I read this because I'd vaguely heard it was one of the first Chinese fiction novels, but what I received was a searing mockery of life in China in th
I read this because I'd vaguely heard it was one of the first Chinese fiction novels, but what I received was a searing mockery of life in China in the more chaotic years of the Republic.
Our protagonist crash lands on Mars, where he finds a land of cat people. The cat people are addicted to 迷叶 (bewildering leaves?), which dull the mind and sap one's willpower, the intellectuals are of no real use and blindly worship the ancient classics, the leadership is tyrannical and greedy, the children are all filthy, the neighbors are about to invade and nobody knows what to do, the best are full of doubt and the worst are full of passionate intensity, etc., etc. There's even a parody of the idealistic ideologies of the period, which refer to either to industrial Marxism or Sun Yat Sen's Georgist land reform.
And as if to rub salt on the wound, he goes back to a more peaceful, prosperous, and free China, somewhere in the distant future. Well, two out of three isn't so bad....more
A grand historical introduction, encompassing not just fascism, but all manner of authoritarian right-wing movements in not only Europe but abroad acrA grand historical introduction, encompassing not just fascism, but all manner of authoritarian right-wing movements in not only Europe but abroad across a thirty-year span.
Payne recognizes that it is fruitless to search for a single 'cause' of fascism, nor can there be an exact model or set of entirely common characteristics. This is 'retrodictive' and comparative approach is, I think, much more realistic.
There are multiple contingent factors which catalyzed the development of fascism - the debates in art and culture over the rapid pace of industrialization and which continued through the first world war; in newly established countries with a fragmented party system; a danger, real or perceived, from the radical left; and willing conservative allies or supporters. Economic crises also were a major contribution - either from the great depression, industrialization, or both. Finally there had to be the question of national grievances, or a country feeling that its pride had been somehow sullied.
As a result, there are several distinct types. The Italian model, with multiple internal factions, the radical German type of national socialism, the traditional/Catholic Spanish model, and the mysticism seen in Iron Guard of Romania - whose modern relatives who look to such 'gurus' as Julius Evola. There are also studies of fascism on the fringe, where it took the form of minor political parties that never gained much power on their own, or only gained power because they were imposed by another conquering country.
Payne discerns that fascism was not an immediate 'regression' in the sense of reverting to a medieval world or one pre-Enlightenment. He also notes the hodgepodge nature of its economics, often promising a new unified state or a new form of politics, yet woefully unimaginative at best and atrocious at worst. In its many forms, it is a deformed and ultimately misguided approach to addressing the modern world.
In the 1990s, it may have been possible to wonder if fascism could make a return. Now?...more
This collection of essays is uncommonly wide in its interests, ranging from Russell Brand's Revolution to art museums, and from E. H. Carr to the econThis collection of essays is uncommonly wide in its interests, ranging from Russell Brand's Revolution to art museums, and from E. H. Carr to the economic historian Istvan Hont, all with the stimulating approach of what Geuss calls 'radical realism' in political philosophy. He is a vicious iconoclast. He calls grand normative theorists such as John Rawls or Robert Nozick 'charlatans', their philosophy a 'fairytale'.
The key points of Geuss' arguments are: -1) Social phenomenon cannot be entirely extrapolated from aggregating individual values/interests - which brings him into conflict with much of contemporary economics. -2) Using moral philosophy to negotiate between individuals with different beliefs or interests is wholly off-base. -3) Basing conduct off of morality as a frame of discussion between individuals ultimately ignores broader structural conflict. Philosophy has become a 'consolation' where it can and should be a guide to action.
Did the thing merit it. Merit the killing. On the surface it was a technicality (mere Union) but seen deeper, it was something more. How should men liDid the thing merit it. Merit the killing. On the surface it was a technicality (mere Union) but seen deeper, it was something more. How should men live? How could men live? Now he recalled the boy he had been (hiding from Father to read Bunyan; raising rabbits to gain a few coins; standing in town as the gaunt daily parade drawled out the hard talk hunger made; having to reel back when one of those more fortunate passed merrily by in a carriage), feeling strange and odd (smart too, superior), long-legged always knocking things over, called named (Ape Lincoln, Spider, Ape-a-ham, Monstrous-Tall), but also thinking, quietly, there inside himself, that he might someday get something for himself. And then, going out to get it, he had found the way clear—his wit was quick, people liked him for his bumbling and his ferocity of purpose, and the peachfields and haystacks and young girls and ancient wild meadows drove him nearly mad with their beauty, and strange animals moved in lazy mobs along muddy rivers, rivers crossable only with the aid of some old rowing hermit who spoke a language barely English , and all of it, all of that bounty, was for everyone, for everyone to use, seemingly put here to teach a man to be free, to teach that a man could be free, than any man, any free white man, could come from as low a place as he had…might rise, here, as high as he was inclined to go…. Across the sea fat kings watched and were gleeful, that something begun so well had now gone off the rails (as down South similar kings watched), and if it went off the rails, so went the whole kit, forever, and if someone ever thought to start it up again, well, it would be said (and said truly): The rabble cannot manage itself.
Investigation of the trilateral relationship between China, Korea, and Japan across several periods ---first, formation of the Ming Dynasty in 1368 anInvestigation of the trilateral relationship between China, Korea, and Japan across several periods ---first, formation of the Ming Dynasty in 1368 and the subsequent Korean campaigns against Liaodong in 1370, 1388, and 1398, the failed Japanese invasions of Korea from 1592-1598 (known as the Imjin War), and Korean and Japanese reckoning with the fall of the Ming to the Manchu invasion in 1644.
Lee recognizes that the neat definitions of IR terminology are not quite enough to explain the complicated relationships between these parties, and that 'domestic politics', taken broadly, is an important factor in explaining Korea's and Japan's relationship with the Ming Dynasty, not just power politics. For example, Joseon Korea continued to pledge its association with the Ming Dynasty even after the fall of the latter by invasion, even after the military situation seemed hopeless, because it was a useful means of gaining domestic political legitimacy. ...more