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May 01, 2001
Jun 01, 2003
Be Our Guest : Perfecting the art of customer service
We all share the same goal – satisfied customers
Disney in In Search of Excellence
Long term succes Be Our Guest : Perfecting the art of customer service
We all share the same goal – satisfied customers
Disney in In Search of Excellence
Long term success depends on our ability to motivate people, one day at a time and one innovation at a time
- Quality service
- Supply chain excellence
Training programs connect companies to their
- Own heritage
Trends come and go – companies need to mobilize the
- Creative energies
Of their workforce
Best practices and philosophies in action
Quality service principles
Disney’s fundamentals of success
- You build the best product you can
- You give people effective training to support the delivery of exceptional service
- You learn from your experiences
- You celebrate your successes
- You never stop growing
- You never stop believing
Walt Disney World – 30,000 acres or 47 square miles
A work in progress
Largest single site employer in the U.S.
55,000+ cast members (employees)
Serve millions of guests each year (customers)
Page 19 "Think for a moment about a magic show. To the audience, the show elicits feelings of wonder and surprise. Most of those watching have no idea how the magician is creating the effects they are witnessing on the stage. Not knowing how an illusion is created and simply enjoying the show are a big part of the fun. The magician's perspective is completely different. To the magician, a magic show is a highly practical task, a series of repeatable steps designed to create a fixed result and delight the audience.
The same thing happens at Walt Disney World and in all other companies that create magical customer experiences. The happy surprise that a well-served customer feels is a result of hard work on the part of the company and its employees. For the customer, the magic is a source of wonder and enjoyment. For the company and its employees, magic is a much more practical matter." Page 19
Partnerships – relate to 16 separate branches at MCLS ? … The challenge is to maintain Disney standards in restaurants and hotels the company does not own and to make passing between these separate businesses a seamless experience for guests.
Customer Service Conundrum – Customer retention requires customer satisfaction, but customer satisfaction is a moving target. Consumers as a whole are more demanding than ever, and rightly so. Further, delighting the repeat guests on whom Walt Disney depends means raising the service bar with every visit.
We all must satisfy our guests or customers or patrons or risk losing them.
The Experience Economy
We’ve seen the demise of the industrial economy
We are past the peak of the service economy
Entering a new age of competition authors call the experience economy
- Goods and services are merely props to engage the customer in this new era
- Customers want memorable experiences and companies must become stagers of experiences
“… while the work of the experience stager perishes upon its performance (precisely the right word), the value of the experience lingers in the memory of any individual who was engaged by the event.” Page 23
Make a clear distinction between being on and off stage.
Employees are on stage every time they are in public areas of the park or in front of guests.
Employees are backstage when they are working behind the scenes and out of guests sight and hearing.
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
May 31, 2006
May 31, 2006
Black Belt Librarians by Warren Graham
Essential Elements ... Page 7
1. You must have established rules and regulations
2. You never say these 5 things a Black Belt Librarians by Warren Graham
Essential Elements ... Page 7
1. You must have established rules and regulations
2. You never say these 5 things again,
he never has been a problem before
we have never had a problem before
we have always done it this way
other libraries do it that way
3. When advising patrons of rules you must always go by their behavior not their appearance
4. You have to be consistent in enforcement
5. You must control your environment through constant awareness
6. Document all security incidents
7. You must establish a system to train all employees
8. You must establish a key control system
9. You must periodically review your procedures because your vulnerabilities change
10. You need to develop a security checklist
11. You must have employee accountability
12. You need to develop a simple emergency plan for the building
...be honest in your assessment of your building needs. Hoping problems will go away by ignoring them or wishing you'll never have them is not the path to take. Be pro-active and make whatever changes you can. Get several staff members together and give them the assignment of thinking like a group of bad guys. Have them go over the building inside and out. Ask them to discover vulnerable areas. You may be surprised about what they find.
3 Aces to Keep up Your Sleeve A.A.A. ... Page 18
The last thing you want to do when you deal with a patron is to make the situation worse by your own actions ...
Attitude: ... we all carry burdens ... the trick is to develop way to put them on a back burner while you are at work ... emotions often guide us more than we care to admit and it's surprising how many are completely unaware of their overall effect.
...Another thing to consider is if you are passive or aggressive by nature. If you tend to be passive, you may have to find a way to be more assertive during certain security situations. Conversely, if you are naturally assertive, you may need to curb your tendency so not to make whatever is going on worse in some way.
Approach: What is the best way to approach this particular situation right now? How can I de-escalate the situation instead of making it worse?
Analysis: After an incident, it is paramount that you ask, both of yourself and your staff, what tactics worked and which ones failed. What could we have done differently to affect the outcome?
How in the world do you go up to a perfect stranger and tell them they can't do what they are doing? ... Page 23
One thing to keep in mind is that telling someone that they cannot do something is NOT synonymous with a "confrontation." I have been telling folks "no" for a long time. Here are some universal guidelines to help the process go smoothly for you. I use them every day:
1. Always approach patrons with the attitude that they will comply and that this is not going to be a big deal
2. You can start off nice and then get more authoritative if you need to, but you can't do the opposite ... two phrases I constantly use are ... "I know you didn't know, but ..." and "I know there isn't a (or you didn't see the) sign, but ..."
3. If you tend to gesticulate, always use palms up, openhanded gestures. Never point your finger at anyone and never, ever touch them. Remember to not get too close to them.
4. Even though you should approach confidently, you also need to exercise due caution ... try to keep a table or chair between you if appropriate.
5. If the patron appears to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol, call 911.
6. As best you can, be deaf to insulting language directed at you
7. Never argue with a behavior problem. Most are quite experienced at pointless argument and you will seldom win
8. Be prepared to be accused of some type of prejudice
9. Remember that suspicion and actual guilt are two different things
10. I'm always asked how to approach teens. Kids are kids and I don't care if they 14 year old kid is 6 ft tall, he is still 14 and is thinking like a kid. I remember well that when I was that age I was frightened and unsure of myself. I was afraid of what might be happening at home as well as at school. Those emotions simply had me acting in immature ways. Show them some respect and educate them to the purpose of the library.
11. What about moms and dads who let their children run through the building .... page 27
A. If the kid is doing something and is in imminent danger of getting hurt, I do approach him, but as easy as possible and in a way that shows nothing but my sincere concern for his safety ...
B. If I don't know where the parent is, I'll ask the kid where mom or dad is. If I don't get a response, I quickly get another staff member to come over so I am not alone with the child and try to locate the parent ...
from the past ... how to approach different opponent types ... Page 32
... my new instructor taught me how to approach different opponent types. Fighting he said was 90% mental. It wasn't as much about being physically tough as it was developing skill in proper strategy. Within days this instructor had me feeling like I really knew what I was doing. I couldn't control what my opponent was going to do, but by concentrating solely on my strategy, I didn't have time for any type of fear or apprehension.
... I started making notes about the patrons I encountered ... I came up with four levels of emotion to watch for in a patron and developed strategies for them ...
... you are faced with a first rate champion jerk ... here is what you must do .... Page 33
1. you recognize that he is upset
2. You ascertain in which level he is operating
3. You respond with the strategy for that specific emotional state
4. You concentrate and center on affecting your plan
I use the acronym A. B. C. C. to remember these four emotional states ... Page 34
C. For "Control", as in out of control
Need to read the book to get the full benefit from this section .... Pages 34 to 43 ... I can send copies to anyone who wants to see these pages. He ends ... They are all field tested and I use them every day .... while no strategy works all the time, you will find that this will serve you well in the majority of situations ....
Ten day to day staples of security ... Page 44
1. Never, never count money in view of patrons
2. Make sure money drawers stay locked when you are away from the circ desk
3. Keep library keys with you at all times and don't leave them lying around
4. Be very careful when handling your deposits
5. Never leave your pocketbook or briefcase where it can be seen by patrons
6. Staff areas should be locked at all times
7. Double check all bathrooms, stacks, study rooms, and the rest of the public service area to make sure patrons are out before closing the building
8. Never let anyone other than authorized library staff or contractors into the building before opening or after you close
9. Follow your nature given intuition ... if you sense something is not right, call help
10. If you are working alone in the branch ... keep your phone use and duties to an absolute minimum.
Document everything ... potential as well as actual problem .... Page 49.
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Dec 15, 2005
Effective Teachers Guide to
Behavioral, Emotional and Social Difficulties -- Practical Strategies
by Michael Farrell
ADHD – attention deficit hyperacti Effective Teachers Guide to
Behavioral, Emotional and Social Difficulties -- Practical Strategies
by Michael Farrell
ADHD – attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
BEP – behavior environmental and social difficulties
BESD – behavioral, emotional and social difficulties
IBP – Individual behavior plan
IEP – individual education plan
P4C – philosophy for children
PSHCE – personal, social, health and citizenship education
REBT – rational-emotive behavioural therapy
SEN – special educational needs
BESD – behavioral, emotional and social difficulties
Specific learning difficulties (dyslexia, dysparaxia, dyscalculia)
communication and interaction difficulties (speech, language and communication, autistic spectrum disorder)
sensory and physical difficulties
be withdrawn or isolated
be disruptive and disturbing
be hyperactive and lacking concentration
have immature social skills
present challenging behaviors arising from other complex special needs
Milder end of the spectrum
have difficulties with social interaction
have poor concentration
have outbursts of temper
be verbally aggressive to peers and adults
“provokes peers and is confrontational or openly defiant and sometimes physically aggressive toward peers and adults”
“often off task and has a very short attention span”
“self-esteem is low and they find it hard to accept praise or to take responsibility for their behavior”
Of pupils with ADHD it is stated rather obviously that they may have reduced attention and may be impulsive or hyperactive.
difficulty in learning ... “has not learned acceptable behavior or age appropriate social skills.”
--needs to unlearn inappropriate skills and learn appropriate skills
Behavior, emotions and social development all influence learning.
injury to others
damage to the surroundings
stereotyped movement or speech
pica – eating substances other than foods
unacceptable sexual behavior
--- commitment and resilience to provide and maintain clear boundaries for aggressive and abusive behavior
---curricular opportunities for pupils to express and release emotions through subjects such as art, music, physical education and drama
---direct and indirect teaching of appropriate behavior and social skills through general running of the school, staff example, personal and social education, and specific interventions such as social skills training.
additional dimensions of intervention
development of emotional literacy
Today few believe that behavior modification approaches alone are successful.
Pragmatic approach is suggested while at the same time taking note of the explanations provided by various approaches (systems, cognitive, behavioral, psychodynamic).
....what do we offer to support and encourage good behavior, good social skills, and emotional security?
“Pupils with BESD are by definition those who do not respond to what the school normally provides.”
whole school strategies
I would add flexibility when needed
SYSTEMS approach – involves family and friends (maybe can work with friends) will not work for us – therapy, circle groups -
functions of the groups are to:
foster a positive self-image
help to develop strategies
enable pupils to set their own targets
enable pupils to assess their own progress
develop and support and help others in the group
offer positive reinforcement for pupils successes
CH 3 COGNITIVE APPROACH
“Interventions explained are cognitive aspects of emotional literacy, raising self-esteem through cognitive approaches, anxiety management and self-talk, and realigning the attribution of others”
Wikipedia - Attribution is a concept in social psychology referring to how individuals explain causes of events, other's behavior, and their own behavior.
rational-emotive behavioral therapy
--- also seen in anger management training
Cognition is a broad concept that relates to how one perceives and interprets events. this involves
---thinking, planning, and solving day-today problems
---attributing apparent causes to events (perhaps taking a view that a certain event was a particular person’s fault or responsibility)
---the development of self-perception and self-esteem
---the formation and manifestation of various attitudes
Cognitive approaches place particular emphasis on “internal” phenomena, such as perception and memory, which one develops from experience and which influence one’s current behavior. Personal awareness of the environment and the ability to respond flexibly to it are considered important as are intuition and insight.
---cognitive aspects of emotional literacy involving setting the whole school context by encouraging pupils to develop the language of feelings
---anxiety management and self-talk
---working with others to recognize any changes in the child
emotional intelligence and emotional literacy
---awareness and deployment of feelings
marshalling feelings to achieve ones goals
recognizing the feelings of others
CH 4 BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
BESD are ID’d and assessed with reference to a range of behaviors
This chapter explains fundamentals of behavior interventions
--- context of interventions
And examines some vehicles for behavioral interventions
---social skills trng
---program using antecedent – behavior – consequences (ABC)
Behavioral approaches derive from learning theory and cognitive meditational accounts of behavioral change
Behavioral approaches emphasize what is observable.
A Pupil with BESD is seen as having learned certain patterns of behavior that are normally unacceptable or are considered unhealthy.
It is believed that learned behaviors can be unlearned … or replaced by another behavior that is more acceptable.
The child may observe and copy unacceptable behaviors such as violence.
The child may have been rewarded for “unacceptable” behavior such as a temper tantrum by getting extra attention from parents or others
The behavioral approach sets up different ways of encouraging and discouraging various behaviors
ID AND ASSESSMENT
Relates to the range of the child’s behavior
--- unacceptable behavior toward others
---damage to property
Eventual aim is to modify the behavior
Detailed observation of the behavior is necessary
– need to record the specific behavior observed in purely behavioral terms.
-once the behavior is determined
-- need to determine if problem is sever enough to count every instance as a problem (noise – every time or only when bothers others)
– need to record how often the specified behavior occurs
- or how long the behavior lasts –
Then use one of the interventions listed above – plan carefully
CH 5 PSYCHODYNAMIC AND RELATED APROACHES
CH 6 ADHD
ADHD approaches compared to BESD approaches
Classroom environment and management
Behavior and communication
Teaching and learning approaches
Medication and diet
ADHD – expect to see
Antisocial or delinquent behavior (25%)
Oppositional and defiant behavior (50-60%)
Conduct disorder (45%)
Emotional problems (50+%)
Severe social skills problems (50+%)
5-7% of children in US schools have ADHD
70% of children with BESD have ADHD
Ratio of boys to girls is 8:1 or 10:1 depending on the expert
Favor concrete experience and active, experiential, experimental learning.
