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Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era
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AMERICAN CIVIL WAR > Military Series: BATTLE CRY OF FREEDOM: THE CIVIL WAR ERA - GLOSSARY ~ Spoiler Thread

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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Feb 13, 2012 11:01AM) (new) - added it

Bentley | 24007 comments *POTENTIAL SPOILERS*

This is the glossary for Battle Cry of Freedom. This is not a non spoiler thread so any urls and/or expansive discussion can take place here regarding this book. Additionally, this is the spot to add that additional information that may contain spoilers or any helpful urls, links, etc.
This thread is not to be used for self promotion.

Battle Cry of Freedom  The Civil War Era by James M. McPherson by James M. McPhersonJames M. McPherson


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Death rates brought me to this interesting page by the Washington Post:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/...


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments The Washington Post's nice war timeline:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/...


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Bentley | 24007 comments Conversation with History - James M. McPherson:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KnyWoq...

"Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief"
James M. McPherson, Professor of History Emeritus, Princeton University, October 27, 2008, 60 minutes

Conversations host Harry Kreisler welcomes Pulitzer Prize winning historian and Princeton Professor Emeritus James M. McPherson for a discussion of his new book, Trial by War. Their discussion focuses on the qualities that defined Abraham Lincoln's leadership, how he came to define the role of commander in chief, the evolution of his thinking on national policy with regard to slavery, how his goal of saving the Union shaped the politics of the war, his relationship to his generals, and the thinking and circumstances that led to his suspension of habeas corpus and the initiation of military tribunals. Professor McPherson reflects on the lessons to be learned from Lincoln's conduct of the civil war and its implications for today's wars.

Tried by War  Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief by James M. McPherson by James M. McPhersonJames M. McPherson


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Thanks Bentley for the link.


message 6: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Feb 14, 2012 07:30AM) (new) - added it

Bentley | 24007 comments You are welcome; I often think you get a lot out of listening to an author speak on a variety of his pet topics; I find they all overlap.


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Valley of the Shadow Civil War Website:

http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/


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Bentley | 24007 comments Pretty awesome link.


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments It is, it was one of the first history websites to integrate primary documents and web media.


message 10: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 19, 2012 06:30PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Here is some information on balloon frame construction:

Prairie settlers were economical in their use of lumber. The great majority of them chose to build balloon-frame houses.

The balloon-frame was a relatively newfangled way of constructing a home, first developed by a Chicago carpenter named Augustine Taylor in the 1830s. Instead of using heavy timbers to frame a house, as was the style in Europe and much of the eastern U.S., the balloon house skeleton consisted of simple 2 X 4s, 2 X 8s, and 1 X 10s nailed together to make joists, studs and rafters.

It didn't require the skills of a master carpenter to erect a balloon frame home. A prairie farmer didn't need to know a mortise from a tenon in order to tack joists together in the shape of a rectangle. The advent of inexpensive nails by the 1880s, made construction all the easier, as did pre-cut, sawmill lumber. These boards came in standard sizes, which meant that adding on to the basic structure of the house was a relatively simple matter, too.
(Source: http://www.pbs.org/ktca/farmhouses/ho...)



Read more:
http://encyclopedia.chicagohistory.or...


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Bentley | 24007 comments You beat me too it. Great diagram, thanks.


message 12: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Feb 22, 2012 07:33AM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Brigham Young:

He was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death in 1877, he founded Salt Lake City, and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory, United States. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University.
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brigham_...)

More info:
http://unicomm.byu.edu/about/brigham....


message 13: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Feb 17, 2012 10:11AM) (new) - added it

Bentley | 24007 comments I am seeing a lot of terms thrown around: marxism, socialism, etc. So I thought I would add a definition rich wikipedia article to explain the differences - many of our global friends in Europe for example would not want today's version of socialism to be intertwined with communism or Marxist theories even though like the birth of Christianity (like religion) these theories have branched off into vastly different entities or similar entities which still might have some differences.

Who knew Bryan that your comment would elicit such a response? So as to be able to not dwell on these differences; I am placing some of the articles here in the glossary.

Types of Socialism

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Types_of...

History of Socialism

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_...

Socialist Economics:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialis...


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Bentley | 24007 comments What does Socialism mean in 2010?

As stated here in this video All five of Labour's leadership contenders said in a live televised debate that they would describe themselves as socialists.

Veteran Labour politician Tony Benn and the political editor of the New Statesman, Mehdi Hasan, tell Jeremy Paxman what they believe socialism means in 2010.

Broadcast Monday 6 September 2010.the ideas of socialism go back long before Karl Marx.

Source: BBC

< http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/em/fr/-/2/hi... >


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Thank you Bentley. We should have a background here if we are using these terms.


Karolyn | 71 comments I think this is the appropriate place to put this...

There is a pretty neat app available for iPad users called "The Civil War Today" that has news articles, diary entries, letters, and info on the battles from this day in Civil War history. I have found it to be kinda cool and worth checking out.


Becky (httpsbeckylindrooswordpresscom) | 1219 comments Since the California gold rush was mentioned in Chapter 1 (p. 43) I'd like to mention the book "The California Gold Rush and the Coming of the Civil War" by Leonard L. Richards. THis book is far more about the "coming of the Civil War" than it is about the '49ers and their histories and impact.

Richards' book is the fascinating account of how the national issues played out in California. There was slavery in Southern California as slave-owners were among the early immigrants drawn by the gold as much as the chance to change DC political balance. And there was a very strong Free Soil/Free Labor movement especially the miners. Even Jefferson Davis wanted a transcontinental railroad to directly link Southern California to the South, while other gold mine owners impatiently tried to ship their gold directly via the old Panama route. Most of it eventually went to the Union.

This California fight included the death of a Free Soil US Senator by duel against a pro-South Democrat. (This duel is a main focus of the book.) The other US Senator was an outspoken, pro-South slave-owner who had relocated in order to be a part of the Washington DC power struggle. California may have officially been a "free state," but the congressmen didn't necessarily vote that way and it wasn't the sentiment of the whole state by any means.

The California fight also included a mini Civil War in Visalia, Ca - (the direct center of the state), over the pro-Union sympathies of the local newspaper.

The California Gold Rush and the Coming of the Civil War by Leonard L. Richards by Leonard L. Richards (no photo).


