactions and impulses seem to be of an intimately personal nature, and so we dismiss them as idiosyncratic behavior. In fact, they are based upon a preformed and ever-ready instinctive system that is characteristic of the man. Thought forms, universally understandable gestures, and many attitudes follow a pattern that was established long before man developed a reflective consciousness."

He then goes on to speculate that power of reflection (with which we like to identify ourselves - the rational goody two shoe beings) must be in fact result from traumatic memories of such instinctive actions.:

"Goethe’s Faust aptly says: “I'm Anfang war die Tat [In the beginning was the deed].” “Deeds” were never invented, they were done; thoughts, on the other hand, are a relatively late discovery of man. First he was moved to deeds by unconscious factors; it was only a long time afterward that he began to reflect upon the causes that had moved him; and it took him a very long time indeed to arrive at the preposterous idea that he must have moved himself—his mind being unable to identify any other motivating force than his own."

These 'archetypes' are suppressed (because of how strong and intimidating they can be) during early childhood (and so you can remember much from your early Childhood. So much for the first chapter.

The second chapters reflect on how these archetypes keep popping up in our myths, legends, stories, etc. The 'hero' for example is an archetype that shows the development of self.


Jung argues that collective conscious also has different forms of symbols. Here is one of the pills that were hardest to digest for me. While it seems to me that we are evolving to find a sort of love in figures we consider perfect - circles, squares, etc, I don't think much of the symbols discussed in the book as ways with which unconscious presents itself in dreams. I don't think them important especially in regard to interpreting our dreams. Particularly the animal symbols - I don't think I ever had a dream with any kind of animals in it. I think dreams are best explained by 'how they made you feel'. However, I am an ignorant person and don't know much about psychology.

Jung will have you believe that our dreams have messages for us and, if they are aptly interpreted, they will help us gain self-fulfillment.


Another awesome idea of Jung's which I really loved is his description of 'self'. Jung says that our consciousness is only a part of total 'self' of which unconscious is also a part and ego is a very small part. Conscious is just a lately developed thing and its extreme fondness for love keeps us from connecting to the unconscious part of self and thus we live fulfilling lives.

Jung says (and I feel like agreeing) that Self is often irrational, inconsistent and is made of very opposite qualities, of which some are always suppressed, creating the existential (sometimes neurotic) crisis. Thus suppressed qualities, or the suppressed information will show as a shadow (our dream double that has our suppressed qualities) in our dreams.

Thus Jekyll might be Dr. Hyde's shadow (Jung's example). However, the shadow is not always a bad thing:

"the shadow is not necessarily always an opponent. In fact, he is exactly like any human being with whom one has to get along, sometimes by giving in, sometimes by resisting, sometimes by giving love—whatever the situation requires. The shadow becomes hostile only when he is ignored or misunderstood."

Herman Hesse's Steppenwolf seems to struggle of his protagonist in coming to terms with his suppressed self (my example). People are also capable of projecting their shadow on others - thus seeing their defects in others, the way Romans saw barbarians everywhere and Americans see terrorists everywhere. 'The eye of the beholder' and all.

Again, all men have feminine qualities (and vice versa) which are suppressed and these qualities show up in our dreams as a person of other sex (anima or animus). :

"A particularly good example of how the anima is experienced as an inner figure in a man’s psyche is found in the medicine men and prophets (shamans) among the Eskimo and other arctic tribes. Some of these even wear women’s clothes or have breasts depicted on their garments, in order to manifest their inner feminine side—the side that enables them to connect with the “Ghostland” (i.e., what we call the unconscious)."

This might explain why some patriarchal societies have goddesses. Like with shadow, you have to learn to live with this other side. I am sure a Jungian would love the Shiv-shakti pictures which show the union of these qualities in an individual. According to Jung the presence of this anima or animus helps us find the right partners for ourselves. Galatea was Pygmalion's anima.

When the Ego feels its values challenged, faces fiction in life. :

"The actual processes of individuation—the conscious coming-to-terms with one’s own inner center (psychic nucleus) or Self—generally begins with a wounding of the personality and the suffering that accompanies it. This initial shock amounts to a sort of “call,” although it is not often recognized as such. On the contrary, the ego feels hampered in its will or its desire and usually projects the obstruction onto something external. That is, the ego accuses God or the economic situation or the boss or the marriage partner of being responsible for whatever is obstructing it."

Both anima/animus, as well as Shadow, show up in dreams as well as our instinctive actions. You might stretch the argument to the animal aspects in us:

"But in man, the “animal being” (which lives in him as his instinctual psyche) may become dangerous if it is not recognized and integrated into life. Man is the only creature with the power to control instinct by his own will, but he is also able to suppress, distort, and wound it—and an animal, to speak metaphorically, is never so wild and dangerous as when it is wounded. Suppressed instincts can gain control of a man; they can even destroy him."

"Dancing, which was originally nothing more than a completion of the animal disguise by appropriate movements and gestures, was probably supplementary to the initiation or other rites."

Jung claims that though rationalism is a good thing, we are leaning too much on it and that is breaking us away from the unconscious (he repeatedly gives examples of tribes which are still better connected to their unconscious with whom they communicate without ever wondering why they are doing it) and this 'breaking away' will have to be rolled back to solve much of modern's man problems.


Jung claims that collective unconscious, archetypes, symbols, etc will show up in all sort of studies - social (political, economics, history, art, literature, mythology, religion studies etc) as well as natural (physics, chemistry, biology etc) exactly because everything is studied only through human experience and Jung's theory tries to describe the 'human', the 'observer' in there.

The art is (among other things) bringing out from unconscious ideas and thought patterns that we shape into stories (some of which will become myths). Our ability to connect to our unconscious side via art might be why arts (singing, painting, etc) seem so fulfilling.

"the artist has at all times been the instrument and spokesman of the spirit of his age. His work can be only partly understood in terms of his personal psychology. Consciously or unconsciously, the artist gives form to the nature and values of his time, which in their turn form him."

and that is what some reviews probably mean when they say that books like Ulysses, Tin Drum or Midnight Children catch the spirit of their time.


While I can readily agree with Jung's general ideas, details sometime won't appeal to me (specifically when he talks about symbols, superstitions, and dream interpretation) probably because I am still bugged by rationalism. All in all, it is an awesome book.
Profile Image for Edward.
419 reviews404 followers
July 10, 2021
I picked this up out of curiosity, but abandoned it about two-thirds of the way through (or at least skimmed the last third).

Jung's method is completely unscientific. He draws conclusions from tenuous assumptions, upon which he bases an entire treatment methodology. As evidence, he presents a series of anecdotes from patients whose lives he has "transformed". Yet there is no scientific grounding for his assertion that dreams are coherent narratives that are created by the subconscious to express hidden desires and intentions. Nor is there any rigour in his methodology for dream interpretation - it's astrological in its subjectivity.

I'm not a psychologist, but I can imagine there could be some utility to dream interpretation, in the same way it might be insightful to interpret a piece of literature, or a film, or music, or to undertake a Rorschach test, in that the interpretation reveals something about the interpreter. This is perhaps even more true of dreams, in that the dreamer has an acute sense of identifying with the dream, which is not usually the case with other art. But none of this requires Jung's strange metaphysical claims.

Similarly, the Jungian archetypes, and the idea of the Collective Unconscious are compelling from an anthropological, or metaphorical perspective, but are completely unfounded as a method for understanding psychological phenomena.
Profile Image for فؤاد.
1,066 reviews1,759 followers
July 10, 2017
کتاب، آمیخته با فلسفه و عرفان و نماد شناسی و تحلیل رؤیای بیماران، هیجان انگیز و مرموزه. یونگ این کتاب رو در سال های آخر عمرش نوشته. یعنی دوره ای که شدیداً به مسائل شبه-علم علاقه مند شده بود: از عرفان های پیشامسیحی گرفته، تا جادو و کیمیاگری و طالع بینی و پیشگویی.