Pupil will learn best in activities like drama, role-play and practical activities
Use of written and pictorial aids important. Verbal instructions by themselves often won’t do it.
Teacher should ensure that the pupil understands by questioning him or by asking him to put into his own words what is required.
Small steps – with checks along the way -- will help this child follow a sequence of activities.
Play to the ADHD child’s strong points – more than likely – performance in energetic sports or in drama activities requiring improvisation or more generally in activity-based learning.
NOTES: Building Blocks
emotional or behavioral difficulties which substantially interfere with the group
Observe – ID specific problems and when they occur
Individual intervention plan
Throwing things against the outside walls is not appropriate behavior and it should be stopped – how can we do this?
Subjects to research
emotional behavioral and social difficulties
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Supervisory Training by Walter S. Wikstrom
c. 1973 A research report from the Conference Board, Canada
660 firms were surveyed … 228 usable responses we Supervisory Training by Walter S. Wikstrom
c. 1973 A research report from the Conference Board, Canada
660 firms were surveyed … 228 usable responses were received … 201 from US firms and 27 from Canadian firms.
“Supervisors are key members of a company’s management team.”
“Younger employees have brought to the workplace values and expectations that in some instances are vastly different from those held by both their older colleagues and by the organizational supervisors.”
Supervisory training is basically training in management – with differences – the differences grow out of the particular pressures and constraints under which the first-line supervisor works.
CH1 The 1st line supervisor: jobs, problems, and performance
Pressure is the fact of a supervisor’s life.
-Keeping costs in line
A Manager –
-Organizes his resource for efficient production
-Motivates his workers
-Sets up procedures to maintain control over his operations
-often has to make decisions “right now”
What creates the most problems
Introduction of new methods, technologies or equipment 124
Poor job attitudes of younger workers 113
Lack of skills of younger workers 107
Lack of skills of disadvantaged workers 88
Poor job attitudes of disadvantaged workers 80
Relationships with employees unions or its agents 75
New training programs to help supervisors …can cover:
New behavioral science findings on motivating workers
Common “principles of supervision”
83% of companies train by using conferences or group discussion method
18% coaching or individual counseling – by immediate superior or HR
If no training use:
9% change work processes that are causing problems
9% review policies and procedures that are no longer serving a useful purpose
Often poor supervisor performance is due to poor supervisor selection originally
Person should never have been selected in the first place
Need to upgrade the selection process
Do supervisors use the training
“If the boss encourages the supervisor to apply his training and then recognizes achievements in doing so … there is little chance the lessons won’t be applied.”
It is helpful if measures are established against which supervisors can gauge their accomplishments.
Management by objectives
Attempts to resolve ambiguities in priorities
All help to make clear what is expected.
Better selection of supervisors in the first place would be the most helpful …
When asked the question “what do you think you could do to make the most impact on improving supervisory performance, only ¼ responded with training.”
Over 70% thought other actions would have more of an impact on supervisory performance in this study on supervisory training.
Job itself needs to be changed
Greater status given to the job
More authority given for independent decision making
Atmosphere of company changed by higher management
Supervisory training alone cannot create good supervisors.
“On-the-job training … will have the greatest influence in determining how effectively the supervisor performs.” P. 6
CH2 Off the job classroom training
14% said all training is done on the job – includes 11% that stated they have no training in place
86% some form of off the job training occurs
Programs specifically designed for new supervisors
Some have programs in place for the continued development of the more experienced
These companies usually promoted to the supervisory position from the rank and file employees
10% turnover among supervisors
79% by promotion within the company
7 hired from college and technical school graduates
5 hired supervisors from other firms
Rest were other
79% promoted from within company
“There is much a new supervisor has to unlearn when they are promoted from within”
Attitudes must change
“the new supervisor must learn to get others to do the jobs that he has been accustomed to doing himself. Instead of following others plans and schedules, he has to do the planning and scheduling. He must learn to access situations rapidly and establish priorities for handling them, rather than depending on his boss to tell him what to do. He must learn to get his satisfaction from the performance of other people rather than from his own skill in production work.” P 7-8
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Made Me think more about how I make decions.
Library Managers Workbook : Problem solving in the supervision of Information Service Personnel by Kenneth Made Me think more about how I make decions.
Library Managers Workbook : Problem solving in the supervision of Information Service Personnel by Kenneth H. Plate, PhD (Professional Skills Series) c 1985
Pretty much word for word from the text so use quotes on everything used from these notes
A supervisor must adjust from being a doer to being a director/counselor, who derives satisfaction from getting results through the accomplishments of others. P.1
Supervisory Success p. 2
1. First step toward being a good supervisor, the successful supervisor: a person must first of all accept the supervisory role as his or her primary professional responsibility.
2. The second step in supervisory success is the willingness to change and grow through honest self-examination and through learning from ones own experiences and the experiences of others.
Skills in “situational analysis” helpful in becoming a successful supervisor. Pretty much what this book is about …solving common problems.
CH1: What is a Supervisor?
Nature of supervision p. 5
-conflicting and confusing network of
--supervisor and subordinate
--supervisor and his or her supervisor
--library policies and work rules
--collegial relationships with subordinate librarians
--the supervisor’s own needs and job satisfaction
Supervision is an integral part of library service p. 5
Most of us have had very little training for the position
We all make mistakes
We all become discouraged from time to time
We will all feel alone and unrecognized at times
The key to supervisory success is to learn from our own experiences and the experiences of others. P. 6
-We must be willing to admit our mistakes and learn from them.
-It is important that we know our own strengths and weaknesses and accept ourselves as we are.
---Self confidence is largely a matter of self acceptance.
-Self acceptance is one of the our greatest tools when we understand for example that behind every defensive reaction or resentment there is a fear, we have made a quantum leap in self acceptance.
-by identifying and working through our fears we can experience the greatest reward that supervising has to offer: we have the opportunity to grow and change in positive ways that help us on and off the job.
Supervision is a great opportunity for self development.
Supervision is a great opportunity to contribute to the development of those we supervise.
“From the organizational point of view, the supervisor is responsible for getting results through other people. It is through the results of others that the supervisor measures his or her accomplishment.” P. 6
Supervisors reward themselves by
--developing the competencies of subordinates as individuals.
always acknowledging that employees
-- have differing abilities
--have differing levels of commitment to the work
If we expect perfection or excellence from everyone we are certain to be disappointed.
We can try to understand
-- the employee’s abilities
--the job requirements
And then we can do
-- what we can
-- when we can
-- in the most supportive way we can
To enable the employee to perform as best he or she can. P. 7
This is all we can do.
To be effective as a supervisor and to achieve satisfaction from supervisory responsibilities … the supervisor must practice “situational analysis” which involves
--acceptance of things as they are
--the setting or realistic goals p. 7
Lack of assertiveness
--On one hand it is hard to build relationships with others when you withdraw into a shell and refuse to give people a chance to know you
--on the other hand, good human relations is sensitivity to others
-- and quiet person often has developed a high degree of sensitivity to the needs and competencies of those they supervise.
--make sure you communicate frequently and openly with each employee under your supervision. P.8
One best way to tackle supervisory problems is to focus on
---whatever you wish to call it. P. 9
Focus on the task in question – not the personality
Employee’s productivity may not always be scientifically measurable but it is tangible and impersonal – two strong points in the supervisors favor.
A supervisor should view “problem” employees in terms of productivity:
-- the work
and plan to use management tools such as the:
-- job description
In improving employee performance. P. 9
What is a supervisor
A supervisors role involves
And all these activities are part of communication.
It is unfair to the employee to expect “efficient” work without supervisory assistance.
It is unrealistic to expect employees to always put work first over their personal life.
Acknowledging these 2 facts will make each of us a better supervisor …
And the act of acknowledgement [that I might be wrong and need to change]is an important step in growth as a supervisor. P. 10
As supervisors we are going to find that there is never enough
I find it difficult to supervise employees performing work that I am not familiar with.
More and more supervisors are finding themselves in this predicament ever since the 1970s and the advancements of technology and the advancement of library specialties
Ways to help –
1. Work with the employee in writing a procedure manual for the position
2. Continuing education for the supervisor
CH2 The Supervisor – Employee Relationship p. 15
Our primary responsibility is to build and maintain a productive relationship with each employee we supervise.
--it is a personal thing that involves thoughts and feelings
--the supervisor is responsible for doing everything within his or her power to establish and maintain a relationship since individual productivity depends upon human relationships.
--communication between the supervisor and the employee is very important
Supervising in remote locations
Communication is difficult
Reporting can take many forms
---for discussion of problems
---ideas and concepts
---results are greater in accuracy than written communication
Because of his or her position a supervisor finds it easier to communicate than an employee does
The supervisor has primary responsibility for communication encounters are pleasant
--supervisor’s attitude must be warm and responsive
--supervisor’s attitude must encourage the employees display of feelings and emotion
Both parties are responsible for keeping communication lines open –
The supervisor must take responsibility for the tone of the intercourse.
It is OK for the emotions to be present – the supervisory ensures that emortions enhance rather than detract from the job.
A supervisor is responsible for making their expectations know p. 17
A supervisor is responsible for monitoring their employee’s expectations
A supervisor is responsible for exercising their authority when appropriate or needed
--exercising authority in a gentle and consistent manner builds trust
Relationships are not static
Relationships will build over time
--sometimes in dramatic ways
Do not be surprised by this
--they have survived many supervisors and many leadership styles over the years
--they may be suspicious of new techniques and approaches
--seek their advice and cooperation
--they usually place a high value on performance and efficiency
--set a good example
--they still need your support
Building a supervisor – employee relationship
--most important to view the relationship in the context of productivity
--put the productive relationship first and the employee second
--build a productive work relationship
-- place an emphasis on the employee and his or her work
Building a productive supervisor-employee relationship
#1 Principle p. 19
A supervisor should base their relationship with an employee on Productivity
--should set performance standards
--should set production standards
--should coach and counsel on a regular basis
--should set a good example
--should support the employee in his or her development on the job
Basically, a supervisor should supervise rather than befriend the employee
Advice is to avoid social relationships with your employees
--overlapping and dual relationships can be stressful
--other employees can feel left out
--important for a supervisor to be fair and impartial
--relationships deteriorate when they are not nurtured – do you have the time?
#2 Principle p. 20
A supervisor should work especially hard with new employees
New employees want to build a sound relationship now more than ever – take advantage of this
Frequent contact in the first few days or weeks is important
--shows that you value the employee
--shows that you value the job
#3 Principle p. 21
Repair any damage done to this relationship as soon as possible
If you are in the wrong apologize
If you need to make adjustments to the work situation do so
Whatever you can do that is reasonable and just, do so
CH3 the Supervisor-Superior Relationship
The relationship to your boss is crucial to your own success as a supervisor
Learn from your bosses mistakes as well as your own
Do not expect perfection from your supervisor
It is up to you to help your boss help you
Problems with your boss usually fall into one of the authority relationship areas
--delegation of authority
--responsibility without authority
--responsibility by default
--authority and responsibility given and then retracted
--- where authority is undermined by a subordinate going to your boss
---where your boss goes directly to your employee without first consulting you
How does a supervisor acquire authority?
--authority should be commensurate (on the same scale) with your responsibility but that isn’t always so
--good communication with your supervisor will help expand your authority
--it is best to get your authority limits in writing –
---your support for independent decision making
--you must work to insure that your authority level matches your responsibility level
--gain the trust of your supervisor
--this is a learning experience for your supervisor about you …
----communicate the good and the bad
----document the good and the bad
Your supervisor grants you the authority to act independently
Authority will accrue as competence is recognized
The extent to which you accumulate and hold authority is as much a measure of your own success as is the list of responsibilities in your job description. P. 25
The “bypass” problem
If this happens it is up to you for finesse the situation
Explain to your boss that this undermines your authority
It undermines you ability to develop a good working relationship with your employee
It undermines your ability to reward and discipline your employees in a fair and equitable manner
It undermines your ability to supervise the productivity and work flow in your areas of responsibility
The Chain of Command
What is the culture of your organizations
Is “bypass” a problem or not
Policy p. 27
Supervisors must interpret and enforce policies – if we like them or not
--we can work to get policy adjusted
--facts and documentation will help with making the changes
--concentrate on how the policy is detrimental to productivity.
Political side of dealing with a Supervisor – p. 29
-feels you are doing his or her job
--ask what will be evaluated on in the job description
---concentrate on these areas
--do not be confrontations or ask a supervisor to prove a negative comment
Express a willingness to work with the supervisor to make changes when they say there is a problem
--build a working relationship with the supervisor
--treat it as an opportunity to for both of you to grow
It is always important to make your supervisor look good (and feel good)
BTW: By making both subordinates and superiors “look good” the supervisor can strengthen his or her position as well.
A supervisor should always concentrate on solutions rather than problems. P. 31
CH4 The supervisor and lateral relationships p. 33
The relationships between a supervisor and the supervisors in other departments
The basis of such a relationship is based on cooperation and competition
Supervisors compete for resources
--to enhance efficiency
--maintaining a consistent discipline
When supervisors do not cooperate or are not encouraged to cooperate – work flow and productivity is affected.
When you document problems make sure the documentation is
And always include suggestions for eventual solutions to the problem
What options does a supervisor have in getting things done
As a manager we are accountable for the expenditure of public funds.
Inefficiencies or ineffectiveness should not be tolerated
This carries weight when documenting problems
Your goal in each horizontal relationship should be cooperation rather than competition. P. 36
--make other supervisors look good whenever possible
--be generous with praise and applause
--when competing and you lose – concede defeat and cooperate with the winner
--bend policies and procedures to help out another department’s productivity
--show interest in the problems and solutions of other departments
Avoid social relationships with supervisors who are negative.