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Karolyn wrote: "I think this is the appropriate place to put this...

There is a pretty neat app available for iPad users called "The Civil War Today" that has news articles, diary entries, letters, and info on th..."


Awesome that folks are using new technology like this. Thanks Karolyn for sharing.


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Becky wrote: "Since the California gold rush was mentioned in Chapter 1 (p. 43) I'd like to mention the book "The California Gold Rush and the Coming of the Civil War" by Leonard L. Richards. THis book is far ..."

Thanks for the tip, Becky. New books welcome :-)


Becky (httpsbeckylindrooswordpresscom) | 1219 comments Karolyn wrote: "There is a pretty neat app available for iPad users called "The Civil War Today" that has news articles, diary entries, letters, and info on th..."

Just got it - it's great! Thanks.


message 21: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Feb 22, 2012 07:32AM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments David Wilmot:

a Representative and a Senator from Pennsylvania; born in Bethany, Pa., January 20, 1814; completed preparatory studies in the academy at Aurora, N.Y.; studied law; admitted to the bar of Bradford County, Pa., in 1834 and commenced practice in Towanda, Bradford County, Pa.; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first Congresses (March 4, 1845-March 3, 1851); was not a candidate for renomination in 1850; was the author of the ‘Wilmot Proviso’ relative to slavery in newly annexed territory; took a leading part in the founding of the Republican Party in 1854; presiding judge of the thirteenth judicial district 1851-1861; unsuccessful Republican candidate for governor of Pennsylvania in 1857; elected as a Republican to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Simon Cameron and served from March 14, 1861, to March 3, 1863; was not a candidate for reelection in 1862; member of the peace convention of 1861, held in Washington, D.C., in an effort to devise means to prevent the impending war; appointed by President Abraham Lincoln a judge of the United States Court of Claims in 1863 and served until his death in Towanda, Pa., March 16, 1868; interment in Riverside Cemetery.
(Source: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Wi...

David Wilmot, Free-Soiler  A Biography of the Great Advocate of the Wilmot Proviso by Charles Buxton GoingCharles Buxton Going


message 22: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 19, 2012 06:24PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments John Calhoun:



(cousin of John Ewing Colhoun and Joseph Calhoun), a Representative and a Senator from South Carolina and a Vice President of the United States; born near Calhoun Mills, Abbeville District (now Mount Carmel, McCormick County), S.C., March 18, 1782; attended the common schools and private academies; graduated from Yale College in 1804; studied law, admitted to the bar in 1807, and commenced practice in Abbeville, S.C.; also engaged in agricultural pursuits; member, State house of representatives 1808-1809; elected as a Democratic Republican to the Twelfth and to the three succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1811, to November 3, 1817, when he resigned; Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President James Monroe 1817-1825; elected vice president of the United States in 1824 with President John Quincy Adams; reelected in 1828 with President Andrew Jackson and served from March 4, 1825, to December 28, 1832, when he resigned, having been elected as a Democratic Republican (later Nullifier) to the United States Senate on December 12, 1832, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Robert Y. Hayne; reelected in 1834 and 1840 and served from December 29, 1832, until his resignation, effective March 3, 1843; Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President John Tyler 1844-1845; again elected to the United States Senate, as a Democrat, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Daniel E. Huger; reelected in 1846 and served from November 26, 1845, until his death in Washington, D.C., March 31, 1850; chairman, Committee on Finance (Twenty-ninth Congress); interment in St. Philip’s Churchyard, Charleston, S.C.
(Source: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_C._...
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/h...


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Lewis Cass:



a Senator from Michigan; born in Exeter, N.H., October 9, 1782; attended Exeter Academy; moved with his parents to Wilmington, Del., in 1799 and taught school there; moved to the Northwest Territory in 1801 and settled on a farm near Zanesville, Ohio; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1802; member, State house of representatives 1806; United States marshal for the district of Ohio 1807-1812, when he resigned to enlist in the Army; served in the United States Army 1813-1814, attaining the rank of brigadier general; military and civil Governor of Michigan Territory 1813-1831; settled in Detroit; appointed Secretary of War by President Andrew Jackson and served from 1831 to 1836, when he resigned, having been appointed to a diplomatic post; Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to France 1836-1842; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1845, until May 29, 1848, when he resigned, having been nominated for President of the United States; chairman, Committee on Military Affairs (Thirtieth Congress); unsuccessful candidate for President on the Democratic ticket in 1848; again elected to the United States Senate on January 20, 1849, to fill the vacancy caused by his own resignation; was reelected, and served from March 4, 1849, to March 3, 1857; served as President pro tempore of the Senate during the Thirty-third Congress; appointed Secretary of State by President James Buchanan and served from 1857 until his resignation in 1860; returned to Detroit, Mich., and engaged in literary pursuits; died in Detroit, Mich., June 17, 1866; interment in Elmwood Cemetery.
(Source: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Cass


Craig (Twinstuff) Might want to correct his name in the previous post as it's Wilmot and not Wilmont. Wilmot's political party is the most interesting part of his background to me. He was a Democrat, Free Soiler and Republican at various points in his political career, but technically was a Democrat (I believe) when his most famous achievement, the Wilmot Proviso, was proposed. And as most of my APUSH students remember, I hope, the Wilmot Proviso proposed (but was never adopted) to take all territory gained as part of the Mexican Cession and forbid slavery to take place in that new territory.


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Thanks Craig. Wilmot was a Democrat. We forget that there were northern Democrats who moved to the antislavery cause. Some moved because they didn't like the nominee. Political parties were quite fluid during this time period!


Athens | 40 comments Bryan wrote: "Death rates brought me to this interesting page by the Washington Post:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/..."


Ye gods, that is some powerful stuff. Much more in Arkansas and Missouri than I knew before viewing this.


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Me, too, I believe there were a lot of nasty smaller engagements in these two states.


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments I thought I would share this book. I haven't read it yet, but I own it. It has become the standard work:

The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party  Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War by Michael F. HoltMichael F. Holt

Info:
Here, Michael F. Holt gives us the only comprehensive history of the Whigs ever written. He offers a panoramic account of the tumultuous antebellum period, a time when a flurry of parties and larger-than-life politicians--Andrew Jackson, John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Henry Clay--struggled for control as the U.S. inched towards secession. It was an era when Americans were passionately involved in politics, when local concerns drove national policy, and when momentous political events--like the Annexation of Texas and the Kansas-Nebraska Act--rocked the country. Amid this contentious political activity, the Whig Party continuously strove to unite North and South, emerging as the nation's last great hope to prevent secession.


