1920. Psychology was at its infancy; Freud had already talked about treatment of “repressed memories” by the use of hypnosis.
This is a good introdu
1920. Psychology was at its infancy; Freud had already talked about treatment of “repressed memories” by the use of hypnosis.
This is a good introduction to the theme, starting with this crucial concept that’s “suggestion”; without it, hypnotism cannot occur; it implies “the development of an idea in the world of the experimented person”. It implies also the “inhibition of the inhibitory centers” of the person [you may call it “resistance”] .
The author then tries to prove the existence of the sub-consciousness; something not that hard. Technical issues such as the methods (there are several) of inducing hypnosis and awakening the subject are approached.
Of a relevant nature are the other phenomena that are correlated with the hypnosis sessions: hallucinations and anesthesia, to name a few; and, surely, self-hypnosis.
The number of situations in which hypnosis can be applied is high; so: repressed memories, hysteria, obsessions, insomnia, enuresis, alcoholism, etc are just a few of the ones mentioned.
This excellent old book concludes with an ethical issue: the irresponsible use of hypnosis.
2016. I just read a few lines on hypnosis for children; one line said: “Children are wonderfully receptive to hypnosis”.
Plus “Abductions”,… allow me not to forget. ...more
(Henry H. Goddard, American psychologist and eugenicist; "introducer" of "moron" word) "In 1912, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard concluded that the
(Henry H. Goddard, American psychologist and eugenicist; "introducer" of "moron" word) "In 1912, the psychologist Henry H. Goddard concluded that the vast majority of Hungarians, Italians, Jews, and Russians arriving at Ellis Island were “feebleminded.”
"According to a 1947 color test, a fondness for purple is a sign of “emotional immaturity,” which causes the subject to “get stuck in dreams of wishful thinking and fantasy.”
After listening to him for some minutes, I find his thoughts enough appealing: (1) we have an "insane/stupid" diagnostics system; (2) it seems drugs
After listening to him for some minutes, I find his thoughts enough appealing: (1) we have an "insane/stupid" diagnostics system; (2) it seems drugs won't do the real healing work (on people with traumas); (3) a therapist/healer should be a "real diagnostician" not a labeller [my expression]; (4) love and hate are part of the human species drives, though he had stopped being "optimistic" about the species, in 2003, after the Iraq intervention due to the 9/11 events.(5) Love is a key component in the healing process.
Some of his family stories are amazing and illustrating (his father under the Nazi regime, being a fundamentalist Christian...)....more
Proud of his prolific writing [at least 25 books have been published] Nasio said once (in Spanish) in an interview, in justification for his talent anProud of his prolific writing [at least 25 books have been published] Nasio said once (in Spanish) in an interview, in justification for his talent and work: “I am obedient to my super ego” ["…obediente a mi superego”].
A disciple of J. Lacan, Juan David Nasio, is a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst established in Paris.
From the very beginning of the book, Nasio questions the word “clinical case” and seems to give it a new meaning. A case is “an account” made “by a clinician”. Nasio finds dialectical, heuristic and metaphoric functions in this account. He ventures on saying: “my observations of the patients can be read as novels”. He’s right, in a sense, because all clinical accounts are always “reconstructions”.
The book approaches several cases which eminent psychologists, psychiatrists or psychoanalysts have dealt with. Here’s the list of cases, with a short description (but the first case) of the problem and the professional involved.
1-President Schreber (of the Dresden Senate); a case of paranoia and narcissism ; by S. Freud (*).
Freud got to know about the case via books (namely: Memories of my nervous illness) . The German president (a judge and doctor in law) was hospitalized for hypochondria at the age of 42; had an attempt of suicide; had ideas such as: God had engendered a plot against the president: of turning him into a woman; little men had been torturing him, vermin getting into his lungs, intestines removed, his stature reduced. Bleuler said of this case: a paranoid schizophrenia. Schreber developed a kind of mysticism over time.
2-Dick: a case of autism; by Melanie Klein.
3-Little Piggle, a case of an “unstructured child”; at stake the “mother concept” too; by D. Winnicott. (**)
4-Joey; a case of autism; by B. Bettelheim (***).
