I've read the book some years ago. An amazing reflection on ancient civilizations (and questioning of several religions*) in the area of today's Midd
I've read the book some years ago. An amazing reflection on ancient civilizations (and questioning of several religions*) in the area of today's Middle East. At times, beyond that geographical area**.
Travelling in a vast area (Ottoman Empire and Egypt and Syria) in the year 1784 and visiting the ruins of the ancient city of Palmyra, Volney, unknowingly, summons the Ghost of the ruins with his many questions and melancholic state: -what about those times of abundance and life? ...where are the palaces?...what caused the destruction?... why the population not perpetuated?...
The answers obtained from this "supernatural voice" agitate the heart of Volney, the Count. (Chapter XIII goes this way: Will the human species ever improve?...;Chapter XV The New Century...) ... ... So was I, in a certain way agitated, when I saw this: Ancient Palmyra ‘under threat’, ISIS militants approach UNESCO site***
*“A Jew would rather die than working on Sabbath; a Persian would die had he to blow the fire with his own breath; for one Hindu man, it’s of the utmost perfection the act of covering with cow excrement and mysteriously saying Aum; a Muslim, thinks he gets all blames absolved, by washing his head and arms, and argues, holding the sword, whether it is better to start by the “tip of fingers or the elbow”. A Christian would think of being condemned to eternal damnations if eating meat on Friday, instead of milk and butter. Oh sublime and truly celestial doctrines!”
** “The whole Asia finds itself submerged in the deepest darkness. The Chinese, governed by rod-despotism and disoriented by superstition, embarrassed by a deficient language, and moreover, by an ill-constructed system of writing, they present themselves as a people of automatons of an aborted civilization”.
“The Jesuits tried to paint, with the most beautiful colors, the Chinese government. We know today that that’s no other cause but pure oriental despotism (limited by the use of ‘another’ language, and above all, by an ill-constructed writing). The Chinese people are the proof that in ancient times, until the invention of the alphabetic writing, the human spirit had difficulties developing itself, just like before the Arabic numbers, for the purpose of counting. It all depends on the methods: China won’t change itself unless it changes its language”.
I've read the book some years ago. An amazing reflection on ancient civilizations in the area of today Middle East.
Travelling in a vast area (Ottoma
I've read the book some years ago. An amazing reflection on ancient civilizations in the area of today Middle East.
Travelling in a vast area (Ottoman Empire and Egypt and Syria) in the year 1784 and visiting the ruins of the ancient city of Palmyra, Volney, unknowingly, summons the Ghost of the ruins with his many questions and melancholic state:what about those times of abundance and life? ...where are the palaces?...what caused the destruction?... why the population not perpetuated?...
The answers obtained from this "supernatural voice" agitate the heart of Volney, the Count. (Chapter XIII goes this way: will the human species ever improve?) ... ... So was I,in a certain way agitated, when I saw this: Ancient Palmyra ‘under threat’, ISIS militants approach UNESCO site*
I just had this scary thought after hearing her speaking*; it was something like this: "just let all the US abroad-military installations be dismantle
I just had this scary thought after hearing her speaking*; it was something like this: "just let all the US abroad-military installations be dismantled, troops gotten home...and let's see what ISIS will do about it". But then another question popped up: "US-cop gone, who's next in line"? I mean, "who would replace cop number one? who would like to?...".
ECH wondered: lots of folks speaking about bringing home troops from Iraq and Afghanistan; she boldly added: why not those in Germany and Japan??
She calls it "Umpire"; an "insight" she had, even before finding out that the founding fathers used the expression. The Umpire was a sort of (super/above the states) entity--call it federal government-- which had the power to decide , and upon whose decision should the states abide by --squabbling among the 13 original states would be circumvented, I have understood.
But, over time, the Umpire has turned into an Empire, it appears. Especially after WWII, the USA became a sort of world-police whose job was to guarantee that certain rules were obeyed/respected. Now, time has arrived for this job to be "reconsidered". Her article in the NY Times** of 2013 looks quite clear: "Come Home, America". She calls it a "correction" , a time to move to a next phase; the USA has been on a "detour".