--maintain a purely business relationship with negative supervisors
--explain you prefer to explore solutions rather than problems
--point out channels the supervisor can use to address injustices or complaints
--always direct the conversation back to
The relationship that the supervisor, as a professional librarian, has with other subordinate librarians
--give the librarian as much autonomy as possible and still be fair to fellow workers
“Librarians believe is self-direction, autonomy in setting work priorities and other work behaviors antithetical to close supervision.” P. 38
“Librarians expect hands-off supervision, a considerable degree of autonomy and to participate in decision making.”
“There is no need to relate on the “friendship” level with librarians or support staff if this interferes with the maintenance of a uniform discipline line.” P. 39
When analyzing a problem situation
--what is the library norm
--what would other supervisors do in the same situation
--what are the expectations of top management
--are you setting a good example
--and bottom line when you are a supervisor – is the work getting done
Take all the factors in mind and then make an educated decision based on productivity
--make sure they are important enough that everyone feels they will miss too much if they don’t attend –or don’t hold a meeting
Profession related committee and association meetings
Encourage professional librarians to participate as long as it doesn’t affect department productivity
--encourage the new professional to
----set their own priorities
----develop a positive team attitude
----practice time management techniques
While still putting the productivity of the department first over their own desires
To interfere in a colleague’s client relationship is considered unprofessional unless we have documented complaints.
We can ask the colleague to help in areas that will improve deficiencies we have noted ourselves – if our supervisor is agreeable.
Librarian-supervisors must supervise the professional librarians on staff differently than they do support staff, while still being fair to all.
Subordinate librarians should be able to expect much more from you.
CH5 Situational Analysis : a basic tool p. 45
Situational analysis is central to organizational decision making and nowhere is this more important than in the area of human relations.
Every time we are presented with a problem or a puzzle to resolve we define, analyze, and act based on our analysis of the situation and the circumstances surrounding it. We all do it every day.
The difficulties lie in our perceptions and our preconceived notions as we analyze situations. Each problem can have several solutions … none are wrong … they are just alternatives.
First must determine the problem
In situational analysis our goal should be to try to state the problem in twenty-five words or less.
Involved are the supervisor
And the employee.
Our situational analysis is straightforward.
--ID the problem
--The problem is ALWAYS productivity or otherwise work-related.
--work only with documented facts
--look at library rules
--is there written polity or procedures when dealing with broken rules
--insure that this is the worst instance of the rules being broken before acting
Then develop a course of action
--give an official warning - document
--counseling if warranted - document
--all other steps should also be documented
--along the way the expected consequences of each decision should be predicted and documented
All supervisors need practice in predicting the consequences of action (or inaction). P. 47
A supervisor does not always need to make a decision immediately.
Case study P. 48
(Adjust the info below to fit your supervisory style)
EMPLOYEE PROBLEM ANALYSIS p. 49
I. DEFINE THE PROBLEM -- (when a supervisor gets in trouble it is usually because he or she tried to fix a problem that is not tied to productivity, focus on productivity issues)
--find the basic issue and the subordinate issues
--identify the cause (or difficulty)
--you do not have to take responsibility for the employee or the problem UNLESS PRODUCTIVITY IS AFFECTED
II. ANALYZE THE PROBLEM
--identify the results to be achieved in coming to a decision or solution
--list antecedents or “situational” variables (i.e. things I can’t change, the “givens” in the situation). i.e. : environmental factors
--things I’ve tried already
--impact on other areas or employees
--documented facts (about employee, about library rules)
--other limits and conditions
III. DEVELOP A COURSE OF ACTION -- (Short and Long Term Goals and Objectives)
--outline a set of possible solutions
--briefly predict consequences of each
--justify your choice
--outline a short term course of action
--outline a long term course of action
IV. EXECUTION AND FOLLOW-UP
--documentation, counseling, appraisal
If you can partner up with another supervisor and talk over problems to get another point of view when it comes to the consequences of a decision, take the time to do so.
Case study gives the primary issue as the employee’s abrupt attitude with clients. A subordinate issue is the effect her attitude may be having on the productivity of other employees.
From above … General Principle:
--you do not have to take responsibility for the employee or the problem UNLESS PRODUCTIVITY IS AFFECTED
Ran out of space ...
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Mar 15, 2005
Mar 15, 2005
Performance Appraisal Handbook Legal and Practical Rules for Managers by NOLO/ Amy DelPo
Employee Evaluation Systems should concentrate exclusively on Performance Appraisal Handbook Legal and Practical Rules for Managers by NOLO/ Amy DelPo
Employee Evaluation Systems should concentrate exclusively on employee development
Guidance on how to do well – worthwhile – effective – pleasant for both sides
Legal ramifications -
Value of performance evals
Delivers important benefits and improve success of each employee
If done well can :
-Motivate employees to perform better and produce more
-Help employees ID the ways they can develop and grow
-Increase employee morale
-Improve the respect employees have for mgrs and senior mgt
-Foster good communication
-Id poor performers
-Lay groundwork to fire poor performers
Value of legal knowledge
-writing the wrong thing on a performance appraisal or sharing the appraisal improperly or unfairly can have devastating consequences if company sued by an employee.
CH 1 AN OVERVIEW OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
When done correctly, performance appraisal is a process – not a document.
It is a way of structuring your relationship with your employees.
A good system includes
Supervisors should know who is doing what in each department all year long
Supervisors should document employee performance as it happens
Supervisors should deal with issues immediately so employee gets back on track
Supervisors should ID obstacles and remove obstacles as they arrive
Proper employee evaluations provide important legal protection for employers
Employee performance evaluation systems are the first line of defense when dealing with problem employees
ID employee problems before they get out of control
Lay the groundwork for discipline and legally defensible termination if necessary
Most lawsuits arise from the emotional state of the employee
-feel treated unfairly or are surprised by unfavorable decisions are more likely to sue
Performance evaluations make the workplace more fair and predictable
A. Benefits of a Performance Evaluation System
Company benefits when employees feel like part of a team
-loyal to their coworkers, their company and you
-it is sound policy to reward good employees, encourage productive employees to strive for more and to help wayword employees get back on track.
-sometimes necessary to let go of problem employees for the good of the team
Effective performance appraisal system will provide a solid foundation for all aspects of the employee/employer relationship. Such a system can:
-determine how the job of each employee can further the overall goals of the organization
-examine each employee as an individual to evaluate the employee’s strengths and weaknesses
-ID and reward good employees, in order to foster loyalty and motivate employees to continue to achieve
-keep employee morale high through continuous feedback
-stay on top of needs of your workforce to ensure employee retention and increase productivity and innovation
-reduce the risk of complaints and litigation by ensuring that employees feel treated fairly and are not surprised by management decisions
-ID and deal with problem employees to either turn those employees into valuable, productive workers or lay the groundwork for discipline and if necessary termination.
Current research connects effective performance evaluation systems to improved company performance.
Effective performance appraisals take time.
Is an essential part of a managers job.
Time spent pays for itself many times over with:
-improvements to -
-morale of employees
Managers feel discomfort when confronting poor performance. Communicating negative information is difficult -- but not communicating can be much worse.
Big mistakes that managers can make by not communicating is :
-allowing employees to work under the mistaken belief that they are doing well, thereby never giving them the information they need to improve
-tolerating poor performers and the burdens they place on your other employees and y our company
-surprising poor performers with negative decisions
-facing difficulty in terminating bad employees because you have not laid the proper groundwork
A complete, effective and consistent appraisal system can benefit a company.
B. ELEMENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE SYSTEM
1. A fair and communicative environment
Most effective place concern for the employee at their core
Reality cannot control employees behavior – they have to do this themselves
Most employees want to perform well
We need to provide them the proper environment so they can
-----includes support, communication, collaboration and fair treatment
-----this also builds employee morale
2. Respect for the employee
Will fail if don’t respect each employee
Respect is the foundation of any effective performance evaluation system
Need to show respect to build respect
3. Future orientation
Managers should stress what the employee can do to improve in the future
The past should not be the focus on the evaluation
Most of the meeting should be used to ID future goals and how to accomplish them
Should discuss past goals and if the employee reached them – but with the intention of how to do better in the future – learning from the past in a developmental and helpful way
4. Employee participation
Employees must play a key role
From helping to write their job descriptions to
IDing their own goals and standards
To accessing how well they performed
Employees should have the power and responsibility for directing and assessing their own performance
This will increase job satisfaction and increase buy-in for the appraisal process
Which leads to an employee’s commitment in their own development
IN the process they can help managers answer important questions
--how can the employee help the company achieve its goals?
--how much can be expected from someone in a given job?
--are there any organizational impediments to their performance?
--is there anything you can provide to help them perform better?
--how well have they achieved their own goals?
When given the opportunity many employees will expect even more of themselves than their manager will.
This is an opportunity for the manager to learn from the employee on how they can do their job even better in the future
5. Ongoing feedback
Giving employees feedback throughout the year provides opportunities for positive feedback when things are going good and for corrective feedback when the employee strays off track.
Ongoing feedback also helps employees adjust when things change
Feedback is needed or an employee appraisal system will not improve employee performance
Positive feedback when appropriate gives a sense of accomplishment and appreciation whhile highlighting how they should continue to perform
6. Document, document, document
Ongoing and accurate documentation is the crux of a good performance appraisal system.
Documentation spanning the entire appraisal period is reliable
Memory and gut feelings are not reliable
C. YOUR ROLE
Follow any steps your company requires. To do a good job you must at a minimum:
---set standards and goals
---observe and document performance
---conduct appraisal meetings
You are the bridge between the company and the employee
---Always mindful of the company’s overall needs and strategic plan while at the same time advocating for your employees.
Your attitude is key to the success of the process. If you commit to the process so will your employees.
Employees appreciate an encouraging word – but they need more
--they must feel that their job gives them the opportunity to accomplish something that is important or worthwhile
--they must have the resources they need to do their jobs and meet their standards and goals
--they must receive feedback so that they always know what is expected of them and whether they are meeting those expectations
--they must receive recognition for what they do. Eg positive write up in the company newsletter – memo commending them employee on a job well done you pass up the chain – or an announcement of praise at a company meeting
--they must be given the opportunity to grow and develop. They should be challenged by their job. They should be asked to do more and different things than in the past to stretch their boundaries.
--they must gain autonomy and responsibility as they demonstrate their abilities.
--they must feel free to express their opinions and ideas about their jobs, share any obstacles they run across, and offer opinions on how the company could run better.
--management must listen to them
Look at your To Do list --- are there tasks that can be delegated to an employee to help them grow?
D. MODEL APPRAISAL SYSTEM
-work with employees to set up standards
-regularly observe and document employee performance in relation to these goals and standards
-meet with employees periodically
-conduct an annual formal performance appraisal
-resort to progressive discipline after all other efforts have failed
RESPONSIBILITIES for System
--creates a strategic plan
--provides support and resources
--IDs job requirements
--observes and documents employee performance
--provides ongoing feedback to the employee
--provides support and resources
The manager and the employee together
--ID job goals
--create action plans for how to meet requirements and goals
--engage in ongoing dialogue about employee performance
--listens to and acts on feedback from the manager
--performs by meeting requirements and goals
--provides feedback to the manager about the work environment
CH 2 LEGAL TRAPS
In a wrongful termination lawsuit – one of the first things the employee’s lawyer will ask for are the employee’s performance evaluations.
Good news is that you don’t have to do a lot of extra work to safeguard against the relatively rare event of a lawsuit.
--you must communicate honestly with the employee
--you must provide the employee with regular feedback
--your evaluations must be accurate and precise
--you must document everything you say and conclude
--all of your statements must be related to the job the employee performs
--you must always treat your employees with consideration and respect
Do not undermine a formal review outside of “normal” work hours to make a friend. Do not backpedal from a review. Otherwise, you undermine it – both practically and legally.
A. Don’t Destroy the At-Will Relationship
Most employees work on an “at-will” basis. This means that neither they, nor the company, are bound to any sort of employment contract. The employer doesn’t need to give a reason for terminating an employee, as long as it is a legal termination. The employee can give notice to leave at any time. (Illegal terminations include – because of age, race, refusal to work in a hazardous condition or off the clock.)
Instead of having an “at-will” relationship with employees a company can create a “just-cause” relationship – which means the employer must have legitimate business-related reasons for firing an employee – such as for poor performance, low productivity, violent behavior or a legitimate layoff or downsizing.
The default employment status of most workers is “at-will”. To change this status the employer must create a contract, either by something it writes or something it says (through executive or managers) that implies that the employee’s job is secure.
Managers can change “at-will” status of an employee by things they say to them. Basically, anything that implies a promise of continued employment.
Simple phrases such as those that follow can destroy the “at-will” relationship”:
-He has a bright future at this company
-she could be senior vice president for sales within the next two years
-For as long as ... she will have a job in this company
-if she continues on this performance trajectory, there’s no telling how far she will go in this company
-I hope he remains at this company for a long time
-We hope he makes this company his professional home for the rest of his career
-I reassured her that her job was secure
It is appropriate and even mandatory to praise an employee for a job well done. Do not make promises for the future though – then there is no chance of a misunderstanding that could lead to a lawsuit.
The manager must stick to talking about how the employee performed in the past – and what goals and requirements you expect the employee to meet in the future – the evaluation will not destroy the “at-will” relationship.
B. Don’t Undermine Potential Terminations
If you need to fire an employee – the employee’s performance evaluations must support – or at the very least not contradict – the reasons you give for the firing. Always write evaluations with this rule in mind, even if you have no current plans to terminate an employee.
Be the information positive or negative – on a performance evaluation –
-tell the truth. Be clear, concise and frank about the employee’s performance
-be thorough. Collect your thoughts and documentation before sitting down to write the evaluation
-anticipate trouble. If an employee is becoming a problem – make sure the specific behaviors are documented in the evaluation.