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments And this one:

The Impending Crisis  America Before the Civil War, 1848-1861 by David M. PotterDavid M. Potter

Info:
David M. Potter's Pulitzer Prize-winning The Impending Crisis is the definitive history of antebellum America. Potter's sweeping epic masterfully charts the chaotic forces that climaxed with the outbreak of the Civil War: westward expansion, the divisive issue of slavery, the Dred Scott decision, John Brown's uprising, the ascension of Abraham Lincoln, and the drama of Southern secession. Now available in a new edition, The Impending Crisis remains one of the most celebrated works of American historical writing.


message 30: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Feb 22, 2012 07:31AM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Free Soil Party:

The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. It was a third party and a single-issue party that largely appealed to and drew its greatest strength from New York State. The party leadership consisted of former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on free soil comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery. They opposed slavery in the new territories and sometimes worked to remove existing laws that discriminated against freed African Americans in states such as Ohio.

The party membership was largely absorbed by the Republican Party in 1854.
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_Soi...)

More:
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/ent...
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2716247


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Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Liberty Party:

Abolitionists formed the Liberty Party during the 1830s. In the early 1800's, the American anti-slavery Society was a major abolitionist organization in the United States. In 1839, the Society split. William Lloyd Garrison and his supporters called for the creation of a new government that disallowed slavery from the very beginning. He said that the United States Constitution was an illegal document because it denied African Americans their freedom. If the South would not agree to form a new nation that outlawed slavery, Garrison argued that the North should secede from the United States and create its own country.

Other members of the American Anti-Slavery Society contended that Garrison's views were too radical. They agreed that slavery was wrong but they also thought that the United States Constitution had created a legitimate government under which the people had the right to end oppression. Rather than threatening to break apart the United States, these abolitionists hoped to elect people of their beliefs to political offices so that they could make laws outlawing slavery. To achieve this end, these abolitionists formed a political party, the Liberty Party.

The Liberty Party ran a candidate for President of the United States in both 1840 and 1844. James Birney was an abolitionist who spent a portion of his life in Ohio. He was the only man to run for the presidency under this party's banner. Birney received just over seven thousand votes in the election of 1840. Over two million voters participated in this election. In 1844, Birney received approximately 62,000 votes out of more than 2.5 million votes cast. The small vote total for the Liberty Party's candidate showed how small the abolitionist movement was in the North during this period. Birney's candidacy, however, may have won the election for James K. Polk, the Democratic Party's nominee, and lost the election for Henry Clay, the Whig Party's candidate. Abolitionists tended to favor the Whigs. If the Liberty Party had not run a candidate, some of the 62,000 people who voted for Birney may have voted for Clay. Clay lost the election by fewer than 38,000 votes.

Due to the Liberty Party's poor showing in both the elections of 1840 and 1844, the organization came to an end. Many former party members joined the Free-Soil Party, which ran its first candidate for the presidency in 1848.
(Source: http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/ent...)

Difference between Liberty and Free Soilers:

In 1848, antislavery Democrats and Conscience Whigs (in contrast to Cotton Whigs) merged with the Liberty party to form the Free Soil Party. Unlike the Liberty Party, which was dedicated to slavery's abolition and equal rights for blacks, the Free Soil party narrowed its demands to the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia and exclusion of slavery from the federal territories. The Free Soilers also wanted a homestead law to provide free land for western settlers, high tariffs to protect American industry, and federally-sponsored internal improvements.
(Source: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/docu...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberty_...


message 32: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Feb 22, 2012 07:46AM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Salmon Chase:



(nephew of Dudley Chase, cousin of Dudley Chase Denison, and father-in-law of William Sprague [1830-1915]), a Senator from Ohio; born in Cornish, N.H., January 13, 1808; attended schools at Windsor, Vermont, Worthington, Ohio, and the Cincinnati (Ohio) College; graduated from Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H., in 1826; taught school; studied law in Washington, D.C.; admitted to the bar in 1829; commenced practice in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1830; elected as a Whig to the Cincinnati City Council in 1840; identified himself in 1841 with the Liberty Party, and later with the Free Soil Party; elected to the United States Senate as a Free Soil candidate and served from March 4, 1849, to March 3, 1855; elected Governor of Ohio in 1855 as a Free Soil Democrat and reelected in 1857 as a Republican; elected as a Republican to the United States Senate in 1860; took his seat March 4, 1861, but resigned two days later to become Secretary of the Treasury under President Abraham Lincoln; served as Secretary of the Treasury until July 1864, when he resigned; member of the peace convention of 1861 held in Washington, D.C., in an effort to devise means to prevent the impending war; Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court from December 1864 until his death on May 7, 1873; presided at the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson in 1868; died in New York City; interment in Oak Hill Cemetery, Washington, D.C.; reinterment in Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, Ohio.
(Source: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmon_P...
http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/lib_hist/...


message 33: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 19, 2012 06:27PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments William Seward:



he American statesman William Henry Seward was born on the 16th of May 1801 in the village of Florida, Orange county, New York. He graduated from Union College in 1820, having taught school for a short time at Savannah, Georgia, to help pay his expenses; was admitted to the bar at Utica, NY, in 1822, and in the following year began the practice of law at Auburn, NY, which was his home for the rest of his life. He soon attained distinction in his profession, but drifted into politics, for which he had a greater liking, and early became associated with Thurlow Weed. He was at first an adherent of Daniel D. Tompkins in state, and a National Republican in national politics, after 1828 became allied with the Anti-Masonic party, attending the national conventions of 1830 and 1831, and as a member of the organization he served four years (1830-1834) in the state Senate. By 1833 the Anti-Masonic movement had run its course, and Seward allied himself with the other opponents of the Jackson Democrats, becoming a Whig. In 1834 he received the Whig nomination for governor, but was defeated by William L. Marcy. Four years later he was re-nominated, was elected, was re-elected in 1840, and served from January 1839 until January 1843. As governor, Seward favored a continuance of works of internal improvement at public expense, although this policy had already plunged the state into financial embarrassment. His administration was disturbed by the anti-rent agitation and by the McLeod incident growing out of the Canadian rebellion of 1837. During this period he attracted much attention by his liberal and humane policy, promoting prison reform, and proposing to admit Roman Catholic and foreign teachers into the public schools of the state. His refusal soon after his inauguration to honor the requisition of the governor of Virginia for three persons charged with assisting a slave to escape from Norfolk, provoked retaliatory measures by the Virginia legislature, in which Mississippi and South Carolina soon joined. Laws were also passed during his term putting obstacles in the way of recovering fugitive slaves. Seward soon became recognized as the leader of the anti-slavery Whigs. He was one of the earliest political opponents of slavery, as distinguished from the radical Abolitionists, or the followers of William Lloyd Garrison, who eschewed politics and devoted themselves to a moral agitation.