It's interesting her critique on the present-day administration; that of Obama not differing much from previous ones. Though Obama acknowledges the USA job has been "law enforcement" for 70 decades, he denied the nation as a "global policeman". In the eyes of ECH: it's the opposite. Obama has a "double-speak".
Apparently, her "next phase" won't involve "fighting".
Despite being polemic, her historical analysis brings some positive lines for the "world cop". Because the USA brought and enforced, over the years, certain ideals/principles common to (and cherished by) several nations: Access (to markets and citizen-rule), Arbitration (law,regulation,negotiation) and Transparency (freedom of information and free speech).
She claims her view has many supporters: Noam Chomsky (Imperial ambitions), Howard Zinn (A People's History of American Empire), Chalmers Johnson, Andrew Bacevich,.... ;and she provides evidence for a rethinking (my expression): namely the 1967 France's "kicked us out" or, more recently, the Philippines case. Of course, Okinawa always polemic; even its recent plans of expansion...
(no, they're not yankees',rather, chinese subs,nuclear ones,likely)
To ECH, the expansionist USA "messed up". So, logically,it's time for a correction.
She said two other things: (1) Empires go Dodo-way; (2) nations replace Empires.
I think Chomsky’s vision on the issue is a bit more radical than ECH's. To him it is as if things were twisted from the very beginning of the USA history. Therefore he quotes the “father of the nation”, George Washington's expression “nascent empire” ; and summarizes the very beginning as a story of “wars of extermination …murder,…deceit,…lying…and plunder”; all in the interest of “expansion of the colonies”. Later on J. Quincy Adams views were followed, (“Cuba would fall under the laws of political gravitation”) even by Bush (on preemptive wars): expansion is a way to secure the nation. Chomsky gives the example of the intervention of Andrew Jackson in Florida; he deplores a “stolen Hawaii”; …and the Philippines,... and Puerto Rico.
-who was this man? He would be accepted as native in different nations, because he spoke fluently mo"He looked 40, but maybe he was 150 years old…"
-who was this man? He would be accepted as native in different nations, because he spoke fluently more than 12 languages. He was a talented painter, as well as a musician, violinist-performer…and composer. He had a business as “teinturier”.
It is said that he learned in India (1755) how to remove the flaws from diamonds; and that he knew about the elixir of life.
By 1757 he was in France. The king Louis XV, in Versailles, provided to the Count Saint Germain a laboratory for his alchemical experiments; the king himself had witnessed the count “fixing” his precious stones.
He had the friendship of the king’s favorite: Madame de Pompadour. Cagliostro, …Casanova, Charles of Hesse were some who knew about him. He would go from court to court….even to England; some accusing him of friendship with the Scotts. ~
-A spy? A Rosicrucian adept? The first of the Free-Masons?
He had been in many places and had a great knowledge of History. He’d been in several nations of Europe….and then he disappeared.
I have read Nostradamus Prophecies a number of times; yet, this documentary I’ve watched recently added a bit more (suspicion included) to the proph
I have read Nostradamus´ Prophecies a number of times; yet, this documentary I’ve watched recently added a bit more (suspicion included) to the prophecy domain. At stake, I am referring 80 watercolor images (Vaticinia Nostradami) attributed to the 16th century astrologer Nostradamus, discovered in Rome, in 1994.
Is this manuscript a lost book of Nostradamus?
“The bizarre imagery” seems to find some corroboration in the quatrains long known as his prophecies. One key person involved in the discovery was journalist Enza Massa who commented on this Codex found in the public library of Rome,…but I still have my doubts on the authenticity of the authorship.
Prior to Rome, the manuscript had been in the Vatican, and at least three names have been indicated as authors: Nostradamus and Da Fiori….and a “Pivoli”. Who’s the real one?
The abundance of images portraying Pope Figures made me think on an insider's job; Vatican’s. But this is hypothetical. Many images are “Popes being attacked”….some implying: ”embarrassing texts” for the church under “dire circumstances”.
I’ve read amazing interpretations of these images that range from “rise of the feminine” to “Popes who are Jews”.