توی همین کتاب، میشه به وضوح دید که چندین جا، مرز بین روانشناسی و جادو عبور میکنه. مثلاً صفحه ای داره با شور و شوق راجع به ادراکات شهودی و غیر قابل توجیه با منطق ناخودآگاه صحبت میکنه (تا اینجا روانشناسیه)، ولی صفحه ی بعد، ناگهان وارد مبحث معجزه میشه و مفصل مثال میاره از تقارن دو رخداد (مثلاً همزمانی مرگ فرد، با توقف ساعتش، یا دو خواب یک شکل دیدن دو نفر یا...) بسته به دید فرد (که شدیداً علمی باشه یا نه) این بخش ها ممکنه اعصاب خرد کن باشه، یا به غایت هیجان انگیز.

البته ظاهراً کتابی که من خوندم، فقط بخشی از کتاب "انسان و سمبول هایش" بوده. کتاب مزبور، شامل پنج مقاله ی طولانیه، که فقط یکی از اون ها نوشته ی یونگ هستش. اون مقاله ی نوشته ی یونگ، به صورت کتاب مجزایی تحت همین نام (انسان و سمبول هایش) توسط نشر دایره منتشر شده و من اون رو خوندم.
Profile Image for Mahdi Lotfi.
447 reviews105 followers
July 31, 2017
کتاب حاضر با همکاری "دکتر ماری لویزفون فرانتس، دکتر جوزف ال. هندرسن، دکتر آنیه لایافه، دکتر یولانده یاکوبی" نوشته شده است. یونگ در این کتاب به نقش فرهنگ و اساطیر هر ملت در شخصیت افراد تشکیل‌دهنده آن جامعه می‌پردازد و مفهوم کهن‌الگو را مطرح می کند. در قسمت‌هایی از کتاب می‌خوانیم: «من قبلاً به آنچه مردم‌شناسان "ترس از چیزهای نو" نامیده‌اند اشاره کرده‌ام یک ترس عمیق و خرافی از چیزهای نو در مردم ابتدایی در برابر وقایع مبهم، درست مانند حیوانات وحشی واکنش نشان می‌دهند... این امر را می‌توان به آسانی در واکنش هر فرد در برابر رویاهای خود، وقتی که به اعتراف به یک پندار حیرت‌انگیز مجبور می‌شود، مشاهده کرد.» «در بررسی رویاها دو نکته اصلی باید مورد بررسی قرار گیرند: نخست اینکه رویا را باید مانند یک حقیقت تلقی کرد که کسی درباره آن نباید هیچ‌گونه تصور قبلی بکند، جز اینکه در هر حال به وجهی دارای معنی است، دوم اینکه رویا جلوه‌ای از ناخودآگاه است.»
Profile Image for Ali Karimnejad.
313 reviews166 followers
February 10, 2023
سمبل‌ها، رویاها و کهن‌الگوها

اول از همه باید بگم که درک حتی ابتدایی ترین نظریات اساسی یونگ به کمک این کتاب چندان مقدور نیست. کتاب برای افراد عامی جامعه نوشته شده تا بتونن با مفاهیمی که یونگ میگه ارتباط برقرار کنن ولی خیلی خبری از تعاریف دقیق و مشخص در اون نیست. و دقیقا همین جنبه کتاب هست که بنظرم این کتاب رو گنگ و نامفهوم کرده بطوری که بعد از 500 صفحه، هنوز آدم قاد�� نیست به درک درستی از تعاریف اولیه مکتب یونگ برسه و از این جهت توصیه میکنم حتما چندتا ویدئو توی یوتوب در این رابطه ببینید و بعد کتاب رو بخونید.

ببینید، شاکله نظر یونگ در رابطه با خواب‌ها و رویاهای انسان هست که از نظر اون راه ارتباطی بخش ناخودآگاه انسان با بخش خودآگاهش هستن. و زبان این ناخودآگاه زبانی "سمبلیک" هست. اینکه چرا ناخودآگاه چنین زبان سمبلیکی رو اختیار کرده از جمله اختلاف نظرهای فروید و یونگ بود. فروید معتقد بود که از اونجایی که خودآگاه انسان تحمل برخورد مستقیم با خواستهای ناخودآگاه رو نداره لاجرم اونها به زبان سمیلیک در رویا پدیدار میشن. اما یونگ این زبان سمبلیک رو به چیز دیگه‌ای نسبت می‌داد و معتقد بود که میشه این سمبل‌ها رو مطالعه کرد و صرفا منحصر به فرد خواب‌بیننده نیست. بلکه علاوه بر اون ممکنه ناشی از بخشی از ناخودآگاه باشه که یونگ اسمش رو "ناخودآگاه جمعی" گذاشت. بخشی که در اصل ماوا و مامن "کهن‌الگو"های بشری هست.

یونگ اینطور توضیح داد: "همونطور که اندامهای انسان تاریخ تکامل خاص خودش رو داره، ذهن هم بدون شک دارای تاریخ تکاملی خودش هست. در روان انسان هنوز بقایایی از اونچه که مربوط به روان انسان اولیهای و بعضا شبه حیوان بود وجود داره. این همون چیزیه که در انسانها مشترکه و کهن الگوها بر اون استواره. و اگرچه نمود اونها در جزئیات با هم متفاوته اما شکل اصلی و کلیتش یکسان و مشترکه". از نظر یونگ کهن‌الگوها در وجود انسان همون‌قدر غریزی هستن که غرایز اولیه هر حیوان متولد شده.
کهن‌الگوها رو در واقع میشه اینطور تعریف کرد: "الگوهای احساسی و شناختی مشترکی که از زمان‌های بسیار دور به انسان امروزی به ارث رسیدن". مثل کهن‌الگوی مادر، قهرمان، خالق، حیله‌گر، بی‌گناه و ...ا

در وقع این کهن‌الگوها هستن که منجر به پیدایش اسطوره‌ها، ادیان و فلسفه‌های زندگی در سرتاسر جهان شدند و به همین جهت هم هست که وقتی اون‌ها رو مطالعه می‌کنیم اشتراکات زیادی بین اونها پیدا می‌کنیم. و لذا به همین خاطره که مطالعه اونها اهمیت داره. چون باعث درک بهتر ما از کهن‌الگوها می‌شه. چون اجداد ما از اونچه که ما امروز اسطوره می‌نامیم آگاهی نداشتند بلکه اونها رو زندگی میکردند و از اونها برانگیخته می‌شدن.

در بخش دوم کتاب، دکتر جوزف هندرسون میاد و چندتایی از این کهن‌الگوها رو تشریح می‌کنه.
یکی از معروفترین کهن الگوها، کهن الگوی "قهرمان" هست که در داستان‌های اساطیری، "قهرمان" به جنگ تاریکی یا اژدها و این حرفا میره و معمولا پیروز میشه. کارکرد اصلی اسطوره "قهرمان" توسعه خودآگاه فرد به نسبت به ضعفها و قدرتهای خودش هست. به طوری که فرد رو برای کارهای دشوار و خطیری که در زندگی داره آماده میکنه.
طی اغلب این داستان‌های اساطیری "قهرمان" باید به شناخت از "سایه" خودش برسه که در واقع بخش منفی وجودشه و در همه انسانها هست اگرچه اغلب از وجود سایه خودشون ناآگاه هستن و "قهرمان" باید قبل از غلبه بر تاریکی یا اژدها، ابتدا بر "سایه" خودش غلبه کنه. نیاز به کهن‌الگوی "قهرمان" زمانی در بشر ازدیاد پیدا میکنه که ذهن خودآگاه درگیر یک کار خطیری هست که نمیتونه بدون کمک گرفتن از ناخودآگاه انجام بده.