Make sure every positive review is earned. Don’t gloss over problems.
C. Don’t Harass or Discriminate
Discrimination occurs when you treat someone differently on the basis of some characteristic such as – age, race or color, gender, disability, national origin, or religion. These are called “protected characteristics”.
Harassment is a type of discrimination. The same laws that prevent discrimination also cover harassment. When an employee has to endure a work environment that is hostile, offensive or intimidating to them because they have a protected characteristic – it is called harassment.
When composing evaluations – think freely – but then be specific about job performance – when you write your thoughts down. Don’t generalize and leave yourself open to interpretation.
Observe the following guidelines:
-do not focus on the fact that someone is different because of a protected characteristic
-never use slurs or demeaning language in performance evaluations
-do not mention protected characteristics
-do not make assumptions about employees that are based on stereotypes about protected characteristics
-avoid language that stresses that an employee is different – that he or she “doesn’t fit in” or “isn’t one of us”
-state facts, not conclusions. It is fine to say that someone is not productive or not performing well. Do not say it is because of age or a disability.
-Be specific. If you include documented details, people will have more difficulty attributing your statements to discrimination or harassment
-Only say things that are related to the job. This will ensure that you don’t veer into illegal territory.
-If coworkers or customers don’t like an employee because of a protected characteristic, the problem lies with the coworkers or customers, not the employee; therefore you should not criticize the employee for an inability to get along with those coworkers or customers.
-focus on behavior, not the person. Discriminatory bias is about who people are, not what they do. If you focus on actions, you’ll steer clear of hidden biases.
If at any time an employee mentions a physical or mental disability – the manager should immediately consult with the human relations department – or legal council to see what the requirements are that they should then follow. The company must do what they can to accommodate the employee before they go through another performance appraisal. “When you write a performance evaluation on an employee with a disability, you should have already consulted with your human resources department or legal counsel and understand your rights and responsibilities as a supervisor managing that employee.” P2/14
D. Don’t Retaliate
When an employee complains about any of these issues – or if an employee backs up another employee’s complaint – you must treat the employee with care. Make sure you have documentation and evidence to back up any negative aspects of a performance evaluation. Otherwise, you leave yourself open to a lawsuit – if the employee can prove/infer you are retaliating for the complaint.
E. Don’t Forget to Document
Ensure you document an employee’s performance throughout the year. Have documentation to back up everything you say in a performance evaluation. Your documentation proves you based your evaluation /opinion is based on facts, not discriminatory bias.
It is worth the time invested to review the Avoiding Legal Trouble Checklist on Pages 2/16 and 2/17.
CH 3 PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
- Goals describe things that you and the employee would like the employee to accomplish beyond the job requirements.
-Tailor goals to each employee as an individual, depending on the employee’s strengths and weaknesses.
The foundation of any performance evaluation system is a set of performance objective in which you identify what your company and you expect of an employee. P.3/3
Research has shown that setting effective performance objectives in invaluable for improving employee performance.
A. Identifying Job Requirements
A job requirement is a description of what you want an employee in a particular job to accomplish and how you want an employee in that job to perform. A set of requirements for a particular job – should look much like the job description for that job.
1. Types of Job Requirements
There are 2 types of job requirements
- a result requirement is a concrete description of a result that you expect any employee who holds a particular job to achieve. Eg. A salesperson is expected to make $10,000 in sales each month.
-a behavior requirement is a description of how you want any employee in a particular job to behave while getting the job done. Often these requirements reflect your company’s values. Eg. Answer customer questions cheerfully and respectfully.
Job requirements remain the same – no matter who holds the position.
2. Resources for Identifying Job Requirements
To ID the requirements for a specific job
-look at how the job fits within the company
-what is a person who holds this job responsible for
-what are the essential tasks you need a person in this job to accomplish
-what is the purpose of this job
-historically, what have employees in the job been able to accomplish
Employees are often the best people to determine requirements for a specific job – employees who work in the job – or employees who interact with and depend on the person who does the job.
3. Job Requirements Must be Related
Only choose requirements that are truly related to the job – they need to be necessary to the position itself. – for practical and legal reasons.
Practically – it doesn’t do anyone any good to make an employee toe the line in an area that doesn’t benefit the company. Eg. Chef’s priority shouldn’t be customer service skills if they never interact with the public.
Legally, not worth punishing an employee for failing to meet a requirement if they still can get the job done. Disciplining, demoting or terminating an employee for failing to meet a requirement that is not job related does not constitute just cause.
4. Job Requirements Must be Specific
The more specific a job requirement is – the easier it will be for an employee to meet.
Focus on actions you want the employee to take –not on character trait or personality type you want the employee to have. Not “take initiative” - state exactly what you want the employee to do.
Notes are private!
Jun 19, 2012
May 11, 2001
May 11, 2001
Practical Strategies for Individual Behavior Difficulties 2nd ed by Geraldine Mitchell
David Fulton Publishers London c.2001
Behavior difficulties can o Practical Strategies for Individual Behavior Difficulties 2nd ed by Geraldine Mitchell
David Fulton Publishers London c.2001
Behavior difficulties can often be eliminated if an effective individual plan is introduced at the first sign of difficulty.
Babies first have 2 reflex reactions
these emotional responses divide into
Between 2 ½ years old and adolescence ideally children learn how to express their needs
--Emotionally and physically
Different cultures, family attitudes, and family skill at expressing emotions effectively, will affect the usefulness of what a child learns.
It is in the interest of the wider community to ID the children who have unskillful emotional expression or are attention needy and help them fit into the broad average group.
Deal with the individual – in school … work to raise self–esteem of child
Step 1 – observation and information gathering
Sept 2 – defining the problem
Step 3 – planning the strategy
Step 4 – carrying out the intervention
Step 5 – evaluating success and re-defining remaining difficulties
Step 6 – planning the new strategy
Rest of book deals with teachers and what they can do to raise self-esteem and improve emotional expression of child to reduce problems.
Much more to the book ....
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Sep 01, 2009
Sep 01, 2009
Ferguson Career Skills Library – Problem Solving – 3rd
The best way to escape from a problem is to solve it – Alan Saporta
• Learn to avo Ferguson Career Skills Library – Problem Solving – 3rd
The best way to escape from a problem is to solve it – Alan Saporta
• Learn to avoid negative problem-solving behaviors
• Use analytical and critical thinking (left-brain activities) to analyze and solve problems scientifically
• Solve problems creatively by brain-storming, asking questions, approach problems from odd angles, note-taking and visualizing – all right brain activities.
• Solve problems with the Problem-Solving Process, which involves the following 5 steps:
1. Identify and define problems as people, organizational, mechanical, or many-sided in nature.
2. Define goals and objectives
3. Generate solutions by using brainstorming techniques such as word association, clustering and freewriting
4. Develop a plan of action
5. Follow through on a problem-solving plan by planning for contingencies, troubleshooting, learning from mistakes, and maintaining flexibility as you are solving the problem
• Apply problem-solving skills to the decision-making process
Employee approaches to problems
JR Richmond divides would-be problem solvers into 5 groups:
1. Not My Problem – these employees ignore customer and company problems as if those problems didn’t touch them personally. If they do manage to get a job, they probably won’t keep it long.
2. Don’t Ask Me – Some people can’t do simple calculations, keep a checkbook or a receipt record, or do basic math. Few employers have the time or means to teach these basic skills.
3. What Now? – Some well-meaning employees can’t seem to mature into independent problem solvers. can’t seem to mature into independent problem solvers. They don’t trust their own judgment. As a result, they bother somebody every two minutes with a problem too big for them to handle. These employees don’t change their ways and take personal responsibility for decision making, they may annoy themselves out of a job.
4. Straight Liner–Straight liners know how to solve straightforward problems. They can do math and calculations and may be highly skilled professionals. But if the situation requires a new solution or any creativity, they cannot handle it. They may keep their job and find a comfortable place in the company. But they shouldn’t expect to advance to high levels of management.
5. Creative Problem Solver – Businesses will always have spots for people who can use their creativity to solve problems. Creative problem solvers make themselves irreplaceable.
Type of Problem Solver Approach to Problems How to improve Problem-Solving Skills
Not My Problem These employees ignore customer and company problems as if those problems didn’t touch them personally. If they do manage to get a job, they probably won’t keep it long.
Pay attention to the needs of your customers, coworkers, and managers. Consider their problems your problems and work to help them find solutions.
Don’t Ask Me
Some people can’t do simple calculations, keep a checkbook or a receipt record, or do basic math. Few employers have the time or means to teach these basic skills.
Learn every skill that comes along. Teach yourself new tasks, techniques, and software programs by studying books, pamphlets, and websites, as well as asking for help from friends and coworkers.
Some well-meaning employees can’t seem to mature into independent problem solvers. can’t seem to mature into independent problem solvers. They don’t trust their own judgment. As a result, they bother somebody every two minutes with a problem too big for them to handle. These employees don’t change their ways and take personal responsibility for decision making, they may annoy themselves out of a job.
Take responsibility for decision-making in your life. Build confidence by tackling smaller problems on your own; then gradually increase the complexity of problems that you tackle until you become a n independent problem solver.
Straight Liner Straight liners know how to solve straightforward problems. They can do math and calculations and may be highly skilled professionals. But if the situation requires a new solution or any creativity, they cannot handle it. They may keep their job and find a comfortable place in the company. But they shouldn’t expect to advance to high levels of management.
Try to expand your creative abilities by brainstorming. Learning to be flexible with new ideas and concepts will help you tackle more challenging problems.
Creative Problem Solver Businesses will always have spots for people who can use their creativity to solve problems. Creative problem solvers make themselves irreplaceable.
Continue to tackle problems head-on. Remember to continue to treat all of your company’s problems as your own, to hone your professional skills and education, to independently tackle problems, and to think “outside the box.”
Problem solving begins with clear thinking.
Scientific Thinking – logical – critical – analytical – convergent –straight-line – predictable; follows certain rules of logic from Point A to Point B to Point C.
Creative Thinking –inspirational – divergent – insightful – exploratory – unpredictable; provides new answers to old problems.
Brain has two sides
Left and Right Brain Comparisons
Left Brain – analytic thinking or logic – well-ordered steps - numbers and words Right Brain – creativity and art - operates on images and impressions
(Table didn't copy)
Critical thinking/scientific thinking – 4 steps
1. Identify the problem and break it down
2. Collect information/perform research
3. Form opinions (hypotheses)
4. Draw conclusions
Richard Paul’S book, Critical thinking: how to prepare students for a rapidly changing world, breaks the Socratic Method into 6 types of questions:
1. Questions of clarification
2. Questions that probe assumptions
3. Questions that probe reasons and evidence
4. Questions about viewpoints or perspectives
5. Questions that probe implications and consequences
6. Questions about the question
For a more detailed list of questions go to : http://www-ed.fnal.gov/trc/tutorial/t...
How to develop scientific thinking skills
--Take more math classes
--Take more science classes
--Start budgeting your personal finances
--Practice critical thinking skills each time have a problem to solve
Creative Thinking – explores the possibilities
Examines the problem from as many angles as is possible
Provides multiple answers
Think “outside the box”
Approach a problem from an unusual angle--Turn things upside down
Carry around a notebook to capture creative ideas
Visualizing – visualize the finished picture -
Think outside the dots
Draw 9 dots – 3 rows of 3
Without lifting your pencil – draw 4 straight lines to connect the dots.
Most people cannot solve the dot problem
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Aug 30, 2005
Jan 01, 2006
Copyright Law for Librarians and Educators
By Kenneth D. Crews
Project of the Copyright Management Center (CMC) at Indiana University-Purdue University Copyright Law for Librarians and Educators
By Kenneth D. Crews
Project of the Copyright Management Center (CMC) at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. The CMC has a primary mission of addressing copyright issues of importance to education and research. Helpful materials can be found at http://www.copyright.iupui.edu. p. viii
“central to the purpose of copyright law, including fair use, is to allow for the growth of knowledge.” p. 46
Examples of works that can be copyrighted are p.5
• New writings
• Musical works
• Art works
• Computer programs
• Motion picture
• Architectural works
• Sound recordings
How long does copyright protection last? p.15
• Current law no longer requires the formalities of notice of registration for copyright protection
• Most new works are protected for the life of the author plus seventy years
• Works published before 1978 were required to have a copyright notice in order to gain protection
• Works published between 1923 and 1978 could have protection up to ninety-five years
• Many foreign works that were in the public domain have had their copyrights restored
Renewal of copyright p. 18
• Works published before 1923 fall outside the reach of copyright protection
• In 1992 Congress eliminated the renewal requirements for all existing copyrights.
o Works published in 1970 have the full 95 year copyright protection.
o Books published in 1940 had to be renewed in 1968 otherwise the copyright expired in 1968.
Transfers of Copyright p. 24
“Copyrights can be bought, sold or simply given away. A transfer of the copyright or an exclusive grant or license to use the work is a transaction that must be in writing and must be signed by the copyright owner making the transfer.” eg. we purchase a book at the book store but do not purchase the copyright for the contents of the book. eg. we purchase a painting but do not purchase the copyright for the artwork itself.
Exceptions to the Rights of Owners p. 33
“One of the most important aspects of copyright ownership is that the rights of owners are not complete. The law grants a broad set of right to a broad range of materials, then proceeds to carve out exceptions to those rights… The broadest and best known of these exceptions is “fair use.” … A few of the statutory exceptions apply specifically to the needs of educators and librarians.”
Section 107: Fair Use
Section 108: Library Copying
Fair Use p. 41
§ 107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use
Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include —
(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
(2) the nature of the copyrighted work;
(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.