More “in tune” with the Nostradamus prophecies are images such as that one with a king and a cleric figure facing the blade; this one interpreted as the beheading of France’s royal heads (King and Queen) after the 1789 Revolution.
Still corroborating Nostradamus prophecies: the death of the husband of Queen Catherine Medicis: Henry II; she, herself, had consulted the astrologer.
The quatrain speaking about a “Pope mocked …death by night” has been attributed to the poisoned Pope Paul I, who had a short leadership of 30 days.
An image portraying a big Pope,under the sun, …and a little Turkish warrior nearby the great ecclesiastical figure had been related to the attacks Pope John Paul II suffered by a Turkish man.
Somehow controversial is this image of the “tower in flames”; some (obviously) made the connection to the 9/11 events,…and the quatrains: “earth shaking fires from the World’s Center …around New City …fruitless war…new red river”.
Other lines like “human devourers of the west” made some believe in an imminent Arab invasion.
I think there’s plenty of stuff to deal with, especially the symbolical one, but the authorship issue is important as well to be established. Were these images made by Nostradamus? What is the relation of these to his written prophecies? As some imply, due to the limitation of language, did he choose to convey his (terrifying, for some) message through a less categorical way? Why?
Then, if not Nostradamus, whose agenda is this one of so much an “embarrassing “nature to the Vatican? Most important, if these events are to be outplayed in the future: exactly when will they unfold?... one could wonder.
It’s an old book published in 1889, as a celebration of the heretic astronomer. Agnes Fry considers that “G. Bruno’s life and work are alike memorabl
It’s an old book published in 1889, as a celebration of the heretic astronomer. Agnes Fry considers that “G. Bruno’s life and work are alike memorable”. Giordano Bruno, a “remarkable man”.
Born in 1548, in the district of Campagna, in the town of Nola (12 miles from Naples) Giordano Bruno was baptized as “Philip”. Only around 14 he got the name Giordano, when at the monastery of saint Domenic.
He was born at a time when modern science was being created; in 1543, had been published the Copernicus work. But it was also the time of the institution of the Inquisition, namely the Spanish one.
Of his childhood he recalls his home views of the Vesuvius; these views changed when actually he made a visit to the place; he would say: “we always carry the center of our horizon with us”.
At nine years of age he was instructed in the Humanities, in Logic and Dialectics.
By 14, at Naples, in the monastery, of the scholastic knowledge, he preferred Saint Thomas Aquinas and Raymond Lully. He started noticing the “extravagances and weakness” of his brethren. So Giordano started showing signs of heresy…and humor; he removed picures of saints from his cell; expressed doubts on the Trinity…and the 7 joys of Mary. But he proceeded his clerical life.
In 1572 he took holy orders, and had his first mass in the town of Campagna. He was already a writer, to whom the work of Copernicus was decisive in elaborating a new philosophy and cosmology; important also the Neo-Platonism and Nicolas de Cusa. G. Bruno wrote a play called “Caudelaria” about the depravity surrounding him.
His monastic life nevertheless reaches an abrupt end, under the charges of heresy (composed of 130 articles), when Giordano is in Rome at the monastery of Minerva. A new cycle of his life is about to begin: he escapes from Rome; he was 28 years old. His enemies will go after him in half Europe.
In 1579 Giordano gets off Italy. His main job is teaching…and writing. It will be 15 years of wandering. By 1581 he’s got to Paris. Some time before he had been in Toulouse graduating as doctor of Roman Theology. Previously, he had attended meetings on reformed church, in Geneva. At that time someone told him he should change his monastic habit.
In 1583 he was in England…in 1591 in Frankfurt. His written output had been astonishing: “30 books on cosmology, mathematics and theology”. He wrote about MEMORY, too.
1593: back in Rome; 7 years of trials, to be finally burnt at the stake*.
The subtitle of the book is “ In Memoriam of the 17th February 1600”, …the day he died.