5-“Mirror’s girl”; a case of schizophrenia; by F. Dolto (****).
6-Dominique; a case of a psychotic teen; by F. Dolto.
7-The Papin sisters; a case of “acting out” and paranoia; by J. Lacan.
For those inquiring on “psychosis”, Nasio offers early on the Freudian view: psychotic manifestations occur (delirium or hallucinations…) due to a “struggle of the ego to defend itself from unbearable pain”; it’s a “self-preservation fight”.
Lacan said about the phenomena: a psychotic patient is a “martyr of the unconscious”.
A good work.
Of course, one of the possible approaches to psychosis. There are other ones.
Steve: It worked, just not the way I wanted it to. So, what did I miss in the book? What did I do wrong?
Lynne: Besides just reading the introduction
Steve: It worked, just not the way I wanted it to. So, what did I miss in the book? What did I do wrong?
Lynne: Besides just reading the introduction? the book is not about sending intentions to make a million dollars. the book is about using the science of intention philanthropically: healing wounds, helping children with attention deficit or patients with Alzheimer’s, counteracting pollution, global warming, that type of thing. ... Lynne: You can get stronger, bigger muscles just by thinking. Some of the research findings include that athletes who do not physically exercise but only imagine their workouts can increase their muscle strength between 13 and 16 percent.
“Commencé a buscar pruebas de como multiples mentes concentrandose en el mismo blanco podían magnificar el efecto producido por un solo individuo”.
She blames, somehow, Newton and Darwin for some of the messed up situations of our time. The former, for his “very well behaved “ (separate) things in the universe view; a materialistic view. The latter, for the idea “of struggle for survival” .
Hitler liked Darwin, and that view (survival of the fittest) justified also Capitalism and Colonialism, affirms Lynne Mc Taggart.
She’s got a new view of things as “parts of a greater whole”. She emphasizes the importance of “connecting” and a new kind of logic: “I win only if you and I win”.
It's all a question of “reprogramming the hardware”; so far, it has been competing, unlike nature’s processes.
She had recourse to people who mastered the “power of intention” like spiritual healers, Buddhist monks and Qigong masters; she also studied how intention is used in real life by sports people and in biofeedback healing.
Her results look amazing so far; like : “purification of water”, “plants growing faster”, “plants properties changing”,…even “lowering the level of violence in war-torn areas”.
-Using groups around the world who “focus on the same target” and use “the same thought ---healing, for example---at the same time”.
"Joseph Campbell, who was for many years my dear friend as well as an important teacher, taught me much about the relevance of mythology for psycholog"Joseph Campbell, who was for many years my dear friend as well as an important teacher, taught me much about the relevance of mythology for psychology,religion, and human life in general. ... Gregory Bateson, a "generalist" whose inquisitive mind explored many disciplines in search of knowledge was the most original thinker I have known. ... I am particularly grateful for my long friendship and cooperation with Fritjof Capra..."
(Hofmann and Grof)
Quoting Victor Hugo, Grof may believe that “the great spectacle” is far wider at the soul level, than at the seas´ or the skies´.
The expression “new Psychology” attracted me to this book. It seems that there are psychological facts/experiences and "pathologies" …”not accounted by “current Psychology and Psychiatry”.
Even the whole “cartography” of the Psyche needs re-definition. And if you re-define the cartography, you’ve got to re-define also the (Psycho) therapies. The “whole architecture” of psychosomatic disorders needs re-definition, according to the author.
His experience (and theoretical construction) is drawn from contacts with Shamans, and people who were dying; also contacts with “Tanatologists”, who know about “near-death experiences”.
He studied alien-abduction cases. Participated in “native ceremonies” . Had “lots of contacts” with Zen monks, yogis, as well as Tibetan and Benedictine monks.
Somehow revolutionary are his admissions of “transpersonal identities”: one can identify with: a group of people (“all children of the world”; all mothers of the world”…) or with plant life or animal life (whatever from a unicellular and virus…to primates), …down to the “inorganic material”. Grof himself, recalls having had the experience as a “sequoia tree” and a “carnivorous plant”.
Moreover, transpersonal experience can reach “deities”, “demonic presences”, “mythological” entities.
