Nathaniel Greene was a surprisingly portly Quaker from Rhode Island. He inherited a foundry business from his father in 1770. In 1774 he married a locNathaniel Greene was a surprisingly portly Quaker from Rhode Island. He inherited a foundry business from his father in 1770. In 1774 he married a local girl named Catherine “Caty” Littlefield. He also organized a local militia in 1774 called the Kentish Guards.
When the British seized Boston Greene was appointed General by the Rode Island Government. In 1776 the Continental Congress appointed him a Brigadier General. He arrived at Boston after the Boston Massacre and after the British evacuated. General Washington appointed him commander of Boston. He saw his first action at the Battle of Harlem Heights on September 16, 1776. The British forced an American retreat to White Plains (an area between NY and NJ). From White Plains the Americans retreated to Fort Washington.
At Fort Washington Greene made the only tactical mistake of his Revolutionary Career. Washington was against defending the Fort named after him. Greene however convinced Washington that he could defend it.
General Howe produced a three prong attack on the fort. One brigade came from the south side of the fort, one brigade from the east and the main force from the North. 8000 British forces easily overran the smaller inexperienced American troops and captured a large contingent. Greene was forced to retreat with the remaining troops across the Hudson and regrouped at Fort Lee, NJ.
Washington however never lost confidence in Greene. One of Washington’s greatest attributes was his judgment and it was working well at this time. Greene was with Washington at the terrible conditions in Valley Forge later in the War as well. Then on December 26, 1776 Washington and his men crossed the Delaware River and surprised the Hessians at Trenton. Greene led one of the two columns in that battle capturing the entire Hessian Force.
In 1778, Washington appointed Greene to Quartermaster General. The Continental Army was in a dreadful condition. Greene made some headway getting food and clothing for the impoverished troops by giving IOU’s to willing suppliers and also obtaining goods from willing families.
The British suddenly changed their strategy and decided to attack the Southern States. After the Continental Congress appointed three failed Generals to lead American forces they left Washington appoint the next one. Washington using his superb judgment again picked Greene.
Greene used Washington’s strategy of fight and retreat to perfection. The humid Southern summer wrecked havoc on British troops unaccustomed to very humid conditions. Lord Cornwallis looked to end the war with one big battle. He burned all his troops’ gear and equipment so they could travel faster. Then he chased Greene’s Army up through North Carolina. Greene crossed the Dan River and took his troops to safety in Virginia. After a week of recovery Greene re-crossed the Dan River in an attempt to engage Cornwallis’s troops in a battle. And a battle is what Greene got at a place called Guilford Court House.
In a battle that lasted only 90 minutes, the American’s were forced to retreat giving Great Britain the technical victory. However, the British Army lost one quarter of its forces and never fully recovered afterwards. Greene described his strategy in these words "We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again.”
After the war Greene was hailed as the Southern savior. South Carolina and Georgia gave Greene large tracts of land to farm on. He however sadly run out of luck. During the war, he bought supplies with IOU’s those creditors came looking for their money. The Continental Congress had no money to compensate for Greene’s IOU’s. And Greene’s farming ventures failed. His one prize farm in Georgia, where he grew rice, was burnt by a fire and flooded into ruin. Greene spent much of his life attempting to negotiate his debt. This forced him to do a lot of traveling. He died in 1786 at the young age of 43 a poor broken man. He was buried in an unmarked tomb in Savannah, Georgia. And became a War hero with unjustified unheralded recognition. ...more
It is a brilliant study in sociology. It discusses how there are brilliant criminals running crime in a business model, surprising explanations for deIt is a brilliant study in sociology. It discusses how there are brilliant criminals running crime in a business model, surprising explanations for decreased crime rates and much more. It has many, many interesting facts as well....more
Following Germany's defeat in World War II it was divided between communist Soviet Union who administered over East Germany and the democratic countriFollowing Germany's defeat in World War II it was divided between communist Soviet Union who administered over East Germany and the democratic countries that divided West Germany into zones for the U.S., England and France.
As the economics minister under the American controlled Bavarian sector he saved BMW car factory from dismantling through a letter and was well liked by the American overseers for his free market ideas. His ideas led him to be appointed as the German economics minister.
In that role he had the Duetsche mark easily convertible into other currencies to facilitate trade, he promoted capital accumulation by offering low purchase stock to average citizens and financially restructured destroyed industry. He was a life long nemesis of Germany's cartels (or monopolies)as well.
These free market solutions made West Germany the second wealthiest country in the world in the 1950's. However, he had to continually fight with his socialistic president Konrad Adenauer. President Adenauer ushered in new government programs such as a pension system.