An author, never to be forgotten
*The 1973 movie by Giuliano Montaldo is a good work on these last years of trials. ...more
Preliminary note: I have read "Letters on England, Vol. 1 of 2 by Louis Blanc" of Sampson Low,Son and Marston",volume I, published in 1866. Since thisPreliminary note: I have read "Letters on England, Vol. 1 of 2 by Louis Blanc" of Sampson Low,Son and Marston",volume I, published in 1866. Since this edition is not featured in GR,I have included my review in the present French edition. __________________________________________
Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc was a 19th century French politician and historian.
L. Blanc 60 letters cover many topics and areas. They’re excellent; they’re full of mordacity, attesting a well-informed man, himself a kind of journalist while in the years of exile in Britain.
It happened that while in France his socialist reforms were hard to implement after the revolution of 1848; for reasons of security he escaped to Britain, using a false passport, via Belgium.
The letters refer to the period he lived in London: 1847-1862. They were first published in 1866.
As I said, the scope is broad ranging from politics, to foreign policy, to religion (both on Protestantism and Catholicism) and education, and even more trivial issues like the tea, the horses’ races… and some obituary commentaries.
Of personal relevance to me were his political analyses of the British political system. Next I approach some.
(Albert, Victoria and their nine children, 1857)
She was named Victoria, in the time of LB. He wrote about her: she possesses “virtues” no doubt:”a good mother …and attached to the husband”. The English people:”love and respect her”. Yet he hints at some ongoing “mediocrity” in the system: hypothetically they wouldn't cope with an Elizabethan genius or one like Catherine of Russia. “In a word she honestly earns her right of reining by dint of not governing”.
As to the Prince-consort he was even more critical, apparently a “doer of nothing" type (far niente) but “meddling in things that not belong to his province”.
In another letter, LB shows his skepticism on monarchy:” The king of England is invested with the power of making peace and war” BUT “to what this power is reduced if the will of the king happens to be opposed to that of the House of Commons…the right of voting is a weapon of incalculable power”. Reticence is made as well to other powers of the king: choice of ministers…dissolution of parliament etc.
Almost laughable are his views on the mayor of London. Upon knowing his many “functions” (markets, municipal militia, port…) LB commented: “…but are these his actual function? no”.”This lord mayor was invented to realize the conception of Rabelais. His administration means indigestion”.
LB appeared to be well updated on several world causes: Italy’s unity, Syria religious question (druzes and Christians), the Ionian isles…Poland,…China,... and America.
The latter nation is approached in several letters. LB acknowledged “some reason” in the writer of ”Uncle Tobin’s cabin”: Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe . She was complaining with bitterness about the English “indifference (“towards the “federalists cause”): who “remains a cold spectator of the movements of the northern states”; better:” she leans towards the southern states”. Personally LB met 3 American men in London (one in the diplomatic profession) and got their views on the issue. Only one gave heart and soul to the southern men, he concluded.
LB was well aware of the interwoven nature, in his time, of this duo: Education-Religion. So he wrote:”… the object at stake is the salvation of the soul! And these worthy people do not seem to have the slightest idea that to be able to read this Bible and Prayer Book, a man must first have learned to read”.
“That the English these latter days have done much more for Ireland than at any former period of their history is true but it is not less true that the native country of O’Conell is one of the most miserable countries in the globe. And yet whatever the fault of the Irish who will deny the aptitude of such an intelligent race to become happy!”.
I didn’t read his views on Scotland, but a man with such a mordacity would be needed to comment coming next September referendum on Scotland’s independence*****.
Royal arms (outside Scotland)
Royal arms in Scotland ------------
Looking beyond all this criticism, one thing cannot escape my commentary: in exile, he had the chance to join other exiles and exercise his freedom of speech. And that he valued so much. In Britain he had the affection of Carlyle and the support of J. Stuart Mill, despite the political divergence.
A curious note: in London LB married a German woman who could not speak French, …nor could LB speak German.
LB returned to France in 1870, where he served as deputy on the extreme left. 22nd july,2014. _______________
*****UPDATE; now that Scotland has voted for a "no" on independence, what would L.Blanc say, I wonder. Maybe: History stand...still?; 307 years on...,no change?; fear of change? hmm
It is, no doubt, a topic that stirs anyone’s imagination: Atlantis, the lost, sunken continent.