در بخش سوم، دکتر مری لوییس فرانتس میاد و راجع به کامل شدن انسان، یعنی برقراری صلح بین بخش خودآگاه و بخش ناخودآگاه انسان صحبت می‌کنه و توضیح می‌ده که خواب‌های تکرار شونده در واقع بخشی از این پروسه هستند و لازمه بسیار به اونها توجه بشه.
به منظور اینکه یک فرد بتونه با کهن الگوی "خود"ش ارتباط برقرار کنه لازمه که ابتدا با "سایه" و "آنیما یا آنیموس" خودش مواجه بشه و به طور کامل اونها رو درک کنه. (انیما و انیموس، عنصر مادینه یا نرینه هر فرد در وجودش هستن که با جنسیت خود فرد در تضاده. - مرد آنیما داره که بیانگر تمام ویژگیها و تمایلات زنانه در وجود مرد هست. زن آنیموس داره.)

توی بخش چهارم، روی وجود سمبل‌ها در نقاشی‌ها تمرکز شده و روی سه سمبل "حیوان"، "دایره" و "سنگ" به طور ویژه تمرکز می‌کنه. و بخش پنجم هم که یک "کِیس اِستادی" هست. و بنظر من، کسی فقط سه بخش اول این کتاب رو بخونه عمده اونچه که در این کتاب شایان توجه هست رو کسب کرده.

به عنوان حرف آخر، یک نکته مهمی که در رابطه با کهن‌الگوها و سمبل‌ها لازمه به یاد داشته باشیم. اینکه در مورد هر فرد خواب‌ بیننده، سمبل‌ها ممکنه ناشی از "ناخودآگاه" (سمبل‌های فرهنگی و مربوط به زندگانی فرد) یا ناشی از "ناخودآگاه جمعی" (سمبل‌های طبیعی-کهن‌الگوها) باشن و لذا لازمه در تفسیر هر خواب، رابطه فرد با خودش و زندگیش رو لحاظ کرد و از این جهت تفسیر کهن‌الگوها و سمبل‌ها در هر خوابی منحصر به فرده.
Profile Image for Ali.
Author 17 books625 followers
August 18, 2007
اگر تعبیر خواب و رویای فروید را خوانده اید، از "انسان و سمبول هایش" لذت مشابهی خواهید برد. با این همه کتاب سوم در این زمینه "زبان از یاد رفته" از اریش فروم است که به اندازه ی هر دوی اینها جالب و خواندنی ست. این هر سه کت��ب روند نگاه به رویا را در طی سه دهه نشان می دهند، از فروید که عناصر رویا را در ارثیه ی روحی و روانی و جنسی شخص از روزگار رشدش می داند، تا یونگ که ریشه های رویا را در گذشته ی اساطیری و آیینی انسان می بیند و بالاخره اریش فروم که به مخلوطی از این دو اشاره می کند، و جهان رویا را از گذشته ی اساطیری و خاطرات ازلی انسان تا وقایع همین امروز دور و برش، می گستراند. شگفت زده می مانید که هنگام استراحت جسمی، مغز انسان این چنین در زمان و مکان، می چرخد و سیر می کند و در رویایی کوتاه، آسمان و زمین را بهم می دوزد.
Profile Image for Miss Ravi.
Author 1 book1,007 followers
December 12, 2016
یکی از کتاب‌هایی‌یه که هرگز از دوباره خوندنش خسته نمی‌شم. کتابی که همیشه چیزهایی داره برای دونستن و فهمیدن و درک کردن. به‌خصوص درباره‌ی درون، خویشتن و ذهن.
یکی از جذاب‌ترین فصل‌های این‌ کتاب که توسط ماری لوییز فون فرانتس نوشته شده به فرایند درونی‌ای می‌پردازه که اولین بار توسط کارل گوستاو یونگ مطرح شده. فرایند فردیت یه پروسه‌ی درونی‌یه اما «من» شخص می‌تونه برای تکامل «خود» ناخودآگاهش سعی کنه این فرایند رو کامل پشت سر بذاره و به یه انسان روان‌شناختی و آگاه از خویشتن تبدیل شه.

علاوه بر این توضیحاتی که یونگ درباره‌ی کهن‌الگوها می‌ده خواننده رو با مسائلی مواجه می‌کنه که در زندگی روزمره باهاشون سروکار داشته و مهم‌تر از اون باعث می‌شه خواننده به رویاهاش بیش‌تر از همیشه اهمیت بده.
Profile Image for Shaghayegh.l3.
340 reviews49 followers
January 12, 2020
با درنظر گرفتن تفاوت عقیده‌ای یونگ و فروید در چند مورد، خیلی شبیه به تفسیر رویاهای فروید بود اما به عقیده‌ی من کتاب فروید خواناتر بود، با اینکه عقاید یونگ رو بیشتر قبول دارم و اون‌همه قاطی کردن مسائل جنسی با همه‌چیز تو مخیله‌م نمی‌گنجه، اما این کتاب و مثال‌های خواب و تحلیل‌هاش کمی برای من سنگین بود و از بعضی بخش‌ها و توضیحات نماد‌ها گذشتم. حس می‌کردم نماد خواب‌های اون افراد هیچ کمکی به بهتر فهمیدن خواب‌های خودم نمی‌کنه و خوندنشون بیشتر ذهنم رو سنگین می‌کنه. و به‌طور کلی فقط از خوندن بخش اول که نوشته‌ی خود یونگ بود لذت بردم.
32 reviews7 followers
June 3, 2020
انسان و سمبولهایش یکی از متفاوت ترین و عجیب ترین کتاب هایی است که خواهید خواند. کامو در کتاب «اسطوره سیزیف» بیان می کند که «اسطوره ها برای این آفریده شده اند که ما به آن ها جان ببخشیم.» اما با رویارویی با «کهن الگو» ها و ناخودآگاه جمعی، درمی‌یابیم که در واقع خود ما، افسانه های زنده هستیم. انسان «متمدن» با رویارویی با دنیای امروزی سدی روانی را برپا می کند که او را از اصل و طبیعت وی دور می کند. اما این خواب ها و «سایه» و ناخوداگاه وغرایز ما هستند که ما را در این دنیای ماشینی و غیر انسانی به طبیعت و اصل وجودی خودمان باز می گردانند. تنها با شناخت «خود» است که «من» می تواند «فرآيند فردیت» را به درستی اجرا کند. تمرکز اصلی کتاب بر شناختن زوایای مختلف ناخودآگاه و ارتباط آن ها با خود آگاه است.

“ دیگر خدایان وجود ندارند که آن ها را یاری بطلبیم. ادیان بزرگ از فقر فزاینده رنج می‌برند. جنگل ها، رودها، کوه ها و حیوانات از وجود ربانییت یاری دهنده بی بهره شده اند و نیمه خدایان در ناخودآگاه ما پنهان مانده اند. و ما دلمان به این پندار واهی خوش است که آن ها در میان بقایای ناخودآگاهمان زندگی منفعلی دارند.زندگی کنونی ما زیر سلطه ی الهه ی خرد یعنی بزرگترین و فاجعه بارترین پندار واهی قرار دارد. و به لطف همین پندار است که ( طبیعت را مقهور خود ساخته ایم.)