Grof has 50 years of research on the effects of LSD. But all started in his youth years , with him as patient in an experiment which included the exposure to “stroboscopic light”,…in Prague. He witnessed “millions of suns, light as never seen”; it was an “out of the body experience”. Now, he could understand such scientific terms as “black holes” and “white holes” , the ”big-bang" and “pulsars”. Such was the intensity of the experience. It included 250 mg of LSD. The above mentioned psychiatric research was made in Maryland,USA.
The word “holotropic” was coined by himself; it simply means : “states which move us in the direction of wholeness”.
Back to the “experiences” , Grof has got this “umbrella expression “( my expression) which includes these: "NON-ORDINARY" (“altered") states of consciousness. On a personal note I would like to doubt that some of the related experiences may lead to “wholeness”.
Nevertheless, his approach has some validity because it incorporates experiences that go far beyond the birth (trauma, namely) , and perinatal period, extending to the phylogenetic level as well as the mythological (Jung had already approached), and many other “spiritual experiences”.
Lately, he has devised techniques (based on breathing, but no LSD involved) directed at promoting “halotropic” experiences.
This new psychology recognizes the role of astrological configurations.
Clearly, his new psychology implies a new world vision (and training agenda) : interventions like those humanity got used to (military, diplomatic, and economic) don’t work.
He’s for a “large-scale” INNER TRANSFORMATION. It’s a matter of survival humanity faces: with deforestation, nuclear weapons, pollution, population explosion etc.
“Happiness is an inner job”.
"I've seen powerful healing after past-lives experiences".
Near his life's end he recorded [on audio] these words:"I started my professional activity trying to bring relief to my neurotic patients. I discovereNear his life's end he recorded [on audio] these words:"I started my professional activity trying to bring relief to my neurotic patients. I discovered some important new facts about the unconscious. People did not believe in my facts and thought my theories unsavory. In the end I succeeded, but the struggle is not yet over".
It had its 1st edition in 1920 and the book was aimed at laypeople.
In its preface, Stanley Hall noticed that Psychoanalysis was not much of a topic for the APA (American Psychological Association), though in other fields (biography, education, literature, history...) it had gained widespread interest.
I would divide the topics approached, in these 28 lectures, in three main areas: (1) the psychology of Errors; (2) the Dream ; (3) the Neurosis.
"A slip of the tongue which occurs in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice, Act III, Scene II, is exceedingly delicate in its poetic motivation and technically brilliant in its handling". (...)
Goethe said, "Where he jokes, there lurks a problem concealed."
On the first topic, Freud (pretending the audience is like the ignorant, neurotic patient) approaches with very simple terms some phenomena common to any terrestrial human being: slips of tongue, forgetting (of names , included), loosing and mislaying objects. All these, have a hidden meaning.
Of special relevance are words themselves and these paradigmatic lines of Freud: "...words were originally magic...with words one can make others blessed" (or otherwise).
In the unveiling of meaning, Freud warns about projection, and cautions the un-familiarized mind: "first study oneself". Three lectures are dedicated to those above mentioned "errors".
Much is to be dedicated to the Dream topic, 12 lectures to be precise. It's a broad, exemplified part,that takes the reader into this ever-puzzling area: dreams, which are often "blurred, senseless, absurd" ....but some have meaning.
Psychoanalysis is a good framework for interpretation. Like symptoms in the (neurotic) disease, (so) dreams have meaning; there's the "manifest content" and "the LATENT dream thought". You'll always be after the latter.
Finally, some lectures have been addressed to psychopathology, namely, the General Theory of Neurosis. "Libido-driven" explanations of neurosis and technical issues make part of the remaining lectures.
I watched her interview, in the Deutshe Welle program “Talking Germany”. I’ve found her recent experience (as a professional of"I WAS THIS PERSON" ....
I watched her interview, in the Deutshe Welle program “Talking Germany”. I’ve found her recent experience (as a professional of palliative care) confronting death relevant to any psychologist; or lay person, for, someday, we all shall die. Ahead are some points I took from the interview.
(Christiane is a collector of collages by Kurt Schwitter)
(1) Christiane had a prior professional experience as a manager in media companies; she worked for MTV, and her appraisal was that “she played a role”. The commercial side was something “trivial”.