Fair Use p. 44
1. Purpose: a nonprofit educational purpose can support a claim of fair use
2. Nature: uses of factual, nonfiction works are more likely to be within fair use
3. Amount: the less the amount of a work used, the more likely it is fair use
4. Effect: uses that do not compete with the market for the copyrighted work are more likely to be within fair use
Libraries and the Special Provisions of Section 108 p. 74
• “Section 108 allows many libraries to make copies of materials for
o private study
o interlibrary loan
• The opportunities under Section 108 do not extend equally to all types of works
• Section 108 requires compliance with various requirements, but most libraries should be able to meet them and enjoy the benefits of the law.”
Copying of the following materials is not allowed by libraries except for preservation purposes:
• Musical works
• Pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works
• Motion pictures or audiovisual works
“Copier Machines in libraries
Section 108(f)(1) gives libraries protection from infringements that a visitor may commit when using unsupervised copier machine in the library. As long as the library displays a notice informing users that making copies may be subject to copyright law, the statute can release the library and its staff from liability. The user of the machine is still responsible for any infringements.” P. 78
Permission From Copyright Owners p. 108
• “No permission is needed if your work is in the public domain, or if your use is within fair use or another exception
• Permission for some works may be available through a collective licensing agency
• Contacting a copyright owner and drafting a permission letter can involve a careful strategy
• You still have options after reaching a “dead end” in your quest”
“The U.S. Copyright Office’s records may be searched to help determine the copyright status of a work. Newer records may be searched for online for free. For a fee, the Copyright Office will conduct searches for you. The Copyright Office’s website, at http://www.copyright.gov, included detailed information about searches.” p. 109
“The Copyright Clearance Center can help expedite some licensing processes. Through its website, you may request permission to make certain uses of thousands of works, including books, magazines, journal articles, newsletters, and dissertations. Permission fees are paid directly to the CCC and are then forwarded to the appropriate copyright owners. The Copyright Clearance Center’s website is at http://www.copyright.com.” p. 110
Checklist for Fair Use on p. 124
Model Letter for Permission Requests on p. 127
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Apr 01, 1983
Aug 14, 2013
Managing Assertively : a self-teaching guide by Madelyn Burley-Allen
Be effective in interactions with people --- Need to be Managing Assertively : a self-teaching guide by Madelyn Burley-Allen
Be effective in interactions with people --- Need to be “in charge of me” to be effective
Begin - improve listening skills
Supervisors have “people skills” areas of their jobs --- New Supervisors must improve “people skills”
DEFINITION AND GOALS OF MANAGING ASSERTIVELY
… based on valuing the uniqueness of each individual …
DEFINITION: Managing others and yourself assertively is an approach based on the Seven Keys of Goodness:
1. influencing others in a positive way that encourages people to realize their potential
2. practicing an active and initiating (rather than reacting) mode of behavior
3. taking a caring position, emphasizing the positive nature of self and others
4. exhibiting self-expression through which one stand up for his or her basic rights without denying the rights of others and without experiencing undo anxiety or guilt
5. possessing nonjudgmental attitude that diminishes the use of labels, stereotypes, and prejudices
6. taking responsibility for oneself by not making other people responsible for who we are, what we do, and how we think and feel
7. communicating wants, dislikes, and feelings in a clear, direct manner without threatening or attacking.
GOALS – are to increase your confidence, professionalism, ability to deal effectively of your life and by enhancing your skill to express yourself without violating your own rights or others.
Many supervisors perform both managerial and supervisory functions.
Manager ..................................... Supervisor
Sets goals.............................. Meets the goals
Plans ........................................Implements the plan
Does not schedule others work ........... Schedules workers
Anticipates problems ................... Solves problems as they occur
Plans the staffing of supervisory positions ... Hires workers as needed
Knows all relevant functional areas ..... Knows his or her own area
Cannot replace an absent staff member ........Can replace an absent staff member
Delegates training .................... Trains
Finds new resources .................... Distributes the resources
Represents the company ........................Represents the workers and the company
Needs information from company executives ......Needs information from his or her immediate supervisor
Spends time with peers in other departments ....Stays in his or her own department
Meets people outside the organization ........Does not meet people outside the organization
Mediates and negotiates at organizational levels ....Mediates and negotiates at the unit level
Has ceremonial duties, such as speeches, and is involved in community affairs .....Has no ceremonial duties
CH2 BUILDING BLOCKS TO MANAGING ASSERTIVELY From Managing Assertively a self-teaching guide by Madelyn Burley-Allen
1. building self-esteem
2. knowing how to listen
3. taking risks
4. knowing how to say no
5. knowing how to give constructive feedback
6. handling criticism
7. knowing how to express and receive positive feedback
8. knowing what you want
BUILDING SELF ESTEEM p. 18
Many supervisors have trouble accepting compliments about the work they do and taking credit for their accomplishments.
Understanding the importance of self esteem is one of the most essential building blocks to assertive supervision
KNOWING HOW TO LISTEN p.20
Just sitting with your mouth closed and nodding your head does not constitute effective listening.
Good listening requires that your listen with your eyes and your other senses as well as your ears.
TAKING RISKS P.22
The risks you take fall into the following categories
1. speaking up for what you believe
2. asking for what you want
3. stating your limits
4. expressing your expectations of others
People are led to believe that asking for what they want is not OK, and therefore doing so is scary.
KNOWING HOW TO SAY NO p.26
Your success relies heavily on your ability to meet goals, implement plans, distribute resources, and mediate and negotiate in your own unit. It is important for you to know what you are willing and able to do with your limited time.
KNOWING HOW TO GIVE CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK p.29
An assertive supervisor will call attention to a problem in a way that motivates the employee to correct it. This is done by letting the employee know what he or she needs to change, that is, stating what should be done about it.
Constructive Feedback :
--is stated in specific terms instead of vague, general ones
--is directed at behavior, rather than personalities
--is an observation of events, rather than labels or emotional judgment
--focuses on a coaching style instead of put-downs
--allows the receiver to solve his or her problems
HANDLING CRITICISM p.31
6th building block is the ability to handle criticism from others without being defensive or upset. There are several factors that may lead you to handle criticism emotionally rather than effectively:
--taking the criticism personally instead of seeing it as corrective feedback
--failing to separate founded from unfounded criticism
--reading into the criticism some message that isn’t there
--seeing the criticism as an invitation to get angry or to judge oneself harshly or punitively
--failing to get specifics and examples of what is being criticized
--believing that expressing criticism is bad or wrong
Recognize the type of criticism being directed at you and then choose the appropriate response.
--teasing kind of criticism requires either limit-setting or a humorous response
--when faced with the “blowing off” kind of criticism – don’t take it personally and concentrate on understanding that it is an emotional release that doesn’t involve yourself directly.
--when faced with the problem solving kind of criticism, help the person tell you what you have been doing wrong, and why it is a problem, then find out what they believe should be done about it. Then come up with a solution that is acceptable to both of you.
KNOWING HOW TO EXPRESS AND RECEIVE POSITIVE FREEDBACK p.32
7th building block is the skill of giving and receiving positive feedback. An effective supervisor knows that people are motivated when they are appreciated, treated with respect, and given credit for a job well done.
When receiving positive feedback simply say “thank you” or “I appreciate your noticing” otherwise you are discounting the positive evaluation of the giver.
KNOWING WHAT YOU WANT p.35
8th building block is knowing what you want, setting goals, and develops a plan to accomplish them. Relies heavily on persistence, perseverance, and the unwillingness to give up despite obstacles.
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Nov 01, 2005
Nov 01, 2005
Creative Problem Solving an Introduction 4th ed by Donald J Treffinger, Scott G Isaksen, and K. Brian Stead-Dorval
Creative Problem Solving (CPS)
1. Creative Problem Solving an Introduction 4th ed by Donald J Treffinger, Scott G Isaksen, and K. Brian Stead-Dorval
Creative Problem Solving (CPS)
1. Define or understand the nature of a problem
2. Think up some new ideas
3. Devise and carry out a plan of action
“Everyone has the ability to think creatively and critically, and everyone can be successful in solving problems effectively and productively.” P 1
Use CPS to be more creatively productive.
1. Recognize opportunities, challenges, and concerns
2. Examine data in your situation to discover the most important challenge at he heart of the situation
3. Consider many ways to state the problem, and then select a specific problem statement that will stimulate ideas
4. Generate many, varied, and unusual ideas for dealing with the problem you’ve stated
5. Identify and use tools for choosing, analyzing, and developing promising ideas
6. Examine promising possible solutions and then plan for successful implementation
7. Design and carry out a specific and detailed plan of action.
Creative and Critical Thinking
“Creative and critical thinking are two complementary, mutually important ways of thinking.”
Creative thinking involves encountering gaps, paradoxes, opportunities, challenges, or concerns, and then searching for meaningful new connections by generating:
--varied possibilities (from different viewpoints or perspectives)
--unusual or original possibilities
--details to expand or enrich possibilities
Creative thinking is a divergent process, in which we begin at a single point or with a single question and extend our search in many different directions, generating a wade variety of new possibilities.
Critical thinking involves examining possibilities carefully, fairly, and constructively, and then focusing your thoughts and actions by:
--organizing and analyzing possibilities
--refining and developing promising possibilities
--ranking or prioritizing options
--choosing or deciding on certain options
Critical thinking is called convergent thinking. The process of attempting to take many different ideas and draw them together toward a single goal or result.
Effective Problem Solvers
Effective Problem solvers must be able to use creative and critical thinking - generating and focusing – balancing both - not just one or the other. We must be able to generate multiple options and then choose the best option or group of options to work toward solving a problem.
Balancing the process of generating and focusing options – also involves several basic principles or guidelines – which will make it easier to understand and use all the specific tools and methods in the CPS framework.
Guidelines for generating options
We should always strive to keep our minds open to all possibilities. During the generating stage – when we are exploring and searching for new ideas - evaluation just gets in the way.
1. Defer judgment – separate generating from judging ideas - Brainstorming lets the ideas flow without any criticism or praise. Brainstorming generates options and stretches the search for some new and unique possibilities. This steps allows for generating a good, full, rich set of possibilities that are written down – so they can be evaluated later.
2. Strive for Quantity – Look for lots of options. Quantity often breeds quality in that the more options you generate, the greater the possibility that at least some of the options will be original and promising for use. List all the options – in just a few words – don’t discuss them at this point.
3. Freewheel and accept all options – capture all thoughts that come to mind without worrying that they may be too “wild” or “silly.” Give yourself permission to be playful and outrageous. Strive for uniqueness or originality. Sometime the wildest options might serve as springboards for other new possibilities. Often it is easier to tame a wild idea than to breathe excitement into a dull one. Stretch your mind. Productive thinking using CPS requires extended effort. Keep at it, searching for possibilities that don’t just pop into the mind right away.
4. Seek Combinations – very often one possibility leads to another. In conversation we often say – “oh yes, that reminds me … “ In CPS, everyone in the group is encouraged to be alert for new ways to connect one possibility to another and to build new ones.
Guidelines for Focusing Options
It is often important and valuable to look at the many shades of gray of possibilities, and not just the black and white. We should always look at possibilities carefully, constructively, and with an eye toward strengthening or developing those that are intriguing or promising. We should examine possibilities is ways that will illustrate how they might be refined, strengthened or developed to become successful. Our first step in focusing is:
1. Practice affirmative judgment – analyze ideas constructively – this step emphasizes the need to screen, select, and then support your choices. Train yourself to look for the strengths or the positive aspects of options first. Look for advantages or strengths. Consider the possibilities’ “potential.” What future benefits might emerge if some of the unusual options prove successful. Look at limits and how they might be gotten around … and if it might be worth the trouble. Evaluation and decision making should be constructive processes intended to get the best out of all options. Seek a balanced assessment of the positives, potentials and concerns of each option. Emphasize constructive rather than destructive thinking. Put more emphasis on building possibilities up rather than tearing them down.
2. Be deliberate and explicit – effective focusing involves making choices and decisions. Be deliberate and methodical in your approach. What are the criteria that should influence your decision? (may include formal, logical criteria, personal feelings, and values). Critical thinking is an important part of CPS. Being deliberate means knowing and using specific tools or strategies to examine and analyze ideas, and being systematic in your approach. Be explicit about what you are doing, express your choices and reasons clearly, work hard to be aware of and to overcome hidden agendas, and use logic and good sense.
3. Consider both novelty and the appropriateness – when selecting promising options – ask yourself ---- Is it a new or original possibility? ----Does it really move you forward or closer to a successful solution?
4. Stay on Course – Keep your eyes on your destination, making decisions and correcting your course as you travel along. What are the goals and objectives we’re trying to achieve? Which of the options help us move in the right direction?
Basic tools to organize your own creative and critical thinking and problem-solving abilities. Will be good to define some basic terms at this point.
--- A tool is a specific device that aids in accomplishing any task or operation. (golf clubs and golf balls are an example of tools)
---Your strategy is your working plan, continuously being monitored and carried out for choosing and using tools needed to accomplish your goal. Knowing what tool or tools to use at the proper time and understanding why they are the most appropriate tool for what needs to be done. (choosing a 9 iron when stepping up to the first tee or choosing a putter when on the green – 3 feet from the hole)
---Technique has to do with how you use the tool(s) you have selected. There are often many ways to use individual tools, not just one “right” or “wrong” way. (in golf, technique might involve the grip; the placement of your arms, legs, and head; the swing or stroke; and the follow-through)
(Table didn't copy)
We have looked at the starting points for solving problems creatively
--creative thinking or generating options
--critical thinking or focusing options
--basic guidelines to follow when generating and focusing options
This is not enough to help everyone be an effective or productive problem solver. Also need to be able to build on those foundations skillfully, by learning and using a deliberate process or system for creative problem solving – a well-organized, deliberate set of methods you can call upon whenever you need to clarify any complex, open-ended (“messy”) situation, find and develop new ideas, or plan to implement new solutions.
CPS is based on a substantial foundation of theory and research about creativity and problem solving.
CPS has been a very dynamic model. It has grown and changed continuously in an on-going effort to represent as effectively as possible the strategies and actions used by effective, creative problem solvers in dealing with real problems and challenges. While CPS has been studied in experimental research for 5 decades, it has also always been a model that draws as closely as possible on what people really do when they are solving problems.
