Anthony D Buckley's Reviews > The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism by Max Weber
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Feb 26, 12

Read in January, 1968

One of the central disputes in Protestantism had long been that between the Calvinists and the Arminians. The Calvinist believed that every person had been chosen by God in the beginning to be either saved or damned, and that there was nothing anybody could do to change his decision. These “elect” individuals could not be certain of their salvation, but they might be identified by their tendency to live lives of piety and goodness. In contrast, the followers of Arminius thought that each individual could hope to gain salvation by repenting his sins and by asking God to bestow his Grace. In the United Kingdom, Calvinism was centrally been found in Scots and Ulster Presbyterianism, while Arminianism had ruled among Anglicans and Methodists.

From the great revivals of the 1850s steadily until the Great War, this great divide began to dissipate. A new division was emerging between “liberals” and “conservatives”. Nevertheless, the old disputes limped on, still quite strenuously among Ulster Presbyterians who fought a bitter if obscure theological battle over church music. So when a list of “fundamental principles” was formulated to unite conservative Christianity, these American “fundamentalists” tiptoed carefully to avoid stirring up the old dispute. They made no mention of individuals turning to or putting trust in God, and no mention of predestination.

Weber’s most famous study has its focus in the Calvinists. Calvin established a new kind of saintliness for merchants and artisans living first of all in Geneva, but later in London, Amsterdam and Edinburgh and then further afield. The piety of the Calvinists had strong echoes of an older piety found in the best of the monasteries. Like the monks, the life of a dutiful Calvinist was one of hard work and diligence, frugality and seriousness with little frivolity. Since everything was pre-ordained, this life of obedience and frugality could not be hoped to bring salvation. Rather, it was a mere subservience to God’s Law which, in Calvin’s system, replaced the Rule of the great monastic leaders. Calvinism also claimed the right of the Elect to rule over the non-Elect in a theocratic political system.

The monks, in pursuing pious obedience, poverty and chastity had inadvertently made their houses and their orders rich. So it was with the pious businessmen. They too lived frugally and worked hard. Without really intending to, the Calvinists made themselves and their households rich. This was the so-called “Protestant ethic” identified by Weber as giving birth to capitalism.

After the Great War, Calvinism slipped finally from view, overtaken, diluted and absorbed by the Arminian doctrine that now became Protestant “conservative” or “evangelical” orthodoxy. Protestants conservatives were now universally enjoined to turn to God, to confess their sins and put their trust in a God who would reciprocate by offering salvation. The few people who still called themselves Calvinists merely emphasised the last part of this process, the positive activity of God. There were still other movements within Protestantism, the enlightened theology of the Quakers or the Unitarians, for example, and the High Church found in Anglicanism, both of which, however, were more important as belonging to the liberal camp. But it was now a different theological world.
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message 1: by Norah (new)

Norah You have it in a nutshell, Tony!


Anthony D Buckley Norah wrote: "You have it in a nutshell, Tony!"
Thanks Norah.
Actually, of very great historical interest too is the "New Licht" theology which was found in the Quakers, in the Unitarians and in your own church, the Non-Subscribing Presbyterians in Ulster.
The notion that each person and each congregation contained within them the divine "Inner Light" of Morality and Reason started out as a theological idea but then, sometimes in a secular form, it gave birth to the Scottish and then the more general Enlightenment of the eighteenth century.
This Enlightenment idea still firmly existed in the writings of the difficult German philosopher Hegel at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Hegel thought that the natural world was imbued with God's Reason, and that the human spirit (the Presbyterian "New Licht") was also divine. Thus the Scottish "Licht", the divine Light of Reason, found within human beings, necessarily engaged in a long historical conversation or "dialectic" with Nature. And thus could human Reason discover the divine Reason that was inherent in Nature. Hence the progress of human history. It's a powerful idea and fascinating stuff.
Every day, I look out from my breakfast table and ponder the pink-painted Non-Subscribing Presbyterian church just opposite, and I know it to be a monument to the great Scottish (and Ulster)Enlightenment.


message 3: by Norah (new)

Norah Anthony D wrote: "Norah wrote: "You have it in a nutshell, Tony!"
Thanks Norah.
Actually, of very great historical interest too is the "New Licht" theology which was found in the Quakers, in the Unitarians and in ..."

Interesting.... Have you by any chance heard of or read any books by Pete Rollins? He's the Ikon guru from Belfast . I have 3 of his listed on Goodreads, though not sure if I still have them all.


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