These programs put tremendous weight on the German economic machine. When the 1960's hit the machine slowed just as the miracle creator Ludwig Erhard was elected Chancellor succeeding Adenauer.
As Chancellor Erhard extended the years for Nazi crimes retribution. He also tried to eliminate cartels but was only able to get a water downed law which had little effect. He was ousted in 1966 serving just under 4 years as Chancellor.
He believed that the German people would eventually subscribe to his free market ideas. However, they did not and as a result were surpassed by other countries on the wealthiest country list. ...more
Frederick II (the great) was the son of Frederick-William I and the Princess Sophia-Dorothea, daughter of George I of Great Britain, and was born in 1Frederick II (the great) was the son of Frederick-William I and the Princess Sophia-Dorothea, daughter of George I of Great Britain, and was born in 1712. He was granted by his parents an excellent education. When his father died Frederick ascended into Prussian kingship in 1740.
His goal was to unify the German speaking people of Europe. However, some German speaking people remained vassals of other European countries. To resolve this, he first tried to conquer Silesia. Silesia was a material rich region shared by mostly German and Polish ethnicities. However, it was under control of a powerful country of the time- Austria. He first orchestrated a victory at Mollwitz in 1741 seizing Silesia form Austria. In 1745 Austria attempted to take back Silesia, in what is known as, the Second Silesian War. At the battle of Kesselsdorf, the Prussians defeated the Austrian army forcing Austria to recognize their loss.
After 11 years of peace, Prussia’s status among Europe accelerated do to education reform and military training improvements. As a result, Prussia’s enemy Austria formed an alliance with Russia and France and tried once again to take Silesia from Frederick. However, Frederick found an unlikely ally in England who was concurrently battling France in North America. As of 1762 the combined Russian/Austrian forces were defeating the Prussians when suddenly Russia withdrew. This odd event turned the tide to Frederick’s advantage. Consequently, Prussia was once again was recognized as the master of Silesia at the Treaty of Hubertusburg. Interestingly this war goes by three different names: the Third Silesian War, the Seven Years War and the French American War.
In 1772, he obtained a portion of Poland. At his death in 1786, Prussia and Germany had more than doubled in size.
The author devotes the end of his book to why Frederick should not be entitled to the moniker “Great.” I will list some reasons why he has earned that title. He built the Berlin State Opera House as well as other sensational architecture. He turned the Berlin Academy into the most influential scientific intuitions in the world. He created grain storage facilities which were used to feed the poor when necessary. I think however that what he is most celebrated for is his practice of religious tolerance. He accepted dispelled Jesuits and provided them with teaching jobs in Silesia and Warmia. He also accepted Jewish bankers and merchants as well as expelled Huguenots from France. ...more
Team of Rivals refers to Abraham Lincoln’s choice of prior adversaries as his presidential cabinet. The first was the most famous RepublTeam of Rivals
Team of Rivals refers to Abraham Lincoln’s choice of prior adversaries as his presidential cabinet. The first was the most famous Republican candidate for the 1860 presidential race. This was William Seward, the Governor of New York. Seward was a very bright, good story teller and ardently opposed to slavery. He was, in all likelihood, too liberal to get the Republican nomination. The Republican Party was made up of former Whig party, Know-Nothing party and anti-slavery democrats. The know nothings were against immigration. This hurt Seward because he was very pro-immigration.
The second rival is former Ohio Senator and Governor Salmon P. Chase. He made a lot of enemies in Ohio with a shady political deal to obtain a Senate seat. The third was Edward Bates. Bates was a Missouri Judge. One of the reasons that Lincoln defeated these three is because he was a relatively unknown former congressman and lawyer. Lincoln was however a very hard working, great debater, great speech giver and writer as well as a magnificent story teller. He also had a hard dedicated team which worked tirelessly to ensure Lincoln’s victory. They were so dedicated because Lincoln was such a nice fellow as well as great story teller.
When Lincoln won the nomination the South began secession talks and quickly seceded. One of Lincoln’s most important decisions was to pick all of his former rivals for top cabinet positions. Seward was picked for Secretary of State, Chase for Treasury and Bates for Attorney General. He did this with full knowledge that each rival considered himself more qualified than him to be president. He also knew that there would be internal strife amongst such big personalities.
When confederate forces struck Fort Sumter the Civil War began. This is where Lincoln made his only major mistake. The mistake was picking George McClellan to head the Union Army and his delay in replacing him. McClellan’s delays in engaging confederate forces are well documented and may very well have prevented a quick Union victory.