We believe that CPS is also a very practical, useful approach, suitable for the everyday situations we all encounter.
Everyone can use CPS, and using it will be helpful to you in your personal life, at home and in your family, and in your job or career.
CPS as a System for Solving Problems and Managing Change
A system is an organized and connected group of things that are associated in such a way that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. We call our current approach to CPS a “system” for creative problem solving.
At a foundation level, this CPS system includes the guidelines, language, and needed tools.
At the operational level, CPS includes three components and six stages that describe the purpose of your problem-solving efforts as well as specific use of language to guide your thinking.
At the meta-cognitive level, CPS includes a management component that includes stages of Appraising Tasks and Designing Process.
To understand the general structure of CPS, we might simply ask, “What are the most important things people have to be able to do when they’re working on a problem?”
Effective problem solvers do not always need all three components, or all six stages, and it is not necessary for them always to use the components or stages in a single, fixed sequence or order.
Core Purposes of CPS Components and Stages (Use following as needed --- in the order needed)
--Set image for future direction
--Figure out your current situation
--Identify and frame problems to address
--Generate new ideas for solving problems
--Develop, strengthen or make decisions about promising solutions
--Examine Forces influencing your success and develop powerful plans
Four components and 8 specific stages in CPS – though may not use all of them every time.
One Management Component
I. Planning Your Approach
Three Process Components
II. Understanding the challenge
III. Generating ideas
IV. Preparing for action
Planning Your Approach: The Management Component of CPS
There are many
Where CPS is appropriate … and as many when it is not appropriate.
“Doctors prescribe specific treatments or responses once they understand the nature of the illness or injury or condition. You would be suspicious of a doctor who gave you a remedy and then asked you what was wrong. The same idea holds true with solving problems effectively. It is important and necessary to understand the nature of the task before you decide to use CPS.” P 21
A task is any
--piece of work
That needs your
The ELEMENTS of the Appraising Tasks stage are
--identify and examine the key people involved in the task
--identify the desired results or outcomes your hope to attain or accomplish
--explore the situation or context in which the task exists
--determine the appropriateness of using CPS on the task
People – understanding the people involved
--identify and understand the key players
--understand how they are involved
--how do they interact and work together
--how will they define, structure and deal with the task.
Different people’s problem solving style preferences also make a difference –
3 important dimensions of problem-solving style are
--orientation to change
--manner of processing
--ways of deciding
Orientation to change dimension –
--preferences people have for the kind of change they like to create
-----developer style – uses structure and boundaries to find new thinking inside the box
-----explorer style – produces new thinking outside the box
Manner of Processing dimension –
--how people think about their ideas and when they choose to share them
-----internal processers – will share ideas after much thought and reflection, seeking confirmation of their ideas
-----external processers – will offer ideas that are “seedlings” and look for input and refinement
Way of Deciding dimension –
--what do people emphasize first when making decisions
-----focus on the task first – consider the logic and quality of the outcome
-----focus in people first – emphasize issues such as harmony in relationships when making decisions
Content – Understanding the desired results
Clarifying the qualities of the desired outcome will help determine
--the kind of change desired in the task
--the overall size of the task
--the best place to begin working on the task
If there is no need for something new or different in the desired results, then CPS may not be necessary.
The size of the task also makes a difference.
Understanding the tasks most important starting point also helps to determine if CPS is worthwhile to use.
“You may need to start with an alternative method of problem solving before using CPS. For example, if there is a very high level of tension among the members of a group or a team, it may be best to begin with conflict resolution or group-building methods.” P23
Context – Understanding the Situation
Examining the context help you to understand the likelihood of action resulting from your CPS efforts. It also promotes an understanding of the opportunities that might exist for applying CPS.
If the context is ready, willing, and able to support people taking action, it increases the chances of CPS being appropriate.
The context is able to support CPS when there are people, physical and fiscal resources necessary to effectively address the task.
Method – Understanding the Process Options
This approach to CPS is only one of many processes available for solving problems and creating change.
-Understanding of CPS
-Its potential to address a task
-The availability of other processes
Will influence if you choose to use CPS or not.
If you have the right people, who want a new and useful outcome, are in a situation that calls for change, and are willing to invest the costs to get the benefits, the task may be appropriate for CPS.
Several more chapters
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Oct 04, 2004
Oct 04, 2004
Little Book of Ethics for Coaches by Karen Colby Weiner, J.D., Ph.D.
www.webcoaches.com/advantage/ethics.h Little Book of Ethics for Coaches by Karen Colby Weiner, J.D., Ph.D.
Necessary Elements of Contracts
5 essential elements
1. Competent parties
2. Relevant subject matter
3. Legal consideration
4. Mutuality of agreement
5. Mutuality of oblication
Psychotherapy Language Coaching Language
Intervene move forward
Help/rescue be proactive
Heal (discomfort/pain) take action
Confront take action
Process (feeling) induce acknowledge
Manifest (symptoms) brainstorm
symptoms & source conditions accomplish
low self worth follow up/follow through
mood disorders respond
anxiety disorders communicate
social disorders CONTENT
phobia positive action steps
depression self improvement
latent desires results
abusive behavior self-responsibility
destructive behavior projects
recurrent/repetitive patterns measurement
psychic roots of problems problems
delusion skills development
severity levels money management systems
adult/child behaviors management
pathology interpersonal communication
dependence issues skills
loneliness and isolation purpose
grief (effects and process of) success
periods of choice
obsessive behavior options
functioning level leadership
course (of a disorder) response
associated features deadline
follow up and follow through
vision and mission
spiritual development/fulfillment (as a result of actions taken)
When it might be OK to speak out Page 39
“Circumstances which in most states justify a breach of a right to confidentiality include a client’s serious threat of harm to an identified third party, a client’s serious threat of suicide, and/or a client having engaged in the abuse of a child, senior citizen, or a disabled individual. These exceptions have been carved out by the courts and legislatures in most states based upon the rationale that the public safety outweighs the right to confidentiality in a helping relationship.”
RISK MANAGEMENT Page 43
-keep yourself and other calm
-if you have decisions to make, consult, consult, consult
-if the situation has the potential to result in a lawsuit, consult an attorney as soon as possible
-be sure you have all the pertinent facts
-be sincere … never be a phony in any of your coaching interactions.
-be helpful rather than adversarial
-be as open as you can. When others are involved, however, be careful not to violate confidentiality. Try to obtain a waiver of confidentiality if talking to others could help a situation. (You don’t need to have a waiver when consulting; there is no reason to breach confidentiality by the use of names or other identifying information.)
-take good care of yourself by the use of support system, coaching, consultations, and/pr therapy.
-be sure to maintain professional liability insurance
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Jan 01, 1994
Putting Service into Library Staff Training
by Joanne M Bessler
Putting Service into Library Staff Training by Joanne M Bessler
Service for new employees Putting Service into Library Staff Training
by Joanne M Bessler
Putting Service into Library Staff Training by Joanne M Bessler
Service for new employees … To highlight the library’s commitment to excellent service and to make the orientation process an effective service boost, you must make certain that your program says that service is important, shows that service is important, and treats the new employee in a service-oriented way.
MISSION OF MCLS
The Monroe County Library System enriches the quality of life for all residents of the county by providing free access to informational, educational and recreational resources.
1. Our Patron’s needs should be the focus of all of our efforts. Each Staff Member’s job is to consider and care about our Patrons.
2. Our goal is to offer the maximum amount of service feasible at a given point in time.
3. Quality service depends on the judgment, imagination, and responsiveness of individual Staff Members.
4. Our Patrons include residents of Monroe County, everyone who works or goes to school in Monroe County, and everyone who owns land in Monroe County. Everyone who walks through the door of any library building in Monroe County is also welcome to use our services within the building so they are our Patrons too. While immediate needs often demand our attention, we must consider future Patrons in planning our development and in building and preserving our collections.
5. Our Staff Members are Patrons too. We must show each other the same respect and helpfulness that we show our Patrons.
6. I will back you up in anything you do, when you can show me that what you did helped a Patron.
20 second technique toward managing emotions; this technique also allows new Staff Members to help Patrons.
1. Think what are my goals? #1 goal is happy Patrons
2. What can't I control? Patron thoughts, feelings or behavior
3. What can I control? my reaction and my actions
4. What are my choices? depending on work place, provide a good experience for each Patron
5. What are the consequences of my choices? do the choices support goals in #1?
Putting Service Into Library Staff Training. Page 13
Proctor and Gamble – 6 weeks of training
Banana Republic – I heard is good too
Systematic Training Outline to stress:
1. Reflecting your library’s service ideals
2. Skillfully performing job responsibilities
3. Cooperating with other staff to upgrade service
See page 15 for specific ideas of when and what – Library Orientation Outline
Organizational Values – 1st week
Individuals role in relation to mission
Relationship between mission and & evaluations & budget process
General Orientation – 1st week
Introduce to rest of staff
encourage staff to act as “coaches”
Get to know new staff member
location of primary resources and services
basic desk procedures
Patron Assistance Orientation – 1st week
Interpersonal Skills – 1st week
encouraging patron follow-up
treating staff as patrons
Organizational Values – 2nd week
approach to rules – when in doubt give it out
rules that may frustrate patrons
goals behind key policies
General Orientation – 2nd week
how to operate equipment
how to complete necessary forms
phone system tricks
location of …..
Patron Assistance Orientation – 2nd week
how to do simple searches on the catalog
types of reference sources
analyzing reference questions
location of the most frequently requested sources
Interpersonal Skills – 2nd week
connecting with other branches is encouraged
coping with stressful individuals and situations
Organizational Values – 3rd week
General Orientation – 3rd week
Patron Assistance Orientation – 3rd week
Evaluating reference sources – paper or online
Interpersonal Skills – 3rd week
dealing with irate patrons
dealing with patrons with special needs
intervening when another staff member is misinforming a patron
A critical part of orientation training is showing staff who do not work at a service desk how their work affects patrons. (Page 17 Putting Service into Library Staff Training)
Training program should focus on technical skills as well as service skills (p19)
Page 22 – 2 skits excellent service example … example less than perfect resources & training
Greeting the Patron as they walk in the building (p 23)
Greet everyone who walks through the door. This includes the delivery driver, the post office employee and the person who delivers the newspaper.
Greeting the Patron
The Patron is IT – the Individual Target for your service skills. That patron must become the center of your attention.
Each and every patron becomes your “Moment of Truth”
When you are dealing with a patron you need to focus on the moment. Nothing else is more important than the patron in front of you.
Greet the patron
- quickly acknowledge the patron’s presence, even if you cannot immediately attend to the patron’s needs.
-focus all of your attention on the individual patron.
-include some sign of encouragement (such as a nod or a smile) and avoid any evidence of annoyance or exhaustion
-is offered by a person who looks competent/professional – ie well-groomed, seems engaged in some work activity, and is not snacking in a service area.
In short, a good greeting assures the patron that he has reached someone who will help him. Heightening staff sensitivity to the need for a positive greeting and to the elements of such a greeting is usually enough to inspire a gracious greeting.
Identifying the Patron’s Need (p 24)
No matter where you work, you need to develop careful listening skills.
Good listening skills include:
-paying attention to the words, expressions, and body language of the speaker
-using body language to express your continued concentration on the speaker by nodding and leaning forward
-uttering some simple phrases such as “I see,” or “go on”
-permitting the speaker to hold the floor
-asking brief questions and using rephrasing to test your understanding of the patron’s actual desire.
Responding to the Need (p 25)
staff members should be encouraged to offer a range of options whenever possible:
“You can pay your fine with cash or a check, ask for more time to search for the missing item, or speak to the supervisor about this matter.”
“I can give you change when our cash drawer is open, or you can run to the bank down the block to get your change.”
“quality service is …finding a feasible solution that pleases your patron.”
one measure of quality service is that it earns a “thank you.” Carter stressed that people say “thank you” when they feel they have been treated pleasantly and fairly and have been offered something of value. (Dun Bradstreet “Exceptional Customer Service” workshop)
Follow Up (p 26)
To make sure that your service is effective as well as cordial, encourage staff to build follow-up mechanisms into their work routines.
-and most effective – include a parting line such as
“If this source doesn’t supply all of the information you need, please let me know.” OR
“Please stop back if you have any more questions.”
In Search of Excellence
Client Centered Service : How to keep them coming back for more by David W Cottle (1990)
The Service Edge: 101 companies that profit from customer care by Ron Zemke and Dick Schaaf (1989)
Handbook of Library Training Practice by Ray Prytherch (1986)
National Institute of Business Management’s Service and Satisfaction: A Frontline employees workbook (1989)
The BBP Customer Service Management Handbook from the Bureau of Better Business Practice (1987)
Serving them Right: Innovative and Powerful Customer Retention Strategies by Laura Liswood (1990)
Service America! Doing Business in the New Economy by Karl Albrecht and Ron Zemke (1985)
Frontline Customer Service: 15 Keys to Customer Satisfaction by Clay Carr (1990)
Responsible assertive behavior: Cognitive/Behavioral procedures for Trainers by Arthur J Lange and Patricia Jakubowski (1976)
Keeping Customers for Life by Joan Koob Cannie with Donald Caplin (1991)
Identifying the Patrons Need
The second step in basic service is identifying the patron’s need.
The following techniques can help reassure any help-seeking individual.
Good listening skills include:
-paying attention to the words, expressions, and body language of the speaker.
-using body language to express your continued concentration on the speaker by nodding or leaning forward
-uttering some simple phrases such as “I see,” or “Go on.”
-permitting the speaker to hold the floor
-asking brief questions and using rephrasing to test your understanding of the patron’s actual desires.