On retiring from office Seward returned to the practice of law. His reputation was made in four great criminal cases -- those of Abel F. Fitch and others, of Freeman, of Wyatt and of Van Zandt -- the last-named bringing him especially the goodwill of opponents of slavery. Toward the end of his career at the bar, however, he changed from a general practitioner to a patent lawyer, and as such had a lucrative practice.

When the Whigs secured a momentary control of the state legislature in 1849 they sent Seward to the United States Senate. The antagonism between free labor and slave labor became the theme of many of his speeches. In his first set speech in the Senate, on the 11th of March 1850, in opposing the pending compromise measures, he attracted the attention of the whole country by his assertion that "there is a higher law than the Constitution" regulating "our authority over the domain" (i.e. the Territories.) When the Democrats, however, declared such language incendiary he tried to explain it away, and by so doing offended his friends without appeasing his opponents. In a speech at Rochester, New York, in 1858 he made the famous statement that there was "an irrepressible conflict between opposing and enduring forces, and it means that the United States must and will, sooner or later, become either entirely a slave-holding nation or entirely a free-labor nation." Although this idea had often been expressed by others, and by Seward himself in his speech of 1848, yet he was severely criticized, and four days later he sought to render this statement innocuous also.

In the election of 1852 Seward supported General Winfield Scott, but not his party platform, because it declared the Compromise of 1850 a finality. He naturally opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and established the principle of popular sovereignty in the Territories. Subsequently he actively supported in the Senate the free-state cause in Kansas. In 1854-1855, when it became evident that the Whig party in the North was moribund, Seward helped to lead its scattered remnants into the Republican fold. As the recognized leader of the new party, his nomination by the Republicans for the presidency in 1856 and in 1860 was regarded as certain; but in each instance he was put aside for another. The heterogeneous elements of the new organization could not be made to unite on a man who for so many years had devoted his energies to purely Whig measures, and he was considered less "available" than John C. Fremont in 1856 and than Abraham Lincoln in 1860. After Lincoln was elected in 1860 he chose Seward for his Secretary of State. The new President was a man comparatively little known outside the state of Illinois, and many of his supporters, doubtful of his ability to deal with the difficult problems of 1861, looked to Seward as the most experienced man of the administration and the one who should direct its policy. Seward himself, apparently sharing these views, although not out of vanity, at first possessed an unbounded confidence in his ability to influence the President and his cabinet. He believed that the Union could be saved without a war, and that a policy of delay would prevent the secession of the border states, which in turn would gradually coax their more southern neighbors back into their proper relations with the Federal government. In informal conferences with commissioners from the seceded states he assured them that Fort Sumter should be speedily evacuated. Finding himself overruled by the war party in the cabinet, on the 1st of April 1861, Seward suggested a war of all America against most of Europe, with himself as the director of the enterprise. The conduct of Spain toward Santo Domingo and of France toward Mexico, and the alleged attitude of England and Russia toward the seceded states were to be the grounds for precipitating this gigantic conflict; and agents were to be sent into Canada, Mexico and Central America to arouse a spirit of hostility to European intervention. Dangers from abroad would destroy the centrifugal forces at home, and the Union would be saved. When this hare-brained proposal was quietly put aside by the President, and Seward perceived in Lincoln a Chief Executive in fact as well as in name, he dropped into his proper place, and as Secretary of State rendered services of inestimable value to the nation. To prevent foreign states from giving official recognition to the Confederacy was the task of the hour, and in this he was successful. While he did not succeed in preventing the French occupation of Mexico or the escape of the Confederate cruiser "Alabama" from England, his diplomacy prepared the way for a future adjustment satisfactory to the United States of the difficulties with these powers. While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.

On the 5th of April 1865 Seward was thrown from his carriage and severely injured. Nine days later, while lying ill at his home at Washington DC, he was attacked by one Lewis Powell, alias Payne, a fellow-conspirator of John Wilkes Booth, at the same time that Lincoln was assassinated. The secretary's son, Frederick W. Seward, and three other persons who came to his assistance, were also wounded by the assailant. Seward's wife, an invalid, received such a shock that she died within two months, and his only daughter, who witnessed the assault, never recovered from the effects of the scene and died within the year. Seward gradually regained his health, and remained in the cabinet of President Andrew Johnson until the expiration of his term in 1869. In the struggle between the Executive and Congress over the method of reconstructing the Southern States, Seward sided with Johnson and thus shared some of the obloquy bestowed upon that unfortunate President. His greatest work in this period was the purchase of Alaska from Russia, deemed "Seward's Folly" by his detractors, in 1867. He also negotiated treaties for the purchase of the Danish West Indies, the Bay of Samana, and for American control of the Isthmus of Panama; but these were not ratified by the Senate. After returning to private life, Seward spent two years and a half in travel and died at Auburn on the 10th of October 1872.
(Source: http://www.nndb.com/people/014/000049...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_...
http://www.sewardhouse.org/


message 34: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 19, 2012 06:28PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Daniel Webster:



a Representative from New Hampshire and a Representative and a Senator from Massachusetts; born in Salisbury, N.H., January 18, 1782; attended district schools and Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, N.H.; graduated from Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H., in 1801; principal of an academy at Fryeburg, Maine, in 1802; studied law; admitted to the bar in 1805 and commenced practice in Boscawen, near Salisbury, N.H.; moved to Portsmouth, N.H., in 1807 and continued the practice of law; elected as a Federalist from New Hampshire to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Congresses (March 4, 1813-March 3, 1817); was not a candidate for reelection in 1816 to the Fifteenth Congress; moved to Boston, Mass., in 1816; achieved national fame as counsel representing Dartmouth College before the United States Supreme Court in the Dartmouth College case 1816-1819; delegate to the Massachusetts State constitutional convention in 1820; elected from Massachusetts to the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Congresses and served from March 4, 1823, to May 30, 1827; chairman, Committee on the Judiciary (Eighteenth and Nineteenth Congresses); elected as Adams (later Anti-Jacksonian) on June 8, 1827, to the United States Senate for the term beginning March 4, 1827, credentials presented on December 3, 1827, and took oath of office on December 17, 1827; reelected as a Whig in 1833 and 1839 and served until his resignation, effective February 22, 1841; chairman, Committee on Finance (Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Congresses); unsuccessful Whig candidate for president in 1836; appointed Secretary of State by President William Henry Harrison and again by President John Tyler and served from 1841 to 1843; again elected as a Whig to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1845, to July 22, 1850, when he resigned; appointed Secretary of State by President Millard Fillmore and served from July 22, 1850, until his death in Marshfield, Massachusetts., October 24, 1852; interment in the Winslow Cemetery.
(Source: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_W...
http://www.nndb.com/people/445/000024...


message 35: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 19, 2012 06:28PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Stephen Douglas:



a Representative and a Senator from Illinois; born in Brandon, Rutland County, Vt., April 23, 1813; educated in the common schools and completed preparatory studies in Brandon Academy; learned the cabinetmaker’s trade; moved to a farm near Clifton Springs, N.Y.; entered Canandaigua Academy in 1832 and studied law; moved to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1833, and finally settled in Winchester, Ill., where he taught school and resumed the study of law; admitted to the bar in 1834 and commenced practice in Jacksonville, Morgan County, Ill.; elected State’s attorney for the Morgan circuit in 1835; member, State house of representatives 1836-1837; register of the land office at Springfield in 1837; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for election in 1838 to the Twenty-sixth Congress; appointed secretary of State of Illinois during the session of the legislature in 1840 and 1841 and at the same session was elected as one of the judges of the State supreme court; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, and Thirtieth Congresses and served from March 4, 1843, until his resignation on March 3, 1847, at the close of the Twenty-ninth Congress; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1847; reelected in 1853 and again in 1859, and served from March 4, 1847, until his death on June 3, 1861; chairman, Committee on Territories (Thirtieth through Thirty-fifth Congresses); unsuccessful candidate for the nomination for President of the United States on the Democratic ticket in 1852 and 1856; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for President in 1860; died in Chicago, Ill.; interment in Douglas Monument Park.
(Source: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_...
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/ent...


message 36: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 19, 2012 06:29PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Jefferson Davis:



(son-in-law of President Zachary Taylor), a Representative and a Senator from Mississippi; born in what is now Fairview, Todd County, Ky., June 3, 1808; moved with his parents to a plantation near Woodville, Wilkinson County, Miss.; attended the country schools, St. Thomas College, Washington County, Ky., Jefferson College, Adams County, Miss., Wilkinson County Academy, and Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky.; graduated from the United States Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1828; served in the Black Hawk War in 1832; promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in the First Dragoons in 1833, and served until 1835, when he resigned; moved to his plantation, ‘Brierfield,’ in Warren County, Miss., and engaged in cotton planting; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-ninth Congress and served from March 4, 1845, until June 1846, when he resigned to command the First Regiment of Mississippi Riflemen in the war with Mexico; appointed to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Jesse Speight; subsequently elected and served from August 10, 1847, until September 23, 1851, when he resigned; chairman, Committee on Military Affairs (Thirtieth through Thirty-second Congresses); unsuccessful candidate for Governor in 1851; appointed Secretary of War by President Franklin Pierce 1853-1857; again elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1857, until January 21, 1861, when he withdrew; seat declared vacant by Senate resolution on March 4, 1861; chairman, Committee on Military Affairs and the Militia (Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth Congresses); commissioned major general of the State militia in January 1861; chosen President of the Confederacy by the Provisional Congress and inaugurated in Montgomery, Ala., February 18, 1861; elected President of the Confederacy for a term of six years and inaugurated in Richmond, Va., February 22, 1862; captured by Union troops in Irwinsville, Ga., May 10, 1865; imprisoned in Fortress Monroe, indicted for treason, and was paroled in the custody of the court in 1867; returned to Mississippi and spent the remaining years of his life writing; died in New Orleans, La., on December 6, 1889; lay in state in City Hall of New Orleans, December 8-11, followed by interment in Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans, La.; reinterment on May 31, 1893, in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Va.; the legal disabilities placed upon him were removed, and he was posthumously restored to the full rights of citizenship, effective December 25, 1868, pursuant to a Joint Resolution of Congress (Public Law 95-466), approved October 17, 1978.
(Source: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jefferso...
http://jeffersondavis.rice.edu/Biblio...


message 37: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Thurlow Weed:



Thurlow Weed, editor, politician, and close friend of William H. Seward, was born in 1797 in upstate New York. His father was a farmer of very modest means, and Weed attended school only briefly. At an early age, he took on various jobs, such as working at the blacksmith's, the printer's, or on Hudson River boats. When his family moved to central New York, he apprenticed to a printer, served for a short time in the War of 1812, and then in 1817 , became foreman of the Albany Register.

During the early 1820s, Weed learned the interconnected worlds of local politics and journalism. He attached himself to the fortunes of DeWitt Clinton, and, in the election of 1824, to John Quincy Adams. He was elected to the Assembly, and in the follo wing year, 1825, bought the Rochester Telegraph. When the anti-Masonic movement erupted in New York shortly after, Weed became active in its cause. But he also shrewdly sought to align anti-Masonic politics with the National Republican organization supporting John Quincy Adams in 1828.

Weed was elected to the Assembly again in 1829, but more significantly, he was able to establish the Albany Evening Journal, the first issue of which appeared in February 1830. Weed was its editor, reporter, proof-reader, and political manager. An advocate of economic development, he supported banking, internal improvements, and other measures associated with Henry Clay's American System. He also skillfully tightened the organization of the newly formed Whig party, and with the arrival of hard times following the Panic of 1837, he was instrumental in creating the Whig victories in the New York gubernatorial election of 1838 and William H enry Harrison's presidential campaign of 1840.