-Was it real? Why and when was it sunken? Who were thIt is, no doubt, a topic that stirs anyone’s imagination: Atlantis, the lost, sunken continent.
-Was it real? Why and when was it sunken? Who were the Atlanteans? Their races? Their descendants? Their kings and lineages? what was the geology and flaura and fauna of the place? What connection to Egypt and Greece (Athens foundation)…and Britain…,and Central America?
The topic is old, so the book of Lewis; a well, deeply-researched one.
Putting aside the (psychic) methodology of Edgar Cayce, what we have is a very tough point of departure: no documentary evidence, no “soil” , no “artifacts”…no “facts”, acknowledges Lewis from the very beginning. His major source are legends in several nations, but mainly the accounts of Plato (Timaeus and Critias); also the “Historical Library” by historian Diodorus Siculus.
Solon told Critias… and Critias told Socrates…
"Listen then …A TALE STRANGE THOUGH IT BE IT IS PERFECTLY TRUE".
“…had an island… (greater than Lybia [north Africa] and Asia [minor]together)…before the Mouth of the Strait which is called …the Pillars of Hercules…but later…great earthquakes and floods there fell one day and night of destruction….sunk and vanish away”.
These are the main explanatory points from Plato’s sources; taken from Egyptian sources.It is deemed that Plato went himself to Egypt.
The major assertions of Lewis are:
(1) Attest the credibility of Plato’s narrative; neither “allegorical” nor “mythical”.
(2) Introduce this idea of an Atlantean ”invasion” of Europe; still surviving in the folklore and traditions of the United Kingdom isles. Especially in Britain, Lewis ventures on a relation between Atlas and the British Gods: Albion and Iberius :”Atlas can readily enough be associated with the gods of Britain”.
The Lyoness (of the Arthurian legend) is identified with Atlantis and most important: Avalon…with Atlantis: “Atlantis, it is needless to say, has been again and again identified with the Island of the Hesperides which contained the sacred apples”.
(Hesperides & the golden-apple tree, Athenian red-figure hydria C5th B.C., British Museum)
In the legends too:"Such traditions of the submersion of cities in the lakes of the country, or of populous districts, by the intrusion of the sea, are current all over Wales."
(3) Relate Atlantis to an outpost in America: the Maya civilization.
I took special note on the Greek connection: the “submergence of a portion of the Greek peninsula” , and the 7 daughters of Atlas, the Atlantides ,hypothetically related to the Greeks lineage.
Also, the account of Siculus about the warlike women (Amazons) of Hisperia. War was a current issue in Atlantis (see warfare against the Gorgons).
A very well accomplished book; well-answered those top questions. A starting point for the curious mind. ...more
(Italian of Bologna) Lodovico V. made me recall Fernão Mendes Pinto for the vastness of his travelling; also,because little is known about them both
(Italian of Bologna) Lodovico V. made me recall Fernão Mendes Pinto for the vastness of his travelling; also,because little is known about them both. Lodovico was granted Portuguese knighthood (of the Order of Christ ), and had the privilege to kiss Portugal king's hand, at the end of his voyages.
Times were so:ferocious, rage-full… . 16th Century Portugal's Empire was expanding and consolidating positions of power& trade in Africa, Asia and the Far East. Christianity had its agenda too.
Meanwhile, in Bologna a man dreams about seeing the world through his “own eyes”; he wants to describe different populations and religions, their costumes…and see fauna and flora of different climates and latitudes; he’s a Christian named Lodovico V.
He had “an insatiable desire to becoming acquainted with foreign countries”. He was not inclined to study…much less to books. Some called him VARTOMANUS and qualified him as a “gentil homme Bolonais et patrice Romain”. For the merit of his travels and military services he was conferred the honor of knight, by Portuguese Viceroy Dom Francisco de Almeida, after the battle of Ponani.
His book was first published in 1510 (although not specified whether in Toscana language, Bolognese or even Venetian); scholars say his narrative was “truthful”, his style “simplistic”…. a “quaint and dry style”. There was a 1511 Latin edition; other European languages editions followed.