Responding to the Need
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Aug 10, 2006
Aug 10, 2006
10 7 20 Streetwise small business book of lists edited by Gene Marks
last 100 pages good info – good personal info if want info on health care options 10 7 20 Streetwise small business book of lists edited by Gene Marks
last 100 pages good info – good personal info if want info on health care options or benefit options or any other benefit plans for myself … I think most are listed in the book eg COBRA info …. Don’t buy a copy but keep it on the good list
For women - free
figuring out what you want to do
Proposals – what to include
How to hire professionals consultants …
Customers (Customer Relations Management CRM)
Marketing – lots
Key questions to ask during an interview p 593 Kelly Services www.kellyservices.com
1. What do you consider your most significant accomplishments
2. What do you consider your most significant strengths
3. Why do you believe you are qualified for this job
4. How have you grown or changed over the past few years
What to look for when Interviewing a Job Candidate p 594 Kelly Services www.kellyservices.com
1. Did you feel comfortable shaking the person’s hand
2. What kind of facial expressions does the applicant exhibit
3. What about posture
4. Does the candidate emanate confidence or does he/she appear timid or withdrawn
5. How are the candidates verbal skills
6. What about the tone of voice
7. Is there proper eye control
8. Does the candidate have the ability to listen, rather than just talk
9. What about the individuals attitude
10. Look for confidence without arrogance
11. Look for a strong candidate
12. You’re not just looking for a new person you should aim to improve your organization
13. Find out how the person’s background translate to your industry
14. In the candidate’s tone of voice you should hear implied “you need me because I bring these things”
15. As you and the applicant talk, try to measure how this person will relate to you, your boss, and your boss’s boss
16. Don’t look for “yes” people
17. For the good of your company, keep this motto in mind “I want to hire my replacement”
Ways to Avoid Burnout p.609 info from Susan Martin www.business-sanity.com
1. ID the stressor
3. Schedule some “me” time
4. Consult your DR
5. Take care of #1
6. Get back in touch with things you value
7. Think outside the box and challenge yourself consistently
8. Establish realistic expectations for what you can and cannot accomplish
9. Learn to communicate clearly
10. Manage your time
11. Stop blaming yourself and others
12. Value yourself by establishing boundaries and limits
13. Deal with your emotions
14. Don’t fee embarrassed to ask for help
Top Ways to Maximize Your Training Dollars p.613 info from Mike McGrail www.mcgrailgroup.com
1. Assess both the organization and the individuals to determine training needs
2. ID the top 3 areas of training needed within the organization
3. Create training goals
4. Use mentoring and coaching to reinforce training
5. Use batch training whenever possible
6. Measure results from training
7. Use blended learning to cut costs – launch trng in classroom and then continue via e-learning
8. Enhance employee retention
9. Use biblio-training to supplement training programs
Steps for Dealing with a problem employee p 616 info from Megan Tough www.completepotential.com
1. Recognize the problem behavior usually has a history
2. Access your responsibility
3. Don’t focus on only the overt behavior
4. Be attentive to “awkward silence” and to what is not said
5. Clarify before you confront
6. Be willing to explore the possibility that you have contributed to the problem
7. Plan your strategy
8. Treat the employee as an adult and expect adult behavior
9. Treat interpersonal conflicts differently
10. Gain agreement on the steps to be taken and the results expected
Tips for managing remote employees p.629 info from Phil Montero YouCanWorkFromAnywhere.com
1 Manage by results, not activity
The managers job is to provide specific, measurable, and attainable goals for the teleworker to meet so that he or she knows what must be done and when. It is important that the manager and the employee arrive at a shared definition of the deliverables and time table together. It also ensures that the goals and expectations are realistic.
2 Improving communication
3 Handling meetings and schedules
4 feedback and support – schedule regular meetings
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Sep 25, 1996
Sep 01, 1996
Building a Career Development Program: nine steps for effective implementation by Richard L. Knowdell
(Tables not included and most valuable info in th
Building a Career Development Program: nine steps for effective implementation by Richard L. Knowdell
(Tables not included and most valuable info in the tables)
Personal Career Development
Empower employees to take charge of their own career.
The 4 stages of career development
Stage #1 Assessment: What are my skills, values, interests, and work style?
Stage #2 Exploration: What options do I have?
Stage #3 Goal Setting & Planning: Which option is the best possible option for me, i.e., my goal?
Why is this the best goal for me?
Stage #4 Strategy: How will I get to my goal?
What specific behaviors will I engage in to get there?
When will each step occur?
Who else is involved or needs to be involved?
Career Development analogies – is a process, not an event
1950s - train – set path and jump on for the fixed ride
1970s - bus – someone else still driving but route could change
Present - SUV – we are in driver’s seat, SUV is flexible and fast, no fixed schedules and route can change in a minute
New Managerial Model
New manager will not be expected to be a technical marvel who will teach and monitor workers closely. He or she will perform as a symphony conductor who facilitates the actions of dozens of musicians, who know their instruments better than the conductor, to create a product that none of them could have created on their own.
For this new model to work, employees must become empowered and must also take control of their own individual careers.
Career development often directed mostly toward “young professionals.”
Career development may not be possible for low-skill jobs with low pay. We have moved swiftly toward a society of high-skilled “haves” and low-skilled “have-nots,” and we have some choice about which group we belong to.
Career development favors the knowledge worker
Overspecialization without a broad base of knowledge can lead to obsolescence. Security for the knowledge worker (if there is such a thing anymore as security) rests not in the mastery of a specific job at a specific organization, but in the personal development of a body of knowledge and skills that is transportable across organizations and occupations. P.15
[Problem solving – communication skills – technologically savvy]
1. Employee’s view – promotions and upward mobility, hopefully within the next year
2. Career counselor’s view - process that involves hard work and discipline, assessment techniques, exploratory research, goal setting, planning activities, and continuing education.
3. Supervisor’s view – how can I motivate, coach, and keep good employees and get rid of poor performers? (motivation and retention) Keeping good employees sometimes in conflict with encouraging career development of these same employees. (focus on now)
4. Top Management view – identifying potential managers or succession planning. Identifying who to train for new positions and when they are ready to be moved. (focus on 5 to 7 years in the future)
5. Middle Manager’s view – focus on process – how works with EEO and affirmative action, how does it relate to our management training, our organizational development systems, job posting program, the employment function, and many other functions already in place that relate to human relations.
Clerical Employees - often interested in benefitting from career development too: clerical employees should view career as a portfolio of valuable, transferable skills rather than by job description. Can set new goals and create strategic plans to meet these goals.
Mature professionals – often feel isolated – want more challenge – is this all there is? Self-esteem suffers and so do the personnel they work with or supervise.
Specialized worker – take control of career – new generations in technology often occur at least twice a year – make sure stay up to speed. Make sure personal priorities stay as important as professional priorities for long term success.
Couple of resources –
Bolles - What color is your parachute?
Keirsey & Bates – Please understand me!
Career development voluntary or involuntary
Voluntary career transition Involuntary career transition
Assessment of skills Ventilation of feelings
Exploration of Options Assessment of skills
Focus on appropriate goal Exploration of options
Strategy Implementation Focus on appropriate goals
death of close relative
Divorce or termination of a long term relationship
Termination of lay-off from career or job
Typical response to traumatic event
Assessing the characteristics and strengths of the individual p.61
Career satisfaction and success depends on how compatible the career is with the individual's career values, occupational interests, skills, and work or management style.
Employee Career Profile
Section I Career assessment
1. List your 6 to 8 most important career values
2. List your 6 to 8 strongest career interests
3. List your 6 to 8 most highly motivated skills
4. List your highest one or two work or management styles
Section II Career exploration
1. List at least 5 jobs or careers that you can pursue
Section III Career focus – your goal
1. List the option from Section II that fits you best
What is your goal?
2. Why is this the best goal for you? List evidence (skills, values, etc.) that show the above goal is the very best possible goal for you.
Section IV Career strategy and implementation plan
1. How will you get to your goal? What specific behavior will you engage in to attain your goal? Be clear and specific about what you will do.
2. When will each step to your career goal occur?
3. Who will be affected by your plan? Who can help you in your plan?
Copyright 1996 by Richard L Knowdell, Career Research & Testing Inc
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
May 11, 2001
May 15, 2001
Changes of all kinds necessitate continuous updating of knowledge and skills, as well as changes in attitudes.
The term supervisor has been used Preface
Changes of all kinds necessitate continuous updating of knowledge and skills, as well as changes in attitudes.
The term supervisor has been used throughout this book to describe the first level of management. Emphasis has been placed on “how to do it” by describing practical principles, techniques, and examples.
Training refers to the teaching of specific knowledge and skills required on the supervisors current job.
Development is broader and contributes to the growth of the individual and the preparation for higher-level jobs.
Principles and techniques in the books are designed to meet the challenges that face supervisors in the new millennium. Four of the most common are:
--Diversity in the work force
--Need for quality improvement
--Emphasis on self directed work teams or teamwork
We have always had diversity in the workforce. Differences have been in race and gender … also attitudes, education, emotional stability, skills, physical characteristics, and personality. The emphasis needs to be on understanding employees and respecting their differences.
There is nothing new about the need for quality improvement. Businesses have always had to balance quality with quantity, cost, and the schedule of the customer. With increased competition, need to upgrade quality standards or else go out of business.
Empowerment in a changing world helps everyone accept change. When you determine what needs to be done you already own the solution. Employee participation and employee involvement have been emphasized for many years, empowerment is just a new “buzz word” to describe involving employees in change.
There are 4 basic approaches a supervisor can use in making decisions:
1. Decide without getting any input from subordinates
2. Ask subordinates for input, consider it, and then decide
3. Conduct a problem solving meeting with subordinates and lead them in reaching a consensus
4. Give subordinates the power/authority to make decisions without the leadership/influence of the supervisor.
The last of these approaches is empowerment with the formation of self-directed work teams. In 1981 George A. Odiorne stated “the best option for change is one created by the people who must implement it, or one for which the implementers can claim ownership.” In 1963 Norman R F Maier emphasized the need for involvement. He stated the greater the need for acceptance on the part of those implementing a decision, the more the need for participation.
Honeywell encourages supervisors/managers to delegate decision making to the lowest appropriate level. This encourages involvement and possibly empowerment, but still gives supervisors/managers the authority to decide what is appropriate.
This book written for human resource and training professionals as well as executives and middle-level managers.
PART I Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation
Ch1 Importance of supervisory training and development
Mid and top level managers rate supervisors as being 50 to 65% effective. They lack :
--a clear understanding of what is expected of them
--the proper attitude and motivation to do their best
--the knowledge and skills that are necessary to do the job
Not understanding what is expected is not a training issue --- this is a communication problem between the supervisor and their boss.
Poor attitude or lack of motivation can be improved through training and so can lack of knowledge and skills.
The main thrust of supervisory training and development should be to improve the performance of a supervisor on the current job. Attitudes, knowledge, and skills can be improved and immediate payoff obtained in improved performance and productivity of the workers they supervise.
It must be mentioned that training may not be the answer to every situation. The well-known Peter Principle (that every employee tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence) must be considered. Not amount of training will help in this situation. In these cases, the supervisor must be removed from the job, or the job must be modified to fit the supervisor.
Ch2 Responsibility and Authority for Supervisory Training
Four people in an organization should be held responsible for the training and development of a supervisor.
His or her boss
The training professional
The supervisor – each supervisor is responsible for his or her own development. They should set goals and objectives and work toward them every day.
The boss – every boss is responsible for the development of his or her subordinates. The boss is responsible for their performance and in this ever changing world, performance often depends on their training and development. The bosses emphasis should be on improving current job performance.
Top Management – must provide the proper climate for growth and development as well as set aside time and money.
They must support the philosophy and provide policies for a successful program too.
Training professionals – can be hired in larger organizations. The training professional is hired to see that effective training is carried out. They need to understand how supervisors learn and provide the type of training needed. Training professionals need to work effectively with managers so must depend on influence, not power, as their key to success.
Ch3 Philosophy, Strategy, and Guiding Principles
Examples from 5 companies outlined
Dana – People, Organization, Communication
Florida Power – Performance Orientation, Principles of Learning, Learning Objectives, Systematic Approach,
IBM – Basic beliefs of IBM, increased focus on leadership, general business management, skills in managing people – empowerment, teamwork, managing teams, management of change
Kimberly Clark – 3 areas : KimEd – academic, cultural, or job-related vocational courses; FamEd – savings accounts that accumulate money for family education; Extended leaves up to a year to pursue special activities; Administration – a Plan committee acts to administer the educational plans.
ServiceMaster – on the job skills in addition to other skills – basic elements of planning, project management - follow through - need for delegation and basic techniques - giving good orders skills, verbal and written – how to develop and assign performance expectations – standards use – how to nurture employees who show potential – training on how to understand the supervisory role - communication how to – develop climate of trust and openness – job skill trng techniques so can train employees – basic ways employees learn. Lots of specific information shared under this one --- look at it again. Manuals are developed for each unit and given to participants so they own the training – use of overhead visuals, case studies, videos, role playing, small group discussion, written assignments, accountability sessions, team assignments, review of recent articles.
In all 5 companies training emphasizes the importance and concern for people and the belief that each one is important. Each company provides opportunities for employees to grow and develop. Empowerment and teamwork important in all 5.
CH4 Conditions for Maximum Learning by Supervisors
11 authors outlined
Brookfield, Stephen D – Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning – he quotes WB James on basic principles of adult learning
1. Adults maintain the ability to learn
2. adults have widely differing preferences, needs, backgrounds, and skills
3. adults experience a gradual decline in physical/sensory capabilities
4. experience of the learner is a major resource in learning situations
5. self-concept moves from dependency to independency as individuals grow in responsibility, experience, and confidence
6. adults tend to be life-centered in their orientation to learning
7. adults are motivated to learn by a variety of factors
8. active learner participation in the process contributes to learning
9. comfortable, supportive climate, is a key to successful learning
Cantor, Nathaniel – Learning Process for Managers
The average adult has learned how not to learn. Have to change to learn and this is uncomfortable for many folks. Seeing Inter-relationships, and readjusting and modifying behavior is the essence of learning. To learn is to reshape, reform, and remake one’s experiences.