Weed brought to the Whig party the organization and discipline generally associated with the Jacksonians. He achieved an extensive reputation as a political manager and manipulator, using patronage, favors, and the press on behalf of the Whig party. Generally operating behind the scenes, he was closely identified with his personal and political friend, Seward.

Although Weed shared the idealism and humanitarian views of many Whigs, such as in his opposition to slavery, he remained a pragmatist, who shunned unpopular positions that jeopardized victory on election day. His charm, generosity, and good nature we re disarming, and Seward once wrote that he had "no idea that dictators were such amiable creatures."

After a number of political setbacks during the 1840s, Weed's fortunes improved after the Mexican War. He supported the prohibition of slavery in the newly acquired territories, and promoted the presidential prospects of Zachary Taylor. Once again, h owever, he was disappointed when Taylor's death brought the succession of Millard Fillmore and passage of the Compromise of 1850. Like Seward's, Weed's opposition to the Compromise contributed to the disruption of the Whig party. Weed, realizing that Whig prospects for success were nil in 1852, left the country. When he returned, the Kansas-Nebraska Act had brought about the bir th of the Republican party, and Weed soon joined. He pressed for the nomination of Seward as the party's candidate in 1860, but his ambitions for Seward were dashed. Ironically, Weed's own reputation as a political boss and his longstanding opposition to Democrats damaged Seward's chances at the Repub lican party's national convention in Chicago.

Lincoln acknowledged Weed's political acumen by consulting with him during the campaign of 1860. And following the election, Weed advised Lincoln on patronage and undertook an unofficial diplomatic mission to Europe. However, his conservative views on emancipation and other issues brought a steady decline in his influence. During the war, he gave up the Evening Journal to move to New York City where, in 1867, he briefly edited another paper and remained interested in public affairs. He died in November 1882.
(Source: http://www.tulane.edu/~latner/Weed.html)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thurlow_...
http://www.nndb.com/people/505/000050...


message 38: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 24, 2012 01:19PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Millard Fillmore:



Born into desperate poverty at the dawn of the nineteenth century, Millard Fillmore climbed to the highest office in the land—and inherited a nation breaking into fragments over the question of slavery. Despite his best efforts, the lines of the future battles of the Civil War were drawn, and Fillmore found himself rejected by his own dying party and denied renomination. After almost a quarter of a century out of the White House, he died in New York state in 1874.

Fillmore, the second of eight children, was born into an impoverished family on January 7, 1800. His family's small farm in upstate Cayuga County, New York, could not support them, and Fillmore's father apprenticed his son to a clothmaker, a brutal apprenticeship that stopped just short of slavery. Fillmore taught himself to read, stealing books on occasion, and finally managed to borrow thirty dollars and pay his obligation to the clothmaker. Free, he walked one hundred miles to get back home to his family.

He was obsessed with educating himself. He pored over every book he could get his hands on and attended school in a nearby town for six months. His teacher, Abigail Powers, encouraged and helped him. She would prove to be the most influential person in his life. She was only nineteen—not even two years older than her pupil. After Fillmore received a clerkship with a local judge, he began to court Abigail Powers. The couple married in 1826.

Anti-Jackson Politics

As a young lawyer, Fillmore was approached by a fledgling political party and asked to run for the New York State Assembly. In 1829, he began the first of three terms in the assembly, where he sponsored a substantial amount of legislation. In 1832, Millard Fillmore was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

At that time, Andrew Jackson was President. Jackson's repeated clashes with Congress and his ambitious attempts to expand presidential power united several parties against him. Fillmore's own Anti-Masonic Party merged with the Whigs, which represented the older, more entrenched power structure and opposed everything that Jackson and the Democrats represented. In 1843, at the end of four terms in Congress, which were interrupted by one defeat, Fillmore resigned from the legislature. After unsuccessfully lobbying for the vice presidential nomination on the Whig ticket with Henry Clay and losing an election for governor of New York, both in 1844, Fillmore was elected New York state comptroller, or chief financial officer, in 1847. He won this election by such a wide margin that he was immediately considered a prospect for national office.

The Whigs selected the military hero General Zachary Taylor as their presidential nominee for the election of 1848. The nomination of a slave owner who held property in Louisiana, Kentucky, and Mississippi infuriated abolitionist Whigs from the North. The party decided to balance the ticket by putting a Northerner in the vice presidential slot. Hence, Fillmore was chosen.

The Taylor-Fillmore ticket won a bitterly fought election over the Democratic ticket led by Michigan senator Lewis Cass. Taylor and Fillmore were an odd match -- the products of very different backgrounds and educations and far apart on the issues of the day. The two men did not meet until after the election and did not hit it off when they did. In a short time, Fillmore found himself excluded from the councils of power, relegated to his role as president of the Senate.

Slavery and the Compromise of 1850

The critical issue facing President Taylor was slavery. Henry Clay had crafted a series of proposals into an omnibus bill that became known as the Compromise of 1850, a patchwork of legislation that would admit California as a new free state; organize New Mexico and Utah, the remainder of the Mexican Cession, as territories on the basis of popular sovereignty; and readjust the disputed boundary between Texas and New Mexico. The compromise also established a fugitive slave law that guaranteed that runaway slaves apprehended anywhere in the United States would be returned to their owners. Taylor refused to take a stand, and the compromise bill was stalled in endless debates in the Senate by mid-1850. But then the unthinkable happened: the President died, possibly of cholera.

As President, Fillmore strongly supported the compromise. Allying himself with the Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas and appointing the pro-compromise Whig Daniel Webster as his secretary of state, Fillmore engineered its passage. By forcing these issues, Fillmore believed he had helped to safeguard the Union, but it soon became clear that the compromise, rather than satisfying anyone, gave everyone something to hate. Under the strains of the failed agreement, the Whig Party began to come apart at the seams.