(2) Marking, as life experiences, she highlighted two; (a) when she was young her 3-year-old brother died of an accident; yet, her mother managed to transform PAIN into another “perspective”. (b) Christiane herself had an “avalanche” accident, and went through a NDE (near-death-experience).
(3) So, she enrolled in a 1,5 year course (of palliative care); and now her life implies visiting hospices and talking to people that are close to death.
(4) The author spoke of several great lessons, I would say; like 70% of people would like to have in their hands the option/right to die. It is important for the general public, to be aware on “how to say goodbye, properly”. Christiane had to write down her obituary (as part of the course), and that wasn’t easy. Thinking about this makes one to identify “what’s really important” in life; it’s eye-opening.
(5) On listening skills (which are not easy: because you shouldn’t “judge”), she spoke of the “silence” as well. Listening helps people “overcome their fears”.
(6) What people regret? –“not being themselves”; "being led by parents” and not having their “own lives”; “not being honest”. Not having the chance to say goodbye to loved ones.
(7) People get frightened as death approaches? . The author said: “not many”.
(8) Interestingly enough, in 2006, Christiane managed to get a way to the USA, via an Eisenhower fellowship. She had the chance to talk to Steve Jobs. What did they speak about? ---death.
(9) I liked the expression: there’s “no pill for loneliness”.
Some years ago I read some of Lozanov’s writings on Suggestopedy (use of the right-hemisphere [brain’s] potentialities and the
Some years ago I read some of Lozanov’s writings on Suggestopedy (use of the right-hemisphere [brain’s] potentialities and the unconscious in facilitating the learning of foreign languages). Now I’ve seen a tape Chris Lonsdale recorded in China, for students attending. It’s surely another important contribution to the field of Psychology of Learning.
His own experience seems enough-validating; his mode of thinking about some pertinent questions (how to learn any language in 6 months? How to speed up learning? How to quickly learn a new language? How adults do it?) may, ultimately, legitimize the assertion: school is not needed.
As for his biography he said that at the age of 11 he wrote a letter to the (then) USSR experts to know more about Hypnopedia; but he concluded it didn’t work. Then he became passionate about Psychology, and by 1981 he had set himself to learn Chinese (MANDARIN) in 2 years. It turned out he became fluent in 6 months; he recalls the train-talk with Chinese people while he knew almost nothing, the willingness to interpret gestures…and the person who introduced him to the language while he had a long train travel.
Chris developed a set of principles, but the basic ones start with these lines: you should contact with those who already “did it” (learned the language), be exposed to situations, and thereafter identify principles and APPLY THEM.
His set of recommendations is summarized in 7 actions and 5 principles. But you must dispel two myths; one, that you must be talented; and, two, immersion per se will do the trick;really,immersion, it’s not enough.
I won’t develop in minutia those recommendations; they’re just a set of right combining principles of 4 major categories like: attention, relevance, meaning and memory.
I would highlight (on “principles”) : use relevant tools, use language to communicate, seek some understanding (not the whole thing ongoing when immersed) and accept the fact that there’s “unconscious absorption” happening too.
Learning a language requires training/practice: exercise (sometimes “painfully”) your face muscles; “physiological training”.
Certain psychophysiological states favor learning, some don’t. Being happy, relaxed and in an alpha-brain state is good; conversely, sadness, depression and upset-states are not good.
As for “actions”, some ahead. (1) Listen a lot; (2) get the meaning, before words (3) start mixing/combining (verb / noun / adjective)…
MY musings:"evil" and "sin" and "resurrection" ...and many other expressions …. are expressions of the religious domain; just like “gene” and “mitochoMY musings:"evil" and "sin" and "resurrection" ...and many other expressions …. are expressions of the religious domain; just like “gene” and “mitochondria” and “psychosis” …are of the science domain….Science separated from Religion."
One who had read, or known about, “The road less traveled” would argue with Peck: so, discipline is not enough to solve all problems.
Evil itself is a human problem, according to Peck. [And that’s a bit new] Science should address this problem; the evil problem.
“Evil,the ultimate disease”.