اما این تنها یک شعار است. زیرا ادعای پیروزی بر طبیعت در واقع نشان دهنده درماندگی ما در برابر پدیده ی افزایش جمعیت است. و توافق های سیاسی تحمیل شده نیز بدبختی های ناشی از ناتوانی روانی ما را افزایش می دهند. ما هنوز هم فکر می کنیم که انسان ها برای اعمال برتری خود با یک دیگر باید با هم کشمکش و ستیز کنند و در این صورت چگونه می‌توانیم از ( پیروزی بر طبیعت) سخن برانیم؟

چون هر تغییری باید به هر رو از جایی آغاز شود بنابراین تک تک افراد آن را احساس خواهند کرد و به منصه ی ظهور خواهند رساند. تغییر ابتدا در فرد جوانه می زند و هر کدام از ما می توانیم آن فرد باشیم. هیچکس نباید به خود اجازه دهد که به انتظار بنشیند تا فرد دیگری کاری را که او دوست ندارد انجام دهد، انجام دهد. و بدبختی اینجاست که گویا هیچکدام از ما نمی‌داند چه باید بکند؛ شاید بد نباشد هر کس از خود بپرسد که در ناخودآگاهش چیزی نیست که برای همگان سودمند باشد؟ بنظر می آید که خودآگاه نتواند به یاری ما بشتابد. متاسفانه امروزه انسان می داند که نه ادیان بزرگ و نه فلسفه های گونه گون هیچکدام نمی توانند وی را به انگاره های نیرومند و پویایی که برای ایمنی در دنیای کنونی لازم است مجهز سازند. ....”
Profile Image for ساره.
37 reviews13 followers
July 27, 2019
بیرون ز تو نیست هر چه در عالم هست.

هدف کتاب علاقه مند کردن خواننده‌ها به کندو کاو و تحلیل ناخودآگاهه. غور در خویشتن خویش. برای همراهی با دکتر یونگ باید از خردگرایی صرف دست کشید. باید هر آنچه از خودت میشناختی رو کنار بگذاری و از نو شروع کنی. این قلمرو جدیدی که پا میگذاری فوق‌العاده ست. هیجان انگیزه. تلاش برای حل معمای وجود دردناک ولی رهایی بخشه. هر کدام از ما یک داستانیم اما بلد نیستیم تعریفش کنیم. ناخودآگاه سعی میکنه به ما کمک کنه که کشف کنیم این داستان رو. بامزه ترین کارش خواب هایی ست که می بینیم و نمادهایی ست که نشونمون میده. گرچه بسیار زیرکه و به راحتی اجازه تحلیل خودش رو به ما نمیده.
این کتاب به نظرم مقدمه‌ای برای شروع این مسیر پر پیچ و خم اما زیباست.
Profile Image for Natacha Pavlov.
Author 8 books82 followers
May 12, 2013
This was my first book on Jung and it had me hooked. The introduction states that this book was written with the simple, typical reader in mind—which makes this particular volume easy to read. I’m definitely keen on wanting to read more of Jung’s work now, however I’ve heard that his writing can be very difficult to process due to advanced language and/or abstract concepts. I can only hope that it won’t be anything too strenuous once I get there!
Given that I’ve been interested in the study of dreams for over a year now, I feel this book on Jung was a highly satisfying place for me to start. Although only the first chapter was written by him, it may not matter much seeing as all the others follow the Jungian perspectives and analysis of dreams (and were also edited by Jung).

Many of the symbols discussed are ancient in origin and are therefore difficult to ‘trace.’ As such, they’re symbols that we all subconsciously know but which can be hard to understand, especially if we’ve lost touch with them. This is especially true in light of the fact that primitive societies have remained a lot more in touch with their intuition and significant archetypal images than our modern societies have. The essays in this compilation show—through different mediums like ancient myths and visual arts—how bridging the gap and reconciling the unconscious with our conscious states can prove beneficial and healing to us all.

Something that had initially stood out to me with this dream book was that the dreams seemed to pertain mostly to future events. There were no references whatsoever to the possibility of witnessing past life events through dreams—something which figures quite a bit in Edgar Cayce dream materials I’ve read. I found this puzzling and wondered if perhaps Jung didn’t believe in past lives/reincarnation. Ironically enough, I got a kind of ‘answer’ soon after as I read The Search for Omm Sety, in which the last chapter comments on the fact that Jung likely did believe in it, but chose not to bring it up out of concern that (his) society wasn’t ready for it yet.

Needless to say, my interest has definitely been peaked and I found this book very hard to put down due to its very interesting and enlightening content.
Profile Image for Ehsan'Shokraie'.
632 reviews163 followers
March 13, 2019
خواب های ما به راستی چه معنایی دارند؟کهن الگو چیست؟این بقایای تکاملی تکرار شونده که در ناخوداگاه انسان ها وجود دارد..."سایه", اسطوره ها,"انسان بزرگ" خدایان..در جهان عقلی سازی شده ی امروز,که همه چیز به علم و منطق تعریف شده,إیا برای فردیت و هویت انسانی معنایی باقیست؟ایا انسان حق تامل بر ان را دارد که خود را بیش از انچه منطق به او اجازه میدهد را بپندارد؟
کارل گوستاو یانگ..در اخرین سال های عمر این کتاب را نوشت,فصل اول این کتاب به قلم وی و سایر فصل ها توسط پیروان و محققان معتقد به مکتب وی,با راهنمایی و هدایت او نوشته شده.
اینکه انسان مبدا و corestoneیک مکتب باشد و اینگونه به او اعتقاد داشته باشند به راستی زیباست.
از خواندن این کتاب بسیار لذت بردم,نوشتار روان و روشن ..
"هر چه شناخت علمی افزایش می یابد,دنیا غیر انسانی تر میشود,انسان خود را جدا از کائنات احساس میکند,چرا که دیگر با طبیعت سروکاری ندارد.دیگر نه تندر اوای خشمگین خداست و نه اذرخش تیر انتقام او.دیگر نه رودخانه پناهگاه ارواح ست نه درخت سرچشمه زندگی انسان,هیچ غاری ماوا شیاطین نیست,دیگر سنگ سنگ ها حیوانات و گیاهان با انسان سخن نمیگویند و انسان نیز با انها سخن نمیگوید,زیرا می انگارد که گفته هایش شنیده نمیشوند,تماس انسان با طبیعت قطع شده و نیرو عمیق این ارتباط از میان رفته"
بیان دیگری از ذهن ناخوداگاه را میتوان در اثار یکی از مشهور ترین نقاشان جوان مکتب انتزاعی,جکسون پولوک امریکایی که در 44سالگی خود را با اتومبیل کشت یافت,اثار او تاثیر فراونی بر هنرمندان جوان معاصر گذاشته است,در کتاب "نقاشی من"اظهار داشت که در حالت جذبه نقاشی میکند:((وقتی نقاشی میکنم خودم نمیدانم چه میکشم,و تنها پس از گذران دوره جذبه مانوس است که بخود می آیم,من از تغییر و تخریب تصویر واهمه ندارم,زیرا تابلو هم زندگی خاص خودش را دارد.و من می کوشم که این را نشتن دهم,تنها زمانی که رابطه ام با تابلو قطع شود نتیجه مبهم و سردرگم از اب درمی اید,د�� غیر این صورت هماهنگی ناب و تبادل به اسانی رخ میدهد و تابلو موفق از اب در می اید.))
Profile Image for Sadaf.
91 reviews11 followers
February 24, 2022
از آخرین اثر یونگ که با همکاری شاگردانش نگاشته شد در ۵ فصل که هر فصلش برعهده شخصی، فصل اول آن به قلم خود دکتر یونگ هست . کتاب انسان و سنبل هایش کتابی پر کشش در رابطه با رویاها،نماد‌ها،کهن الگوها،اساطیر،افسانه‌ها، هنر و فرهنگ ملت‌ها با نگرش ناخودآگا�� و خودآگاه است کتاب مرز بین رئال و سورئال مرز بین علم و جادو مرز بین شناخته‌ها و ناشناخته ها و…
این کتاب به درخواست انتشارات الدوس تدوین شد تا علم پیچیده‌ی راونکاوی نوین را به زبانی ساده برای درک عموم بیان کند.
از اینکه خودندمش خیلی راضی‌ام گرچه درحال سرچ کلمات و مباحثش بودم و خارج از تصورم بود …جزو کتابهایی هست بازم سراغش خواهم رفت
Profile Image for Ipsa.
188 reviews200 followers
May 13, 2021
Ever since I was a little kid of six or seven, I've had these recurring dreams, with the same pattern every time: there's always a mountain or a rainforest, or both, there's always lots of water in some form, and either it's always raining or about to. The last dream I had like this was last week where in a mountainous terrain, there was a mighty river, and I was walking behind a group of people I had never seen before, when suddenly the water started seeping through from everywhere, from the sky, from the land, the mountains, the trees; only I seemed to be affected by it, but nobody else. These recurrent symbolisms have plagued me for life, these dreams have always generated a holy reverential feeling in me, but at the same there's something very sinister about them which rattles me for days after I see one of these. For this reason I had always wanted to explore Jung and why I finally picked this book up.