On the international stage, Fillmore dispatched Commodore Perry to "open" Japan to Western trade and worked to keep the Hawaiian Islands out of European hands. He refused to back an invasion of Cuba by a group of Southern adventurers who wanted to expand the South into a slave-based Caribbean empire. This "filibustering" expedition failed, and Fillmore took the blame from Southerners. At the same time, he offended Northerners by enforcing the Fugitive Slave Law in their region. Weary and dispirited, he tried to decline to run again but was prevailed upon to allow his name to be put forward—only to lose the nomination to General Winfield Scott. Shortly thereafter, his beloved Abigail died, followed by his twenty-two-year-old daughter Mary.

In 1856, he ran for election as the presidential candidate of the Whig-American Party, a fusion of the remaining Whigs and the anti-immigrant American (nicknamed "Know-Nothing") Party. He won the electoral college votes of Maryland and 21 percent of the popular vote. But the newly organized Republican Party, even in defeat, eclipsed Fillmore and the Whigs, winning 33 percent of the vote, and Fillmore's poor performance marked the end of his party. Millard Fillmore died of a stroke in March of 1874.
(Source: http://millercenter.org/president/fil...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millard_...
http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presi...


message 39: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments U.S. Senate website dealing with the Civil War years:

http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/h...


Becky (httpsbeckylindrooswordpresscom) | 1219 comments Posting here because it's from 1861.

"This is an original and incredible 1861 map showing the Mason Dixon Line. Northern States are shaded dark, and Southern States are light."

http://www.sonofthesouth.net/slavery/...



The inset text on the map reads:

MAP SHOWING THE COMPARATIVE AREA OF THE NORTHERN AND
SOUTHERN STATES, EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS 1861


message 41: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments thanks, Becky, very interesting!


message 42: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Mar 02, 2012 08:24AM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments James B.D. De Bow:



was an American publisher and statistician, best known for his influential magazine DeBow's Review, who also served as head of the U.S. Census from 1853-1857.

A resident of New Orleans, DeBow used his magazine to advocate the expansion of southern agriculture and commerce so that the southern economy could become independent of the North. He warned constantly of the South's "colonial" relationship with the North, one in which the South was at a distinct disadvantage.
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._D._B....)

More:
http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/proslav/...


message 43: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 19, 2012 06:29PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Thaddeus Stevens:



a Representative from Pennsylvania; born in Danville, Caledonia County, Vt. April 4, 1792; attended Peacham Academy and the University of Vermont at Burlington; was graduated from Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H., in 1814; moved to Pennsylvania in 1814; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1816 and commenced practice in Gettysburg; member of the State house of representatives 1833-1835, 1837, and 1841; delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1838; appointed as a canal commissioner in 1838; moved to Lancaster, Pa., in 1842; elected as a Whig to the Thirty-first and Thirty-second Congresses (March 4, 1849-March 3, 1853); elected as a Republican to the Thirty-sixth and to the four succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1859, until his death; chairman, Committee on Ways and Means (Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth Congresses), Committee on Appropriations (Thirty-ninth and Fortieth Congresses); chairman of the managers appointed by the House of Representatives in 1868 to conduct the impeachment proceedings against Andrew Johnson, President of the United States; died in Washington, D.C., on August 11, 1868; interment in Shreiner’s Cemetery, Lancaster, Pa.
(Source: http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thaddeus...
http://www.stevensandsmith.org/index....
Thaddeus Stevens  Nineteenth Century Egalitarian by Hans L. TrefousseHans L. Trefousse


message 44: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 19, 2012 06:30PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Benjamin Wade:



Benjamin Franklin Wade was a political leader from Ohio and a Radical Republican in the Reconstruction years after the American Civil War.

Benjamin Wade was born on October 27, 1800, near Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1821, Wade and his parents came to Ashtabula County, Ohio. He briefly taught school, although he never formally attended school in his life. He moved to Albany, New York, in 1823 to study medicine. He returned to Ohio in 1825 and studied law under Elisha Whittlesey. Wade passed the Ohio bar examination in 1828 and opened a law practice in Jefferson, Ohio.

In 1835, Wade went into politics and served as the prosecuting attorney of Ashtabula County from 1835 to 1837. Ashtabula voters elected Wade to the Ohio Senate in 1837 and 1838. As a state legislator, Wade favored the Whig Party's platform and became well known for his abolitionist views. He campaigned for the repeal of Ohio's black codes. His strong anti-slavery stance offended many Ohioans. Ashtabula voters refused to reelect Wade in 1839, but he was elected to the Ohio Senate once again in 1842. In 1847, Wade became a judge of the Third Judicial Court of Ohio and held this position until the Ohio legislature elected him as one of Ohio's two United States Senators in 1851. Wade remained a senator until 1869. He was a strong supporter of the Republican Party and believed that equal rights should be extended to African Americans. The Ohio legislature failed to reelect Wade in the election of 1868.

Southern senators viewed Wade as one of their strongest opponents during the 1850s and the early 1860s. He was a major opponent of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and his opposition and fiery oratory helped establish the Republican Party in Ohio. Wade became widely respected in the North for his views on slavery. Several Republicans wanted to see Wade as their candidate for the presidency in 1860, but Ohio Republicans eventually united behind Salmon P. Chase. Nevertheless, Wade still received three votes at the Republican National Convention in 1860.

During the American Civil War, Wade remained in the Senate and served as the chairman of the Senate's Special Committee on the Conduct of the War. Wade encouraged President Abraham Lincoln to subdue the Confederacy militarily, rather than seeking a quick end to the conflict through peaceful negotiations. In 1864, Wade helped author the Wade-Davis Bill. This legislation required fifty percent of white Southern voters living in a seceded state to take the oath of allegiance to the United States before the state could apply for readmission to the Union. The bill easily passed Congress, but President Lincoln refused to sign it. The bill never became law. After Lincoln's death in April 1865, Wade became a staunch opponent of President Andrew Johnson's relatively lenient plan to reunite the country at the war's conclusion. If the Senate had removed Johnson from office during his impeachment trial, Wade, as president pro tempore of the Senate, would have become the next president of the United States.

Upon completing his term in 1869, Wade remained active in government affairs. He served as a government director of the Union Pacific Railroad and also participated in a commission debating whether or not the United States should annex Santo Domingo. Wade also continued to practice law. He died on March 2, 1878 in Jefferson, Ohio.
(Source: http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/ent...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin...
(no image)Benjamin Franklin Wade, radical Republican from Ohio by Hans Louis Trefousse


message 45: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new) - added it

Bentley | 24007 comments Great adds and information Bryan.


message 46: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Glad to do it, lots of good stuff!