Lincoln’s wife Mary is discussed a lot in this book as is Treasury Secretary Chase’s daughter Kate. Mary was a very driven woman who loved the big fancy balls that she would host. She enjoyed flirting with men and Abe never minded. However after the death of their son she fell into deep depression. When she finally pulled herself out she devoted herself to secretly caring for wounded soldiers in the hospital. Kate Chase was known as the prettiest lady in Washington and she hosted elaborate balls on behalf of her father. She married the wealthy William Sprague, owner of A.& W. Sprague Manufacturing Company. Although they seemed like the all American couple she had a miserable married life which ended in divorce.
Kate’s father however actively pursued the Republican nomination for the presidency in 1864 while being the acting Treasury Secretary. He did a stellar job financing the war and Lincoln appreciated that. So after confronting him without malice he offered him the recent Supreme Court justice position vacated by Judge Roger Taney.
Lincoln was often criticized by the anti-slavery radicals as being overly cautious but history tells us that Lincoln seemed to understand the mood of the country and make decisions based on that. For example, the Emancipation Proclamation was not enacted until he felt that it would be acceptable in the Border States.
When the war ended everything looked rosy in a way. We had a great President who planned a lenient approach to Southern reintegration while guaranteeing colored equality.
That was stymied when John Wilkes Booth pulled the trigger in Ford’s Theater and killed the 16th President.
I have read about many great people who had many great gifts including courage, vision, and persistence among others. Evelyn Nesbit had however, whatI have read about many great people who had many great gifts including courage, vision, and persistence among others. Evelyn Nesbit had however, what I consider, a rare quality. The quality is: being seen almost universally as beautiful. This is an attribute that I believe most people would love to have. But being so beautiful is not always a blessing as Evelyn Nesbit would discover.
Evelyn had a normal early child hood in the suburbs of Pittsburgh. She evidently had a wonderful father who was making every effort to see that his daughter receive a college education. However when he unexpectedly died, Evelyn’s family plunged into poverty. So when a painter saw Evelyn’s stunning teenage face he offered money to paint a portrait. Evelyn’s mother readily agreed. As Evelyn’s name caught on more painters and photographers would paint or photograph her for a small fee.
Evelyn’s mother knew that more money could be made in a larger city. So she packs up the family and moves to Philadelphia. Evelyn finds more modeling work there. Her mother realizes that there was more opportunities in New York City. So she obtains references for a New York photographer and they go off to New York.
Evelyn finds lots of work there. She eventually winds up in stage plays. When the famous architect Stanford White discovers her he becomes enthralled with her beautiful face. The clever and devious White embraces the poor Nesbit family. He sets them up in nice apartment and lavishes them with food and presents. He also pays for her brother to go to college. He would act fatherly (he was 48, she was 15), for what seems, for months. He ensured Evelyn and her mother were well fed and would take care of any problem either of them came across. This enabled both Evelyn and her mother to learn to like and trust him. All the while though Stanford White was married and was seducing other very young underage actresses. But with their trust he develops a devious plan. He talks Evelyn’s mother into taking a vacation back to Pittsburgh paying the bill and leaving Evelyn in his care.
He then takes Evelyn to a lavish hotel room, gets her drunk and rapes her. The author states all along that Stanford White was a known molester of young teenage girls. He then proceeds to threaten the 15 year old Evelyn not to tell anyone. Evelyn obliges and, in my eyes, oddly starts treating him like a boyfriend.
Her life continues as she acts on stage and continues her relationship with Stanford White. Being the very busy man he was he was, he became absent from Evelyn for a few days. In steps a young 21 year old beau named John Barrymore. He was the son of a famous actor and he swept her off her feet. Her mother quickly ends this relationship by notifying Stanford White. White and Mrs. Nesbit plan to breakup the pair by shipping Evelyn to a school in New Jersey.
Then an odd twist occurs in Evelyn’s tough life. Evelyn was released from her New Jersey school when White and Mrs. Nesbit thought Barrymore had given up on her. Evelyn goes back to New York and starts to work again when a mega millionaire 32 year old comes into her life. His name was Harry Thaw. Harry was from a coke and steel business back in her home town surroundings of Pittsburgh. What we find out about him is almost as freakish as Stanford White’s string of pedophile seductions. But one of the bizarre things about him is that he hated Stanford White, even before he knew of Evelyn. White had somehow snubbed Thaw at a party while Thaw was visiting New York. This may have been the reason behind his hatred.