In an interview I watched, Peck was confronted with these questions: isn’t “evil” a moral issue? Why taking “evil” as a diagnostic category just like the other medical aberrations/diseases? Why is evil a specific disease?
Peck replied with the distinction made by Jew theologian Martín Buber: there are those “sliding” (into evil) and those who “have slid”. The latter ones “no longer come back”.
He gave the example of a case he had: the man who had made a pact with the devil.
There are evil people.
More interestingly, Peck at a certain point of his life was investigating about this “evil” definition.He asked several members of his family and the definition provided by his (then) 8 year old son Chris, sort of pleased him the most. Chris told father that evil is “live” spelt backwards. Which made father think: [son was right and] “Evil is a force against life”; but he thought also: if we kill it, “we become contaminated”, we become “killers”.
He recalled the words of Jesus on Satan: you’re a killer, a murderer; while Jesus said of himself: I came that they have life and that more abundantly.
In that interview Peck gave numbers: only 2 to 3 % of population would fall on that category: the insane that “no longer come back”.
“Evil interferes with growth …we got to know what our enemy is”; the danger within us.
Peck has, nonetheless, hope in healing human evil. He’s optimistic because the human race has been “improving”. ...more
The road less traveled; for some, a milestone. I’ve read some lines about Peck and listened to an interview he gave. I’ll try to summarize his main poThe road less traveled; for some, a milestone. I’ve read some lines about Peck and listened to an interview he gave. I’ll try to summarize his main points, on his (new) psychology.
To Peck, life is composed of a series of problems, which per se involve some degree of pain; it’s painful to solve them. If we solve them, we progress/grow; if not, we get ill; neurotic for example. Teens may become rebellious, drop out of school.
That’s one basic premise for Peck: life is hard, and we should accept that, as a condition for normalcy. Either we face the “legitimate suffering” or we find substitutes, like fantasies, to escape from the pain.
Instead, problems should be welcome, according to Peck.
How do you solve those problems? How do you deal with pain?
Peck is a bit (too much?) peremptory: with discipline we solve those problems; and with TOTAL DISCIPLINE WE CAN SOLVE ALL PROBLEMS. Peck implies, in a more elaborate fashion, that the necessary conditions for change/growth are: (1) delay of gratification (2) responsibility (3) dedication to truth and (4) balancing.
Once he met a financial analyst who had difficulties on the 1st condition; a procrastination problem.She would start work, the first hour, addressing easy problems, gratifying ones, and the next 6 hours with “abject-type” problems. A switch of scheduling solved her procrastination.
Many teenagers have problems in school, because they were not taught how to schedule pain and pleasure; parents’ fault. ...more
Rankings aren’t flawless, definite, most of the time. I am speaking about one ranking: “the most influential psychologists”. In my view, it all dependRankings aren’t flawless, definite, most of the time. I am speaking about one ranking: “the most influential psychologists”. In my view, it all depends on history, on knowledge, and… updating.
In the case of W. James, he’s been placed in the 6th position; well below B.F Skinner (those conditioned pigeons spying on WWII,who doesn't recall?) …and Jean Piaget (mostly famous for his precocious studies on zoology and his own children's cognitive development...). In my mind he’s not that far from them.
At once, he’s a man of science, a philosopher and metaphysics-man, an artist. And these letters trace in a very intimate way the evolution of these roles. He’s well known for these concepts of “stream of consciousness”, Pragmatism, radical empiricism, and the description of our inner architecture: the “I” and the “me”.
“My system is Tychistic, pluralistic…a philosophy of pure experience”. James rejected monism; he was influenced by Renouvier.
He was born American (1842), but he became a truly transatlantic academician. The US owes a lot to his infancy and teen-years training. On the mettal, the endurance and flowering of the genius-scientist side: Europe gets her due share.
Of his childhood I retain this extraordinary talent: he was always drawing, witnessed his brother Henry. He had the artistic insight.
But “influential” contains also “being influenced”. At home, surely his father’s figure; a Swedenborg admirer. Abroad, while in Brazil (Thayer expedition) , that remarkable figure called Agassiz, the Swiss zoologist, who taught him: “go to nature, see for yourself”. The importance of facts; the scientific attitude. Much later, W. James would be the champion of Pragmatism, his own philosophy: “in the beginning was the deed”.