He dedicates his travels-book to a lady: the countess of Albi and duchess of Tagliacoso, to whom he wishes “good health”. No, it’s not his intention to reach Heaven: “heaven to the shoulders of Atlas and Hercules”; to him will suffice “some portion” of the earth globe. What a chunk it turned out to be!!- travels which involved Africa, Asia and beyond. Those travels were hard times, he had to endure “hunger and thirst,…war and imprisonment”.
This is the (abbreviated) itinerary (names as the original) he followed from years 1503-1508: he left Europe by the end of 1502; proceeded to Alexandria and Cairo (Egypt), then sailed to Syria: passing by Beyrut, and Allepo and Damascus. By this time he had learned some colloquial Arabic, and changed his name to Yunas. Some criticized the fact as not morally correct. In the Middle East V visited some biblical spots; namely Sodom and Gomorrah: barren and deserted places which made him write: “verily the Scriptures do not lie”.
Next: El_Medinah, to visit the tomb of the prophet Muhammad (and his companions) ; here some superstitions are approached (like the one saying that the tomb is hanging in the air). Some old men asking V whether he’s seen the “lights” coming out of the sepulcher. Since V didn’t see them, the old men concluded that his faith was not “well confined”. V will always be recalled as the “first European on record “ to visit Islam’s holy places”. Ah, the old men had called V and his companions: dogs…sons of dogs.
The voyage went further to Mecca where he witnessed the wars being waged against the Portuguese: “large mortars to be used against the infidel Portuguese”. Ludovico describes two fabulous live animals (now extinguished for sure): the unicorns; they present a stag-face, and a unicorn …V concludes that this “monster” must be a “fierce animal”.
Now, down the Red Sea, V dedicates a chapter explaining why the sea is not navigable: because so many rocks and isles, sailing should be made only by day light. He’s seen the blacks Moors, …”those were of Prester John”. He was cast into prison.
V dedicates some chapters to a time he got imprisoned, but got the favors of a queen of dark skin (she thought man was created white); though in chains, she provided him food over the nights…and she lamented not having the white skin of V; V got suspicious (maybe she wanted to make him a slave).It was a time when he faked being mad, as a way out. Indeed the Sultan’s women shouted loud: “madman!”…and dozens of children threw stones at him. For some times he had to affirm he’s a Mameluk, a renegade Christian.
Aden…he took (again) refuge in a mosque under the pretense of “sickness”. Travel to India….via Persian Gulf. Zaila…island of Diu …Julfâr (occupied by the Portuguese as a pearls-fishery post)…Hormuz (would be captured by the Portuguese under Albuquerque in 1508; in 1662 the Portuguese were expelled by the Persians, helped by a British fleet).
Herat….Shirâz…India: Cambay. The Portuguese had already arrived 3 years before (to Goa). V describes those Nestorians (with some rituals diverse from the church of Rome) , also called Christians of St Thomas.
India marvels V for its wars,…kings and palaces, currencies …flora and fauna. He dedicates several chapters to the description of serpents and other animals…and plants, spices, fruits…and the “most fruitful tree in the world”: “tenga”. Portuguese captain Lorenzo de Brito claims:>“we fought with these dogs”. You may guess. Portuguese Captain Tristão da Cunha becomes V’s sponsor.
Sumatra; …Java…Mallaca (a subject of the Kingdom of Siam). Pulicat….Badan, whose inhabitants are called “pagans”.
Time to return home. V is travelling with the Portuguese: …now, towards Ethiopia… and Mozambique. Cape Good Hope…Azores…(the fruitful isle) …Lisbon: one of the “noble” cities he had seen.
Since the king was not in Lisbon he crossed the river to the other side: Almada; there, the king authenticated by signature his “diploma” as a Portuguese knight.
A very good psychological/anthropological study of the ways native American Indians saw their different, unique culture being clashe (Jack D. Forbes)
A very good psychological/anthropological study of the ways native American Indians saw their different, unique culture being clashed with (and in part destroyed by) a sadistic,materialistic and imperialist European one; white-christian culture. It's Nature-reverence values versus the white-civilization.