I didn't get my answers here, but it did open up to me a world of dualities, of the possibility of the existence of a world that doesn't exist in categories, but flows in between. All the world is, it's human. It's beautiful how closely connected philosophy, psychology, mathematics, and the holy trinity of the sciences are; a great exploration of the common background of the two domains of physical and psychic appearances. The 'great realism' of physics and the 'great abstraction' of modern art, philosophy, and psychology converge when examined closely.

After I read the first 70-80 pages, I felt a strange disdain towards Jung, towards the categorising tendencies of psychologists, it was too vague, too convenient. Though as I moved along, I started to understand this 'vagueness' is actually coming from his intellectual modesty--- an attitude that doesn't exclude by rash oversimplifications but respects the complexity of the phenomenon of life. I can't help but wonder if what André Breton said about dreams having the potential to solve the fundamental questions of life, is true? Dreams arise from our unconscious minds, and this Self, the psyche, creates the world outside of us, the way we perceive it, understand it. So if we learn to understand our dreams perfectly, can't we solve many fundamental questions of life through it? I don't know.

I can't summarise the book here, it's too vast and full up to the brim with informational analysis. Too many thoughts, but not the urge to verbalise them; I wanna keep them close, mull them over. Certain sections of the book demand a second reading, there's just too much material to absorb in one sitting. Anyway, after this I can't help but look for archetypal functioning of the human psyche everywhere.

Throughout the book, a line by the physicist Werner Heisenberg kept reverberating in my mind:
When examining nature and the universe, instead of looking for and finding objective qualities, man encounters himself.
Profile Image for Nguyên Trang.
541 reviews539 followers
September 5, 2018
Đọc cuốn này với mục đích để hiểu rõ Demian của Hesse. Bản thân Hesse sau khi tiếp xúc với học thuyết của Carl Jung đã điên đảo và trong ba tuần thì sáng tác ra Demian. Bản thân mình đọc xong cuốn này cũng cảm thấy phần nào bừng tỉnh. Cơ bản thì cuốn này có mấy nội dung:

- Bác bỏ cách giải mộng của Freud là liên tưởng tự do (trong sách dịch là hội ý tự do). Tức là Freud thường yêu cầu bệnh nhân kể về giấc mơ của họ rồi từ đó dò hỏi, để họ bộc bạch tâm tình, từ đó lộ ra những mặc cảm. Jung thì ngược lại. Ông không đồng ý việc đi xa giấc mơ, coi giấc mơ là cách gợi chuyện. Ngược lại, ý nghĩa nằm ở trong chính các giấc mơ, thông qua những biểu tượng.

- Giấc mơ theo Jung là để đền bù (cho những suy nghĩ mà ý thức khi tỉnh không dám bộc lộ) hoặc gợi ý tương lai (thường là chết chóc, tai họa)

- Jung cho rằng tiềm thức của con người, cũng y hệt như chân tay mồm miệng, tức là chứa gene di truyền từ thời con cá leo lên bờ rồi thành người. Nói như cách diễn đạt của Hesse thì với chỉ 1 con người, thế giới có thể tái tạo lại hoàn toàn, kể cả Tân Ước lẫn Cựu ước. Tức là trong mỗi con người đã chứa gene của cả lịch sử hình thành con người. Những tiềm thức từ tổ tiên, gọi là siêu tượng, luôn chứa trong mỗi người. (Mỗi lần thấy cư dân mạng chửi nhau lại buồn. Mình chứa gene của lũ dở hơi đấy sao)

- Cuốn này có thể coi là một cuốn sách triết cũng được. Triết thăm dò tư tưởng, trong khi đó, tiềm thức chính là người anh em trong bóng tối của triết. Jung rất thường nhắc tới Nietzsche. Đọc Jung cũng thấy Nietzsche liền. Ông quan điểm con người có hai mặt tốt xấu. Con người hiện đại đang đè nén tiềm thức, có thể dẫn tới những hi��m họa (như người Đức tự dưng man rợ đi đánh giết). Ông cũng phê phán công nghiệp máy móc đang biến con người thành cỗ máy (Hesse cũng tương tự). Để hiểu bản thân mình, phải để cho cái tiềm thức mở ra.

Sau khi đọc xong cuốn này mình quay lại Demian thì phần nào hiểu rõ hơn về truyện. Nhân vật Emil đó đã tìm thấy tiềm thức thông qua những người xung quanh và cả các giấc mơ. Nhưng mình k rõ biểu tượng trong giấc mơ là gì? phải chăng cũng là đền bù. Vì chính khi Emil sa đọa thì anh mơ thấy một đại diện của cao thượng, trinh bạch. Anw, Emil đã đáp ứng mong muốn của Jung, tức là mở cửa tiềm thức.

Sau khi đọc xong thì mình cũng lập tức lao đi... giải mộng cá nhân =))) Mình có 1 giấc mơ bao năm nay cứ mơ đi mơ lại y chang. Mà cứ ngủ mơ là thường mơ thấy nó. Gần đây có thay đổi. Mình áp dụng Jung vào thì thấy quả là đền bù và mặc cảm. Giá là dự báo tương lai thì tốt haha Mình cũng nghĩ là mình khá mở tiềm thức ở 1 trong hai giấc mơ quen thuộc.

Quên nói về bản dịch. Rất nhiều từ mới lạ hấp dẫn. Ban đầu đọc không quen nhưng về sau quen dần, thấy ổn. Vũ Đình Lưu dịch cuốn Một cái chết rất dịu dàng của Beauvoir mình mê hết sảy =))
Profile Image for Arman.
284 reviews199 followers
December 12, 2016
این آخرین کتاب یونگ را می توان جمع بندی و تبیین همه افکار و اندیشه های گسترده، متشتت و دشوار وی به زبانی ساده و روان دانست.
کتاب شامل 5 فصل می باشد که 4 فصل آن را تعدادی از بزرگ ترین شاگردان و پیروان دکتر یونگ به نگارش در آورده اند. هر کدام از آن ها به جنبه ای از اندیشه های او پرداخته و سعی کرده اند تا با بسط و گسترش آن ها، از بدفهمی متون استاد جلوگیری کرده و به رفع و تناقضات و ابهاماتی که در این جا و آن جای آثار او موجود است، بپردازند.

کسانی که با آرای دکتر یونگ آشنا نیستند،با خوانش این کتاب جامع (در حوزه آرای وی) متوجه می شوند که او علیرغم مخالفت های استادش فروید، با غور و درون نگری در جنبه های غیر مادی روان آدمی (از طریق مطالعه ی آثار کیمیاگرانِ قرون وسطا، آثار و افکار متون گنوسی و ادیان شرقی و نیز تحلیلِ موشکافانه ی رویاهایی که در زمان بیداری بر او عارض می شدند، خیلی زود مسیرش را از مسیر روانکاوی (به پیشگامی فروید) که به شدت تحت تاثیر مادی گرای و ساده سازیِ علوم تجربی قرن 19 بود، جدا کرده و رهیافت روانشناختیِِ روان‌شناسی تحلیلی را پایه گذاری می کند.