In his letters the first reference to the word Psychology dates to the year 1878; he was corresponding with Josiah Royce, in Cambridge. The case is that James had started with medicine studies, Physiology to be more precise; psychology came later.
He studied in Germany (“the language is infernal!”); and met sometimes his brother (writer Henry James) in the UK. By the year 1882, they had this kind of dialogue: “it’s a poor old Europe”…,England viewed as inferior. He had had“refreshment” in Italy and met with Charles Renouvier in Avignon. German language was mastered.
There was a time when his wife was with his two boys in Cambridge. He left to Europe; this was a famous tour. From London,… Nuremberg-Rhine, Vienna, Prague, Paris.
He visited several German universities; in Leipzig, met with W. Wundt (the first person to call himself a psychologist) but was not that much impressed. Nevertheless, he was in awe with the German civilization; he called it “great”; he admired the German motto: “dienst”, “dienst” first. It was by this time that his father died in the US; his letter reads like this” all my great intellectual life I derive from you…good night sacred old father”. He pursued his trip: Belgium; then UK to meet Francis Galton; and finally home.
He lectured for many years at Harvard.
In 1889 he attended Paris “Psychological congress”. By 1890 he had published 2 volumes of the “Principles of Psychology”.
WJ had the courage to participate in psychic séances and investigate the paranormal phenomenon, with a very scientific attitude; he made the US Census of hallucinations which recorded experiences of “voice” or “touch” or “sight” without material presence; the analysis led him to conclude, out of 7,000 cases, that chance were surpassed in over 400 times.
From his letters to his bank manager, you may derive the idea that he was poor (financially) and a bad assets manager.
“I think that yesterday was a crisis in my life”.
W. James liked to quote Faust:“Grau, teurer Freund, ist alle Theorie,/Und grün des Lebens goldner Baum“.* ...
While in Europe, in Switzerland, he felt so ill that he rushed to UK to see specialists. He was now a renown man, and had been invited for a conference by the Association of Saint Croix. He declined (“I am quite ill”…”my health gets worse”) and T. Flournoy took his place. Flournoy said about James: “he was an artist”.
He died at 68. He didn’t reject the reality of evil, believed in man’s liberty …and the collaboration of God.
*Grey, dear friend, is all theory, And green the golden tree of life....more
Trauma has been a topic of Psychology for centuries. Understanding and bringing some sort of comfort/meaning to those who underwent trauma experienceTrauma has been a topic of Psychology for centuries. Understanding and bringing some sort of comfort/meaning to those who underwent trauma experiences may have different approaches. Traditional Psychoanalysis conceptualized trauma as an instance when the ego had not the power (defense mechanisms) to cope/resist ….and a sort of invasion of the psyche apparatus would ensue.
My knowledge of Narrative Psychology is very small. Yet, when watching this tape (Workshop,April, 2007; New York; by Michael White) it surely turned me curious, made me search for more, trying to understand this peculiar way of Trauma-approach.
MW has a worldwide record of interventions in trauma situations; in Israel-Palestine; in Caledonia (land issues) and African children.
From his extensive experience he’s been deriving several assumptions I will refer next:
(1) People have meaning-making skills.
(2) They’re always telling stories; main ones and subordinate ones. “Life is not a simple story”.
(3) Some of these stories are “identity”-related: “I am a failure”; “I am incompetent”; as sort of conclusions they (people) make about themselves. He compares these life narratives to a “landscape of action”, the therapist perceives. The task of the therapist is to “provide context” and take a “de-centered position”. Some people feel in some point of their lives “emptiness”, especially border-line personalities.
(4) Life is full of rich experiences but people are selective; only a very small piece of these experiences gets meaning, is significant. Mostly, we’re only conscious of some part of this richness.
(5) From an academic point of view MW was very much influenced by William James (American psychologist) views of “the stream of consciousness” and “self” description. From a developmental viewpoint he had the contribution of Russian psychologist L.Vygostsky, who explained the “origins of self”.
(6) How to change? How to bring meaning to life? How to overcome crisis…? Apparently, it’s a question of “narrative authorship”.