The major thesis of Forbes is that Columbus was a wétiko*;he was mentally ill or insane; he was the carrier of a terribly contagious psychological disease: the 'wétiko' psychosis.
Though I disagree with this view (Columbus had a tough time finding his way to the New World and had to deal with disease and mutiny in his trips; he had previously searched for sponsors...finally found in the Spain's monarchs'...and he had to deliver:to show results; even when old, he'd got incarcerated and his titles and riches withdrawn...), I think it's worth the reading.
Those coming next to Columbus surely lacked an ecological approach or an "environmental sensitivity". On the contrary: voraciousness and lack of respect for Nature was the hallmark of the Civilization that meanwhile grew immensely in America.
Forbes wonders at why celebrating Columbus Day? -no reason for, because Columbus enslaved native Indians (it is said that he participated in shipping thousands to Europe and Africa)...for profit reasons.
A well-documented book quoting the rituals and mores of several tribes. All in all,it was a good Native Philosophy: "walking the pollen path"...or "the red road": to live life in a sacred manner. But things turned out to be differently.
Columbus never reached the United States in "When America was a Brown Woman"
*from wiki,a Cree word literally meaning cannibal....more
The discovery of Australia by the Portuguese in 1601.
Quote:"it is my aim in this writing to announce...that the British Museum has provided me with aThe discovery of Australia by the Portuguese in 1601.
Quote:"it is my aim in this writing to announce...that the British Museum has provided me with a document that, with no hesitation, transfers that honour [of Australia* discovery] from Holland to Portugal, in such a way that gives to the latter an advantage of five years...".
(Jave La Grande, by Nicholas Vallard (1547), believed to be northeast coast of Australia)
(The Harleian Mappemonde, British Library, Add. MS 5413. Copy held by the National Library of Australia)
(World map of Nicolas Desliens (1566) part of the Dieppe Maps, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris)
(US soldiers arrive in Lithuania to ‘reassure’ NATO allies amid Ukrainian crisis.American soldiers stand on the tarmac after arriving at the air forc (US soldiers arrive in Lithuania to ‘reassure’ NATO allies amid Ukrainian crisis.American soldiers stand on the tarmac after arriving at the air force base near Siauliai Zuokniai, Lithuania, on April 26, 2014. (AFP Photo/Petras Malukas)
(U.S. Navy frigate USS Taylor sets sail in the Bosphorus, on its way to the Black Sea in Istanbul April 22, 2014 (Reuters / Murad Sezer)
(Soldiers from the first company-sized contingent of about 150 U.S. paratroopers from the U.S. Army's 173rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team based in Italy walk after unpacking as they arrive to participate in training exercises with the Polish army in Swidwin, northern west Poland April 23, 2014 (Reuters / Kacper Pempel)
Now that there's been so much commotion,"information war"(USA versus Russia),troops being deployed,deals broken,"spies" arrested,annexations fulfilled or in the process,water supply cuts,threats on gas supply ...near Ukraine,...in its neighboring nations, or seas-around...I CAN HEAR rumbles of war...,... now, I was saying, this is a good pick, a WWII book.
30th April 2014
(Ukraine's President Petro Poroshenko (L) and NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen talk during the NATO-Ukraine meeting at the NATO Summit at the Celtic Manor Resort in Newport, Wales, September 4, 2014 (Reuters / Facundo Arrizabalaga)
"NATO to give Ukraine 15mn euros, lethal and non-lethal military supplies from members"
September 04, 2014;from RT.
“Actually I think we are entering an era which could be compared to the Cold War — a new Cold War,” Rasmussen said. “Russia of today is more dangerous than the Soviet Union,” because it is less predictable and more nimble.
in The Financialist. March 23rd 2015
--- Now about The Divine Wind: Japan's Kamikaze Force in World War II.
This is a historical piece of art; fully documented with photos and letters and charts, it's a worth-read for those interested in WWII and, specifically, the role of the Japanese suicide pilots.
Why art? -the Japanese poems inserted are beautiful....enough to counter such a grim period and theme. Just one ahead:
Today fully blooming/ tomorrow scattered on the ground/ life is like a delicate flower. How can you expect her fragrance to last forever? ...more