این کتاب برای کسانی که برای اولین بار قصد ورود به دنیای پر رمز و رازِ اندیشه های سحرانگیز و تأثیرگذار یونگ را دارند، به شدت توصیه می گردد.
Profile Image for hayatem.
687 reviews169 followers
February 11, 2018

ان العلاقة بين العقل الظاهر والعقل الباطن تشكل زوجاً متكاملاً من الأضداد.

"هذه الاكتشافات الجديدة ل سيكولوجيا الأعماق لا بد أن تغير شيئاً ما في وجهات نظرنا الأخلاقية الجماعية ، نظراً لأنها تلزمنا بأن نحكم على أفعال البشر كلها بطريقة أكثر تفرداً أو دقة. إن اكتشاف اللاشعور هو أحد اكتشافات العصر الحديث الأبعد أثراً والأوسع نطاقاً. لكن الاعتراف باللاشعور ك حقيقة واقعية يشتمل على تفحص صادق للذات وعلى إعادة تنظيم لحياة المرء تجعل كثيراً من الناس يتابعون سلوكهم وكأنما لم يحدث شيء البتة. وإنه ليتطلب منا قدراً كبيراً من الشجاعة أن نأخذ اللاشعور وعالمه مأخذ الجد وأن نتناول بالجد نفسه المشكلات التي يثيرها. على أن معظم الناس أشد كسلاً من أن يفكروا عميقاً بتلك الجوانب الأخلاقية التي بعونها من سلوكهم، وهم بالتأكيد أشد كسلاً بكثير من أن يفكروا بالكيفية التي يؤثر بها اللاشعور فيهم."

سيكولوجيا العقل الباطن ل العظيم كارل يونغ، الذي قدم وجهاً مختلفاً عن الطبيعة الباطنية للإنسان، حيث ساهمت تجاربه الذاتية في تغيير عمله التحليلي. هذّب مفهوم اللاوعي، وأبدع في سيكولوجيا الأحلام والأساطير، و تعمق في تاريخية الأشكال الرمزية ودلالاتها الفكرية.

الخيال النشط هو واحد من أهم اكتشافات يونغ. كما أنه اشتغل على مفهوم الوحدة بين العالمين الجسدي والنفسي أو الجانبين الكمي والكيفي للواقع، بغية التوصل إلى فهم ظاهرة الحياة.

يتحدث يونغ هنا، وباسهاب عن كل ما يتعلق ب خيمياء اللاشعور أو العقل اللاوعي، وجذوره المتينة في عالم الوعي العقلاني. عن طريق سبر و تفكيك-تحليل الأحلام، و الرموز، نظراً لأهميتها السيكولوجية .

لابد من الإشارة بأن هذا العمل ثمرة جهود يونغ وأقرب أتباعه؛ وهم : جوزيف هندرسون، م.ل. فون فرانز، آنييلا يافي، و يولاند يعقوبي.
مع التنويه بأن المادة الأساسية لهذا الكتاب ومخططه العام وضعها وبالتفصيل يونغ نفسه.

أكثر الأجزاء إثارة في الكتاب بالنسبة لي : الجزء الرابع :الرمز في الفنون البصرية-بقلم آنييلا يافي.
و الجزء الختامي للكتاب المعنون ب العلم واللاشعور -بقلم الدكتورة م.ل.فون فرانز . شدني في هذا الجزء الحديث حول قوة العقل الباطن بمنظور فيزيائي.

قدم الكتاب تشريح عميق ل سيكولوجيا الأعماق، بمنظور يجعلنا نعيد التفكر والتأمل في كينونتا البشرية . و أتساءل: ما��ي النفس؟ و هل نحن ذهنياً أو في التصور، عقل ظاهر أم عقل باطن؟

Profile Image for Amir Sahbaee.
267 reviews17 followers
March 14, 2021
امتیاز ۲.۵
صفحه ۲۰۰ بودم که اینجا نوشتم شاید ادامه ش ندم.اما تا آخرش خوندم
اما مشکلاتم با کتاب چی بود؟
من تا آخر کتاب نتونستم خط اتصال و اصطلاحا نخ تسبیح کتاب رو پیدا بکنم.
ینی میتونم بگم که درمورد "کهن الگوها" بود کتاب ولی واقعا ربط فصل هارو به هم نمیفهمیدم.نفهمیدم که کتاب قراره اثبات کنه کهن الگوهارو یا درموردشون اطلاعات بده یا ازشون استفاده کنه...
مخصوصا بخش دوم کتاب واقعا فهم ناشدنی بود برام
و کلا کتاب گنگ بود
مثل صدای محیط وقتی سرتو بکنی زیر آب!

درواقع اینجوری میتونم بگم که این کتاب نه کتاب علمی و تخصصی بود نه کتاب برای عموم.یعنی نه اونقدر علمی بود که اصطلاحات رو توضیح بده و پایه و اساس دقیق داشته باشه،نه با ۵۰۰صفحه بحث درمورد ناخوداگاه برای عموم جذاب و مناسب بود.و همین کلافه کننده بود

ترجمه ی کتاب هم از متن فرانسوی بود مثل اینکه.همچین متنی رو دوبار ترجمه کردن احتمالا آسیب میزنه بهش.اصطلاحات هم یا زیرنویس فرانسوی داشت یا اصلا زیرنویس نداشت . مثلا تفاوت بین "خود" و "من" رو زیرنویس نکرده بود و خب ادم چجوری میتونه حدس بزنه اینا چی بودن.اصطلاح تخصصی (مثلا اگه سلف و ایگو بوده باشن) تعریف داره.صرف اینکه ترجمه به فارسی بشن که به خواننده کمک نمیکنن

بخش اول که یونگ گفته بود باز بهتر بود چون مقدمه بود تقریبا.بررسی تفاوت دیدگاه فروید و یونگ درمورد ناخوداگاه و رویا،جالب بود و آموزنده

فصل مربوط به هنر هم هرچند جذاب بود اما شاید نیاز به کتابی دیگه داشت مثلا.

در آخر هم این جمله ی آخر کتاب فون فرانتس رو نقل کنم:
"از همین رو آنچه در نظر نخست ممکن است برای خواننده در برخورد با انگاره های یونگ مبهم بنماید در حقیقت ناشی از فروتنی علمی اوست.فروتنی که موجب می‌گردید همواره امکان کشفیات جدید را در نظر بگیرد"

من اسم این کتاب رو خیلی شنیده بودم و یه جورایی تو ذهنم وزنه ی روانشناسی بود.اما کتاب های دیگه ی یونگ به نظرم جالب تر و مفیدتر بودن
Profile Image for Omid Kamyarnejad.
73 reviews30 followers
November 5, 2017
از برخی نماد های اسطوره ای و اشکال توی غارها و نقاشی های داخل غارها و این جور مسایل صحبت به میان آمده است
Profile Image for Amine.
266 reviews59 followers
February 18, 2019
The quote below by T. Burckhardt sums it all up pretty neatly (also check the end of the review for some recommendations) :

""Frithjof Schuon, after reading the present chapter, [Modern Psychology] sent me the following reflections in writing: 'People generally see in Jungism, as compared with Freudism, a step towards reconciliation with the traditional spiritualities, but this is in no wise the case. From this point of view, the only difference is that, whereas Freud boasted of being an irreconcilable enemy of religion, Jung sympathizes with it while emptying it of its contents, which he replaces by collective psychism, that is to say by something infra-intellectual and therefore anti-spiritual. In this there is an immense danger for the ancient spiritualities, whose representatives, especially in the East, are too often lacking in critical sense with regard to the Modern spirit, and this by reason of a complex of ''rehabilitation"; also it is not with much surprise, though with grave disquiet, that one has come across echoes of this kind from Japan, where the psychoanalyst's "equilibrium" has been compared to the satori of Zen; and there is little doubt that it would be easy to meet with similar confusions in India and elsewhere. Be that as it may, the confusions in question are greatly favoured by the almost universal refusal of people to see the devil and to call him by his name, in other words, by a kind of tacit convention compounded of optimism to order, tolerance that in reality hates truth, and compulsory alignment with scientism and official taste, without forgetting "culture", which swallows everything and commits one to nothing, except complicity in its neutralism; to which must be added a no less universal and quasi-official contempt for whatever is, we will not say intellectualist, but truly intellectual, and therefore tainted, in people's minds, with dogmatism, scholasticism, fanaticism, and prejudice. All this goes hand in hand with the psychologism of our time and is in large measure its result."
(T. Burckhardt - "Modern Psychology")