Thaw continues to pursue Evelyn and his persistence eventually led to Evelyn’s acceptance of him. He was close enough to her that when she got sick, Thaw paid for her hospitalization and medical care. He then convinces her mother that a cruise on a ship followed by a European vacation would do wonders for Evelyn’s recovery. Thaw would pay for it and sail in a separate ship. He meets them in Europe and plans their itinerary. Using a clever ploy he moves Evelyn and her mother to different European cities. But in each city he would make Evelyn and her mother switch hotels multiple times. This drove Mrs Nesbit crazy leading to her demand to be sent home, just as Thaw likely hoped. The good natured happy-go-lucky Evelyn wanted to stay. His plan worked perfectly.
Now that he has Evelyn alone, his plan is executed. He rents a castle in a remote part of the Alps; he dismisses the two assigned servants and takes Evelyn there. One night when after Evelyn went to bed, Thaw walks in, beats and rapes her. This is the second time in her young life that she has to endure such harsh brutality. But in a somewhat characteristic manner she forgives him and enjoys his company throughout the rest of their vacation.
In the meantime, Evelyn’s irate mother gets back to New York and reports to White that Thaw has kidnapped Evelyn. White proceeds to get all the details. When Evelyn returns to New York White shows up at the Nesbit apartment and demands that Evelyn see his lawyer. The lawyer interrogates her and records the whole castle incident. He gives it to White. White does nothing with the evidence because he was fearful that his pedophilic life would be exposed if he did.
Evelyn however still kept seeing Harry Thaw. When she turned 18, he proposes. She accepts. They marry in Pittsburgh and live at the Thaw mansion with Harry’s mother. Harry seemed like a decent husband while there but after a while his anger at White flared up.
He decides to take Evelyn on another European vacation. They would go to New York for a short stay and then board a ship bound to Europe. Harry takes Evelyn out while in NYC. What is odd is that he takes her to a restaurant designed and often frequented by his pedophile nemesis Stanford White. White shows up there but leaves before Harry notices. Evelyn was pleased. However when Harry takes Evelyn to the Madison Square Garden Restaurant, Harry spots Stanford at a table sitting with his son. Harry then excuses himself, sneaks off to Stanford White’s table and shoots him.
Harry is arrested and the book describes a very detailed circus over the trial. It was in every newspaper. People could not bear to not know what was going on with it. It was known as the trial of the century up until the Fatty Arbuckle trial. Harry considered himself a “savior” of young women. Harry’s mother hires a very capable lawyer from San Francisco after the original lawyer failed. This lawyer goes for the temporary insanity plea. As part of his plan, he makes Evelyn describe her brutal rape by Stanford White on the jury stand. It worked. He was able to obtain a hung jury with this strategy. Harry would be charged with temporary insanity in a later trial.
Evelyn divorced Harry and led interesting life afterwards. She would marry and divorce again. She would party with popular prizefighters. She became an alcoholic and drug addict. She would improve her life though. She wrote two memoirs and became an advisor in the movie based upon her life “The Girl in the Red Velvet Swing.” She retired quietly teaching ceramics. She lived to the age of 82 and after a very tough life she survived and that’s what counts!
What a story this book tells. The struggles of the coal miners in America, the formation of unions, the power of the big bankers like JP Morgan, and hWhat a story this book tells. The struggles of the coal miners in America, the formation of unions, the power of the big bankers like JP Morgan, and how and why oil overtook coal's place as America's top resource. It also gives a real good look into the beginings of the industrial age....more
If you know nothing about health this book is great. If you know something about health this book is still pretty good. Even if you know a lot about hIf you know nothing about health this book is great. If you know something about health this book is still pretty good. Even if you know a lot about health there is still some good information in this book.
I will just point out the most intriguing information that Marilu Henner provides. It is called food combining. Under her theory improper food combining will lead to weight gain. The rules to food combining are as follows:
Never combine starches with proteins Never combine fruit with vegetables
This is a little tricky to follow however because you should eat vegetables with these meals. And some vegetables, like potatoes, are starches.
Marilu details her daily meals. She eats fruit for breakfast, proteins for lunch and starches for dinner.
She is a vegetarian and does not eat dairy. If you follow her complete regimen in this book you will certainly lead a more healthy lifestyle. ...more
This book can be a little dry unless you have a unique interest in how to dig the U.S. out of the 2011 recession and make it into the economic giant iThis book can be a little dry unless you have a unique interest in how to dig the U.S. out of the 2011 recession and make it into the economic giant it once was. The steps to do so seem easy to do accept for the fact that little of our political culture seem to understand economics. Members of the United States House of Representatives, Senate and the President himself should read this book.