Don (DeeEl) | 1 comments Bryan wrote: "Thaddeus Stevens:
a Representative from Pennsylvania; born in Danville, Caledonia County, Vt. April 4, 1792; attended Peacham Academy and the University of Vermont at Burlington; was graduated f..."


Trefousse is good and I will look for his book. In the 70's in grad school I read the biography Thaddeus Stevens: Scourge of the South by Fawn Brodie (neither the book nor the author show up) which is an early psycho-history and excellent if you can find it. Stevens was an interesting character. Brodie is more famous for her bio's of Joseph Smith and Thomas Jefferson.


message 48: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments I totally agree with you, Don, Trefousse is a good historian, one of the giants in the field.

FYI-Don't forget to cite all the authors/books you mention outside of McPherson. I did find the book:

Thaddeus Stevens  Scourge of the South by Fawn M. Brodie Thomas Jefferson  An Intimate History by Fawn M. Brodie No Man Knows My History  The Life Of Joseph Smith by Fawn M. Brodie by Fawn M. BrodieFawn M. Brodie

Hans L. Trefousse


message 49: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments Fire Eaters:

refers to a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation, which became known as the Confederate States of America.

By radically urging secessionism in the South, the Fire-Eaters demonstrated the high level of sectionalism existing in the U.S. during the 1850s, and they materially contributed to the outbreak of the Civil War (1861–1865). As early as 1850, there was a southern minority of pro-slavery extremists who did much to weaken the fragile unity of the nation. Led by such men as Edmund Ruffin, Robert Rhett, Louis T. Wigfall, and William Lowndes Yancey, this group was dubbed "Fire-Eaters" by northerners. At an 1850 convention in Nashville, Tennessee, the Fire-Eaters urged southern secession, citing irrevocable differences between North and South, and they further inflamed passions by using propaganda against the North. However, the Compromise of 1850 and other moderate counsel, including that from President James Buchanan, kept the Fire-Eaters cool for a time.

In the later half of the 1850s, the group reemerged. They used several recent events for propaganda, among them "Bleeding Kansas" and the Sumner-Brooks Affair to accuse the North of trying to immediately abolish slavery. Using effective propaganda against 1860 presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln, the Fire-Eaters were able to convince many southerners of this false accusation. They first targeted South Carolina, which passed an article of secession in December 1860. Wigfall, for one, actively encouraged an attack on Fort Sumter to prompt Virginia and other upper Southern States to secede as well. Thus, the Fire-Eaters helped to unleash a chain reaction that eventually led to the formation of the Confederate States of America and to the American Civil War. Their influence waned quickly after the start of major fighting.
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire-Eaters)

More:
http://blueandgraytrail.com/event/Fir...


message 50: by Bryan, Assisting Moderator - Presidential Series (last edited Apr 19, 2012 06:22PM) (new) - rated it 4 stars

Bryan Craig | 10443 comments John Brown:



John Brown was a man of action -- a man who would not be deterred from his mission of abolishing slavery. On October 16, 1859, he led 21 men on a raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. His plan to arm slaves with the weapons he and his men seized from the arsenal was thwarted, however, by local farmers, militiamen, and Marines led by Robert E. Lee. Within 36 hours of the attack, most of Brown's men had been killed or captured.

John Brown was born into a deeply religious family in Torrington, Connecticut, in 1800. Led by a father who was vehemently opposed to slavery, the family moved to northern Ohio when John was five, to a district that would become known for its antislavery views.

During his first fifty years, Brown moved about the country, settling in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York, and taking along his ever-growing family. (He would father twenty children.) Working at various times as a farmer, wool merchant, tanner, and land speculator, he never was finacially successful -- he even filed for bankruptcy when in his forties. His lack of funds, however, did not keep him from supporting causes he believed in. He helped finance the publication of David Walker's Appeal and Henry Highland's "Call to Rebellion" speech. He gave land to fugitive slaves. He and his wife agreed to raise a black youth as one of their own. He also participated in the Underground Railroad and, in 1851, helped establish the League of Gileadites, an organization that worked to protect escaped slaves from slave catchers.

In 1847 Frederick Douglass met Brown for the first time in Springfield, Massachusetts. Of the meeting Douglass stated that, "though a white gentleman, [Brown] is in sympathy a black man, and as deeply interested in our cause, as though his own soul had been pierced with the iron of slavery." It was at this meeting that Brown first outlined his plan to Douglass to lead a war to free slaves.

Brown moved to the black community of North Elba, New York, in 1849. The community had been established thanks to the philanthropy of Gerrit Smith, who donated tracts of at least 50 acres to black families willing to clear and farm the land. Brown, knowing that many of the families were finding life in this isolated area difficult, offered to establish his own farm there as well, in order to lead the blacks by his example and to act as a "kind father to them."

Despite his contributions to the antislavery cause, Brown did not emerge as a figure of major significance until 1855 after he followed five of his sons to the Kansas territory. There, he became the leader of antislavery guerillas and fought a proslavery attack against the antislavery town of Lawrence. The following year, in retribution for another attack, Brown went to a proslavery town and brutally killed five of its settlers. Brown and his sons would continue to fight in the territory and in Missouri for the rest of the year.

Brown returned to the east and began to think more seriously about his plan for a war in Virginia against slavery. He sought money to fund an "army" he would lead. On October 16, 1859, he set his plan to action when he and 21 other men -- 5 blacks and 16 whites -- raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry.

Brown was wounded and quickly captured, and moved to Charlestown, Virginia, where he was tried and convicted of treason, Before hearing his sentence, Brown was allowed make an address to the court.

Although initially shocked by Brown's exploits, many Northerners began to speak favorably of the militant abolitionist. "He did not recognize unjust human laws, but resisted them as he was bid. . . .," said Henry David Thoreau in an address to the citizens of Concord, Massachusetts. "No man in America has ever stood up so persistently and effectively for the dignity of human nature. . . ."

John Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859.
(Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1...)

More:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bro...
http://www.civilwarhome.com/johnbrown...
To Purge This Land with Blood  A Biography of John Brown by Stephen B. Oates Stephen B. OatesStephen B. Oates


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