Ultimately, never forget what Jung himself admitted : “There is no Archimedean point from which to judge, since the psyche is indistinguishable from its manifestations. The psyche is the object of psychology, and -fatally enough- also its subject. There is no getting away from this fact. "Psychology and Religion" (1938). In CW 11: Psychology and Religion: West and East. P.8”

Now a quote from Man and His Symbols which I found quite funny (it's not the bulk of the book or the main points, merely a funny thing):
"I myself found a fascinating example of this in Nietzsche’s book Thus Spake Zarathustra, where the author reproduces almost word for word an incident reported in a ship’s log for the year 1686. By sheer chance I had read this seaman’s yarn in a book published about 1835 (half a century before Nietzsche wrote); and when I found the similar passage in Thus Spake Zarathustra, I was struck by its peculiar style, which was different from Nietzsche’s usual language. I was convinced that Nietzsche must also have seen the old book, though he made no reference to it. I wrote to his sister, who was still alive, and she confirmed that she and her brother had in fact read the book together when he was 11 years old. I think, from the context, it is inconceivable that Nietzsche had any idea that he was plagiarizing this story. I believe that fifty years later it has unexpectedly slipped into focus in his conscious mind."

One interested could check the following books :
The Case Against Psychoanalysis
The Myth of Psychotherapy
The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith after Freud
Psychology as Religion: The Cult of Self-Worship
La Fleur d'or et le taoïsme sans Tao
Profile Image for sophie esther.
131 reviews43 followers
July 21, 2023
Man and His Symbols is an extremely enlightening book to read, whether you are interested in the study of psychology or not. It is an exploration of the modern man’s condition and Yung’s studies, one will find, bring many themes in other books such as Fight Club, Notes from Underground, and Brave New World to ferocious light. I often found myself readingMan and His Symbols in shock, eureka! moment after eureka! moment as I see Yung’s ideas from the 60s manifest so horrifically clearly in today’s time. It baffles me, how so many thinkers have, for centuries, given people the answers to questions we’re asking still today, an excuse to avoid self-improvement. And how these thinkers predicted the future, and no matter if we respect them or not, we seemed to have entirely ignored them.

Or perhaps those futures were bound to happen.

That being said, certain ideas in Man and His Symbols do seem unfinished or outdated. The final few sections of the book I think are less important to read unless you are interested in those particular topics. The final section is almost a ramble of a could-be idea that was entirely undeveloped and such sounded a bit like a madman’s stream of consciousness. I would recommend Man and His Symbols, specifically the first three sections (“Exploration essay of the unconscious'', “Primitive myths and modern man”, and “The process of individuation) to anyone and everyone living in modern times, yes, I think they should be mandatory reading. Keep in mind, it is only Part I (“Exploration easy of the unconscious”) that is actually written by Yung.

“The sad truth is that man's real life consists of a complex of inexorable opposites—day and night, birth and death, happiness and misery, good and evil. We are not even sure that one will prevail against the other, that good will overcome evil, or joy defeat pain. Life is a battleground. It always has been and always will be; and if it were not so, existence would come to an end.”
Profile Image for Jimmy Ele.
234 reviews90 followers
July 10, 2016
If you want to get an idea of Jungian philosophy and method of analysis especially when it comes to dream interpretation then I highly recommend this book. To Jung, dreams carry significant meaning for each individual person. Every symbol in Jungian dream analysis can mean something different for each individual. Jung believes that our dreams are rich with great clues that lead to revelations about what is needed to balance our psyche. For instance, if one has been an introvert, but one's new method of action is calling for the person to become extroverted, then our dreams will give us images of repressed extroverted personalities that need to be utilized in our conscious life.

The repressed extroverted personality that the individual is capable of will show up in the dream as an "outlaw" or "criminal" figure denoting that the extroverted personality of said individual has been left to marinate in the dark recesses of the subconscious. By no means do these dreams denote that the person should become an outlaw or criminal but rather that the symbol for this underutilized aspect of the psyche (extroversion) has become a taboo subject in the person's conscious life and therefore shows up associated with an outlaw or criminal (the symbol of the outlaw and criminal signifying the "taboo" form that extroversion has taken on for the individual introverted dreamer).

I found this book to be particularly enlightening as to some of the shadow figures that show up in dreams as well as the wisdom behind the symbols that constantly show up in dreams. Only the first part of the book is written by Carl Jung. The other parts of the book are written by: Joseph L. Henderson, M.L. Von Franz, Aniela Jaffe, and Jolande Jacobi.

The first part is called "Approaching the Unconscious" by Carl G. Gung. The second part is called "Ancient Myths and Modern Man" by Joseph L. Henderson. The third part is called "The Process of Individuation" by M.L. Von Franz. The fourth part is called "Symbolism in the Visual Arts" by Aniela Jaffe. The fifth part is called "Symbols in an Individual Analysis" by Jolande Jacobi.

Believe me when I say that this book is a very great read. It helped me to understand the way that our dreams signify very important things for each of our individual lives.

I could go on more in detail about the information in this book, but it would be a very long and daunting task to summarize the material in this dense book and would most likely not do the deep subjects justice.

I will touch upon one last subject in the book that I really liked. When Aniela Jaffe expounds on "Symbolism in the Visual Arts" she really made me view art in a new way. What I have been noticing is that in many of the books that I love, there is usually some way that the author connects the subject to art. I love it when scientific, philosophical, or spiritual religious revelations in a field lead to advances or drastic changes in art. The mood and the soul of man at particular times is summed up perfectly in our art.

There are various other reasons why I loved this book, but I will leave it at that so as not to spoil anything for the curious reader.
Profile Image for muthuvel.
257 reviews154 followers
July 22, 2020
There's this famous Buddhist parable that I'm often reminded from a book that I'd read few years ago. A Surgeon rushes to begin the work of saving the life of a man who got struck in the chest with a poison arrow but the man resists. He first wants to know the name of the fletcher who fashioned the arrow’s shaft, genus of the wood from which it was cut, name of the horse upon which he rode, and a thousand others that have no bearing upon his present suffering or his ultimate survival. The man needs to get his priorities straight that his commitment to thinking about the world results from a basic misunderstanding of his predicament. 

We might be dimly aware that only acquiring conceptual knowledge will not help us move any forward but only a delusion of the same when it comes to dealing with the human problems in totality.

"In a period of human history when all available energy is spent in the investigation of nature, very little attention is paid to the essence of man, which is his psyche, although many researches are made into its conscious functions. But the really complex and unfamiliar part of the mind, from which symbols are produced, is still virtually unexplored. It seems almost incredible that though we receive signals from it every night, deciphering these communications seems too tedious for any but a very few people to be bothered with it. Man’s greatest instrument, his psyche, is little thought of, and it is often directly mistrusted and despised. 'It’s only psychological' too often means: It is nothing."

This book has great dynamic parts concerning some of the major lifetime works of Jung presented in laymen vocubulary for public consumption. The contents might give it all a new perspective to the fundamentalists on the both sides of rationalism and religionisms. I have lots to say but saying a lot would do nothing when we keep seeing the world as we are than as it is. 

"If the reader should feel stimulated to work further on the investigation and assimilation of the unconscious—which always begins by working on oneself—the purpose of this book would be fulfilled."

