"Heller summarizes his research into "anti-commons"--the problem that arises when resources that are most efficient in some minimum quantity (like land) are divided into parcels that make them economically useless. The trouble with an anti-commons is that the process is asymmetrical: it is very easy to fragment land (or intellectual property) but very difficult to re-assemble it. The result is the "gridlock" in the title"
This was an interesting book. It deserves a second read, because I skimmed much of the ending since it needed to be returned to the library. The complicated issue of individual patents holding up so much research and development of products was an eye opener and a sad setback for growth in medicine, technology, etc.