The book was written by economist Art Laffer, Stephen Moore and Peter Tanous. Laffer is famous for creating the Laffer curve. The Laffer curve represents the rate of taxation at which maximum revenue to the federal government is generated.
The steps outlined are simple. First, a low capital gains tax should be implemented because by doing this more revenue will flow into the federal treasury. The logic is easy to understand. When the capital gains tax rate is high people hold on to their stocks, when it is low they tend to sell more creating more tax money in the process. The authors have a chart to demonstrate this.
Second, eliminate the estate tax. Successful families businesses have been destroyed by this tax. It is estimated that this tax creates only 1 to 2 percent of federal budget receipts. One study suggests that it actually costs more to administer than it collects in tax receipts.
Third, free trade is essential. Of course, the U.S. is the world’s largest consumer so we usual run a huge trade deficit. A lot of people think this is bad. Their study found the opposite. The higher the trade deficit grows the lower the unemployment rate we get. What seems to happen is that more goods we buy from a particular country the more likely they will invest in building factories in our country. Toyota manufactures 80% of their star car the Camry in the United States with two factories located in the U.S. This is a good example.
The final and main idea is for the implementation of a flat tax to replace the graduated income tax. The author calculates that the flat tax rate will be 12.1 % for personal income and 12.1% for business income. This would render enough money to run the federal government. It would eliminate the social security tax, corporate profit tax, estate tax and gift tax. It would allow very few deductions as well. This system would minimize tax evasion. It also pointed that many countries have implemented the flat tax and it revitalized their economies.
They would also like to see less regulation which hampers business. They are a little sparse with which regulations to eliminate but do emphasize that Hong Kong has little regulation is an enormously productive city. A good example though presented is that global warming regulations are crippling the economy. It is believed that the U.S west coast off shore area is the American Saudi Arabia of oil deposits. This region has been banned from drilling even before the global warming nonsense started by the U.S. congress in 1982. Of course, more oil would render cheaper energy which would help the economy tremendously.
The authors provide a lot of examples which justify their ideas. I have read Robert Reich’s book "Aftershock" and think it is good but the program laid out in this book should be adopted first. Even Robert Reich agrees that this book is “influential and important.”
This book gives a nice description of the great scientists from ancient to current times. Author John Farndon breaks down the scientists into time perThis book gives a nice description of the great scientists from ancient to current times. Author John Farndon breaks down the scientists into time periods. These periods include the ancients, middle ages, the Renaissance, the 17thC, 18C, 19thC and 20th C. So, I am going to just feature one scientist from each time period.
Archimedes (207-212 BC):
Archimedes greatest discovery was the principle of buoyancy. An object will float when its weight is exactly equal to the up thrust of the displaced water that it is put upon. Knowledge of this principle allowed shipbuilders to produce large ships.
He also devised a system which allows a person to create gigantic numbers by using exponents to raise the number to a power.
He furthermore worked out the volumes and areas of regular shapes such as spheres and cones.
The Middle Ages:
Al-Khwarizmi ( 786 -unknown )-
In attempt to improve calculations in regards to lawsuits, trade, digging canals and other human activity he created algebra.
He also authored a book on geography which improved on the accuracy of previous similar books.
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)-
Vesalius authored the book “Fabrica” which became the most important medical book of his age. It detailed the human skeleton, veins, the nervous system and the main body organs in such accurate detail that medical students were required to keep it at the dissecting table.
Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)-
Leeuwenhoek made homemade microscopes but his most important contribution to science is that he discovered bacteria. From examining water from different sources he identified incredible tiny creatures scurrying about. What he saw are bacteria.
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)-
Linnaeus discovered that plants reproduced with a sexual organ. In flowers, he called the stamen (where pollen is made) the bridegroom and the pistils (where seeds are made) the bride. This information became important to farmers because we now know that you need more than one plant on a lot of species to produce fruit. This is because one plant must pollinate the other.
He also developed a binomial system to name all the creatures he could find on earth.
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
Pasteur first discovered yeast by studying beer and wine as they age. With yeast he studied why food goes bad. And he determined it goes bad by exposure to microbes in ordinary air. He also noticed that when air is heated the microbes die and the food is preserved. He also discovered that microbes cause infection and disease. So by using sterilized bandages, which killed microbes, surgeries became much safer.
Max Plank (1858-1947)
Plank created Quantum Theory which stated that energy is released in tiny invisible chunks.
So, if you want to get a feel for the greatest scientists of history this is a good book to start with.