Personally i feel I wouldn't have taken anything serious if I weren't troubled myself with the ideas of rationalism, postmodernism for absolute at certain phases of my life. I highly recommend people like Alan Watts, Emerson, Joseph Campbell before jumping into the Jungian Psychology.
Profile Image for John Kulm.
Author 12 books39 followers
August 22, 2010
I love this book, although the used "Dell" edition I bought is falling apart. I'll have to buy another copy. The book has much to say about dreams and art. I'm adding some quotes from the book to the review I posted a few days ago.

If you think about the following quote while viewing paintings, you might find insights about artists who often, unconsciously, express their conscious attitude to the right of the canvas and their unconscious attitude on the left: “Among other things ‘right’ often means, psychologically, the side of consciousness, of adaptation, of being ‘right,’ while the left signifies the sphere of unadapted, unconscious reactions or sometimes even something ‘sinister.’” - Marie-Louise von Franz

Another quote applies this left/right idea while examining a subject’s dream: “Henry is a ‘lonely wanderer’ on the narrow path. But (perhaps thanks to the analysis) he is already on his way down from inhospitable heights. To the left, on the side of the unconscious, his road is bordered by the terrifying depths of the abyss. On the right side, the side of consciousness, the way is blocked by the rigid caves (which might represent, so to speak, unconscious areas in Henry’s field of consciousness) there are places where refuge can be found when bad weather comes – in other words, when outside tensions become too threatening.” - Aniela Jaffe

The text below was posted earlier:

Man and His Symbols covers a lot of territory, with four authors: C.G. Jung, Joseph L. Henderson, Marie-Louise von Franz, Aniela Jaffe, and Jolande Jacobe. I picked up the book because I’m interested in understanding symbols in dreams, but it deals with symbols in a wider sense than that, as well as in dreams.

I’m going to post a few quotes from M-L von Franz about the anima and the animus because that always interests me. I want to understand the feminine, whether it’s the feminine in my own psyche or in some confusing woman! Also, it’s interesting to read about the animus within a woman’s psyche and see whether it helps me understand that aspect of a woman, or learn more about masculinity as an aspect of my own psyche. It’s all such a mystery!

I’m not actually finished reading this book. I’m very caught up in it and I’ll probably post more quotes later. Anyway, all these quotes are from von Franz :

The Anima:

“The number four is also connected with the anima because, as Jung noted, there are four stages in its development. The first stage is best symbolized by the figure of Eve, which represents purely instinctual and biological relations. The second can be seen in Faust’s Helen: She personifies a romantic and aesthetic level that is, however, still characterized by sexual elements. The third is represented, for instance, by the Virgin Mary – a figure who raises love (eros) to the heights of spiritual devotion. The fourth type is symbolized by Sapientia, wisdom transcending even the most holy and the most pure. Of this another symbol is the Shulamite in the Song of Solomon. (In the psychic development of modern man this stage is rarely reached. The Mona Lisa comes nearest to such a wisdom anima.)”

“But what does the role of the anima as guide to the inner world mean in practical terms? This positive function occurs when a man takes seriously the feelings, moods, expectations, and fantasies sent by his anima and when he fixes them in some form – for example, in writing, painting, sculpture, musical composition, or dancing. When he works at this patiently and slowly, other more deeply unconscious material wells up form the depths and connects with the earlier material. After a fantasy has been fixed in some specific form, it must be examined both intellectually and ethically, with an evaluating feeling reaction. And it is essential to regard is as being absolutely real; there must be no lurking doubt that this is ‘only a fantasy.’ If this is practiced with devotion over a long period, the process of individuation gradually becomes the single reality and can unfold in its true form.”

The Animus:

“…the animus is sometimes, like the anima, a demon of death. For example, in a gypsy fairy tale a handsome stranger is received by a lonely woman in spite of the fact that she has had a dream warning her that he is the king of the dead. After he has been with her for a time, she presses him to tell her who he really is. At first he refuses, saying that she will die if he tells her. She insists, however, and suddenly he reveals to her that he is death himself. The woman immediately dies of fright.

“Viewed mythologically, the beautiful stranger is probably a pagan father-image or god-image, who appears here as king of the dead (like Hades’s abduction of Persephone). But psychologically he represents a particular form of the animus that lures women away from all human relationships and especially from all contacts with real men. He personifies a cocoon of dreamy thoughts, filled with desire and judgements about how things ‘ought to be,’ which cut a woman off from the reality of life.”

“Like the anima, the animus does not merely consist of negative qualities such as brutality, recklessness, empty talk, and silent, obstinate, evil ideas. He too has a very positive and valuable side; he too can build a bridge to the Self through his creative activity. The following dream of a woman of 45 may help to illustrate this point:

“Two veiled figures climb onto the balcony and into the house. They are swathed in black hooded coats, and they seem to want to torment me and my sister. She hides under the bed, but they pull her out with a broom and torture her. Then it is my turn. The leader of the two pushes me against the wall, making magical gestures before my face. In the meantime his helper makes a sketch on the wall, and when I see it, I say (in order to be friendly), ‘Oh! But this is well drawn!’ Now suddenly my tormenter has the noble head of an artist, and he says proudly, ‘Yes indeed,’ and begins to clean his spectacles.

“The sadistic aspect of these two figures was well known to the dreamer, for in reality she frequently suffered bad attacks of anxiety during which she was haunted by the thought that people she loved were in great danger – or even that they were dead. But the fact that the animus figure in the dream is double suggests that the burglars personify a psychic factor that is dual in its effect, and that could be something quite different from theses tormenting thoughts. The sister of the dreamer, who runs away from the men, is caught and tortured. In reality this sister died when fairly young. She had been artistically gifted, but had made very little use of her talent. Next the dream reveals that the veiled burglars are actually disguised artists, and that if the dreamer recognizes their gifts (which are her own), they will give up their evil intentions.

“What is the deeper meaning of the dream? It is that behind the spasms of anxiety there is indeed a genuine and mortal danger; but there is also a creative possibility for the dreamer. She, like her sister, had some talent as a painter, but she doubted whether painting could be a meaningful activity for her. Now her dream tells her in the most earnest way that she must live out this talent. If she obeys, the destructive tormenting animus will be transformed into a creative and meaningful activity.”

“As in this dream, the animus often appears as a group of men. In this way the unconscious symbolizes the fact that the animus represents a collective rather than a personal element. Because of this collective-mindedness women habitually refer (when their animus is speaking through them) to ‘one’ or ‘they’ or ‘everybody,’ and in such circumstances their speech frequently contains the words ‘always’ and ‘should’ and ‘ought.’”

“The animus, just like the anima, exhibits four stages of development. He first appears as a personification of mere physical power – for instance, as an athletic champion or ‘muscle man.’ In the next stage he possesses initiative and the capacity for planned action. In the third phase, the animus becomes the ‘word,’ often appearing as a professor or clergyman. Finally, in his fourth manifestation, the animus is the incarnation of meaning. On this highest level he becomes (like the anima) a mediator of the religious experience whereby life acquires new meaning. He gives the woman spiritual firmness, an invisible inner support that compensates for her outer softness. The animus in his most developed form sometimes connects the woman’s mind with the spiritual evolution of her age, and can thereby make her even more receptive than a man to new creative ideas. It is for this reason that in earlier times women were used by many nations as diviners and seers. The creative boldness of their positive animus at times expresses thoughts and ideas that stimulate men to new enterprises.”
Profile Image for Omid Milanifard.
337 reviews31 followers
November 18, 2020
مبهم بودن در ذات روانشناسی تحلیلی هست برای همین احتمالا خیلی از مطالب مطرح شده در کتاب رو پیچیده و مبهم خواهید یافت. به نظر میرسه اگر قبلش کتاب تعبیر رویای فروید رو میخوندم، مطالب این کتاب رو هم بهتر میفهمیدم.
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