Hendrickson, Andrew – Adult Leadership and article not a book –
1. Good teaching provides for encouragement and and experience of success as soon as possible
2. Relation between pleasant social atmosphere and a satisfying educational experience
3. Need for frequently recurring experiences of success
4. Learning speed of learners varies
5. Validity of the principle of involvement
6. Recognizes adults themselves as a prime teaching resource
7. Concreteness and immediacy of most adult goals
8. Takes into account the key place that motivation holds in the learning process
9. Recognizes physical and mental fatigue as a deterring factor in adult learning.
Kidd, JR – How Adults Learn
Theories and their applications in learning
--most folks can learn if they try
--aging itself doesn’t hamper learning
--positive feelings generate more efficient learning – fear and anger are deterrents to learning
--most critical factor pertaining to success in learning is motivation … subject matter, environmental factors, methods, and techniques are also important but engagement of the individual in the process makes all the difference in what is learned.
The key to learning is engagement: a relationship between the learner, the task or subject matter, the environment, and the teacher. We cannot change the learner … but most everything else can be adjusted in some way by the teacher.
Knowles, Malcolm S. – The Training and Development Handbook
--need to know why they should learn something
--have a deep need to be self-directing
--have a greater volume of experiences to draw from and a different quality of experience than youth
--are ready to learn when they have a need to know OR to be able to do in order to perform more effectively and satisfyingly
--are task centered (or problem centered or life-centered) orientation to learning
--motivated to learn by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators.
1. Establish a climate that is conductive to learning – institutional climate and the specific training situation.
2. Create a climate of mutual planning – include a representative from each group to be trained
3. What are the participants learning needs
4. Translate learning needs into objectives
5. Design and manage a pattern of learning experiences. Involve participants in the plan.
6. Evaluate the extent that objectives have been accomplished. Develop procedures for involving the participants in the evaluation.
Lippit, Gordon – issue of Journal of ASTD
--all human beings learn
--learning is an active process
--leaning is individualistic
--learning takes place at various levels – knowledge – skill – attitude
The three levels – knowledge – skill – and attitude – must be considered if we are to achieve and maintain performance change. Don’t just learn the material – the success is when one takes the knowledge back to the real world and uses the material one has learned.
Mager, Robert – Developing Attitudes Toward Learning
--learning is for future use
--putting the knowledge to use depends on the attitude of the student toward the material – we forget what we don’t like
--people influence people –
--students should leave the training with the most positive attitude toward the teacher and the material that it is possible to instill in them. They will remember more and may even learn more about the subject in the future …
Mitchell, Garry – 10 recognized principles – no book or article mentioned
1. Learn only when they are ready to learn
2. Learn best what they actually perform
3. Learn from their mistakes
4. Learn easiest what is familiar to them
5. Favor different senses for learning
6. Learn methodically and in our culture systematically
7. Cannot learn what they don’t understand
8. Learn through practice
9. Learn better when they can see their own progress
10. Respond best when what they are to learn is presented uniquely to them – each of us is different
Pike, Robert W – Creative Training Techniques Handbook
1. The law of the teacher – experience and knowledge of the subject are essential to teach
2. Law of the learner – teacher must answer “whats in it for me” if learner not interested to start with – how will they benefit from the learning experience?, how can they apply it?, how can they use it?
3. Law of language – go from the known to the unknown – new words or terms should be defined immediately – don’t be the expert – be the coach
4. Law of the lesson – truth or content must be learned through the truth or content already known. Go from where the learner is and build on what he already knows.
5. Law of the teaching process – must direct and excite the learners self-motivation. People learn best through self discovery. You can tell people things and they may not learn them. You can cite statistics and people won’t care so they will not learn. We can put people in situations where they discover for themselves how effective ineffective they are. People learn most effectively when they are actively involved in the learning process, not passively observing it.
6. Law of the learning process – learning doesn’t take place until behavior has changed. Learner must be able to apply – must be able to not only know but also to do – the teacher will want to involve as many senses as possible and use as many approaches as possible so that people grasp and apply the material you want them to learn.
7. Law of review and application – you must confirm the completion of the content taught. Emphasize the practical application. Ask: “How can you use this in real life?” “What do you expect if you apply what you’ve been learning?”
Zemke, Ron and Susan - extensive research as they work at Performance Research Associates
30 things research has taught them
1. Adults seek out training to cope with real life situations
2. More life changing events an adult experience the more likely they are to seek training – change is a great motivator
3. Education sought is directly related to life-change – 80% work related – trng should be 80% related to work situation
4. Adults seek training before, during or after an event – adults will learn if they know will help them cope
5. Learning is not its own reward for adult learners in most cases. They have a use for the knowledge – learning is a means to an end - not the end itself.
6. Self-esteem or pleasure are strong secondary motivators for engaging in the learning experience …
7. Adult learners like to learn specific things that they can apply rather than general theory
8. Adults need to build on what they already know – to keep and use new information
9. Information that is in conflict with what is already known – takes longer to assimilate
10. New information that cannot be related to current knowledge is integrated more slowly
11. Fast paced, complex, or unusual learning tasks interfere with the process of learning the data they are intended to teach or illustrate
12. Adults tend to compensate for slower psychomotor learning tasks by being more accurate and making fewer trial and error ventures
13. Adults tend to take errors personally so they take fewer risks – adults can even misinterpret feedback and “mistake” errors for positive confirmation so their self-esteem is not affected.
14. New concepts and ideas that conflict with previous learner or organizational values requires more effort because they require a change in the way people think and the way they value their work.
15. Programs need to be deigned to accept viewpoints from people in different life stages and with different value “sets.”
16. A concept needs to be “anchored” or explained from more than one value set and appeal to more than one developmental life stage.
17. Adults prefer self-directed and self-designed learning projects 7 to 1 over group-learning experiences led by a professional. Often various mediums are used – reading and talking to a peer are good resources. The desire to control pace and start and stop times … strongly affects the self-directed preference.
18. Books, programmed instruction, and television have become popular training tools in recent years.
19. Straightforward and “how-to” are always the preferred content orientation for adults.
20. Self-direction doesn’t mean isolated. Often as many as 10 other people are involved as resources, guides, encouragers and the like. “what is the cheapest, easiest, fastest way for me to learn this?” is a typical question of the self-directed learner states Allen Tough. Have the adult learner help find these answers when setting up trng.
21. Learning environment must be physically and psychologically comfortable … long sessions, long lectures, sitting with no breaks, absence of practice opportunities are high on the irritation scale.
22. Self-esteem and ego are on the line for adult learners. Bad traditional educational experiences in the past, feelings about authority, preoccupation with real life events outside the classroom affect the in-class experience.
23. Adults have expectations – clarify up front what is expected and needed from each session – from the instructor and from the student – try to reconcile the two … but instructor only can be responsible for his or her own expectations.
24. Adults bring a great deal of practical experience into the classroom. Acknowledge, use and tap this valuable asset. Adults can learn well and much from respected peers.
25. Instructors who like to lecture should use open ended questions so they become more of a facilitator and draw out relevant trainee knowledge and experiences … rather than holding forth with their own favorite anecdotes.
26. New knowledge has to be integrated with previous knowledge – that means the trainee has to actively participate. Only the learner can tell us how the new information fits – or fails to fit with the old --- we need to ask ---
27. The key to the instructor role is control. We must balance the presentation of new material with debate and discussion – the sharing or relevant training materials or experiences with the clock. Giving up control and becoming a facilitator rather than a presenter often leads to better adult learning.
28. Instructor needs to protect minority opinion, keep disagreements civil and unheated, make connections between various opinions and ideas, and keep reminding the group of the variety of potential solutions to the problem. We are less and advocate and more of an orchestrator.
29. Integration of new knowledge and skill requires transition time and focused effort. Working on training and then application back to back helps with the transfer. Action plans, accountability strategies, an follow-up after training all increase the likelihood of transfer. Involve the trainees supervisor in pre and post course activities helps with both in-class focus and transfer.
30. Learning and teaching theories function better as a resource than as a key to understanding. 4 currently influential theories
All offer valuable guidance – depending on the specific subject or task.
Attitude of the trainee is most important
Ran out of space .... ...more
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Jul 01, 2009
Jul 27, 2009
Good Self Help Book – purchase own copy – and read through again and highlight!
Am I the only Sane One working Here : 101 solutions for surviving offic Good Self Help Book – purchase own copy – and read through again and highlight!
Am I the only Sane One working Here : 101 solutions for surviving office insanity
---everyone has their own perceptions so will hear different things in the story
-why is she telling me this story
-what is the purpose behind the words
-does the person want something from me or want me to do something for them?
Know what moves people
-recognize instinctual patters
---fight or flight
-see through their perception filters
-recognize their habits and yours
-sometimes bad habits yield more reinforcement than good habits
-make conscious choices – when everyone else is going crazy – continue to make rational choices for yourself
Do the unexpected – recognize patterns, but do not participate in them, Most interpersonal difficulties are dances that cannot continue if one person purposely stays out of step. The rest of the book is a series of lessons on declining dances that will drive you crazy.
Most of the time most of us are on autopilot.
Learn how to override
Recognize emotional situations by your level of arousal
Make sure goal is realistic
Be aware of habitual traps
---being overly nice
---ask for time
---Know your goal
---Never try to reason with a person who is yelling
---ask “What would you like me to do?”
32 Unwritten Rules
-how to figure them out
--is work suppose to be the center of your life
--how important is the bottom line
--are people expected to walk the walk
--which is more important: quality or quantity
--are decisions influenced more by the long run or the short run
--is there a conception of corporate responsibility
-----what is your company’s attitude toward being a good citizen? Are people encouraged to involve themselves in civic projects on company time, or is community service just for those guys by the roadside who get DUIs?
--how are you suppose to behave toward authority
--who is accountable for what
--are there expectations about demeanor
--what is kept secret
--is it safe to be creative
--what is your company’s position on aggressiveness
--are managers responsible for employee relations
Corporate myths teach unwritten rules – listen to them
-how to make a decision
-know your options
-know who wants what
-trust your gut, but don’t let it make decisions for you
-immerse yourself, but don’t drown
-set a time line
-make your decision the right one
61 The Interview
-How to stand out
--know the impression you want to make
--create your legend
--play to your audience
----HR Screeners want facts, figures, and details
----managers are generally more interested in forming global impressions about working directly with you
--rehearse answers to standard interview questions
---tell me about yourself
---what is your greatest strength
---what is your greatest weakness
---what can you do for us
---expect a few trick questions
---rehearse and rehearse some more
---shake hands firmly
---demonstrate that you are a regular person
---keep ‘em talking
---never say anything negative about your previous job
---ask about money
---ask a few probing questions
---schedule the next contact
---write a thank you note
81 Doing a good job and succeeding are not the same thing
Doing a good job
-working directly with customers
-serving on committees and task forces with people at your own level
-coming up with ideas that improve quality or morale but cost money
Succeeding or may lead to corporate advancement
-bringing in new business
-doing anything with people of higher rank
-taking the management side on controversial issues
82 Good Attitude
How to fake a good attitude
-identify with the company
-have a professional appearance
-accept direction and criticism
-do your job as if it were worth doing
-know you boss’s priorities and follow them
-be circumspect with ideas you put forward
-don’t make them have to tell you everything
-have a sense of humor
-come in on time
How to be a tough negotiator
-with whom are you actually negotiating
-what are your goals for your company and yourself
-what are the other guy’s goals
-- for his company
---everyone wants to get as much as they can for as little as they can
--his personal needs
---give something to meet personal needs with out giving in
----if he wants to win – let him score points – take a hard stand and back down in an unimportant area
----if he wants to be the smartest guy in the room – make a few mistakes – they will find it hard to resist correcting you – act mad – but know inside you are gaining control by giving them what they want
----if he wants to be fair and reasonable – they want your approval --- give it --- compliment them on being reasonable
----if they want to intimidate you – chew antacids – it gets them every time
-what are the outside pressures on you
-what limits are there on your decision-making authority
-what is the pressure on your opponent
-on what premises do you agree
-what might be considered win-win
-is any of this personal
86 People Skills
-exercise it – making small talk
-exercise it – using praise
-exercise it – remembering
-exercise it – being tactful
-exercise it – validating problems before offering advice
-exercise it – showing empathy
95 The language of management pgs 266-267 word for word so use quotation marks!
Language is the primary tool of management. Guys on the shop floor would get into big trouble if they used their tools as imprecisely as managers use words. Beneath the jargon and the buzzwords are some important concepts that need to be understood and communicated.
Managers need to understand the distinctions between words and concepts that are often used interchangeably in day-to-day conversations at work.
Problem and Dilemma.
-A problem can be solved, and with luck, it goes away.
-Dilemmas are not solved; they must be constantly balanced. More of one means less of the other. Eg quality vs cost, speed vs accuaracy, and profit vs market share dilemmas are good things for managers, if there were no opposing forces to balance, there would be no need for managers.
Supervising and Managing.
Supervisors organize the work and solve whatever problems get in the way of doing it. Supervisors see that the job gets done.
Managers balance opposing forces so that they can set clear priorities for supervisors. Managers decide which of all the possible jobs deserves the most attention.
Adequacy and Excellence.
Excellence is close to perfection. Perfection, though admirable, is frightfully expensive.
It is the job of management to set the standards for adequacy and specify the jobs that are so critical to the overall goals of the business that only perfection will do.
Product and Process.
Product is what you do.
Process is how you do it.
When a manager can clearly describe the product, he or she does not have to meddle with the process. This descriptive ability is known as “vision.” Managers without vision keep tight control over the process.
Sales and Marketing.
Sales means persuading customers to buy the product you have already produced.
Marketing is asking customers what they want to buy, so you will know what to produce in the future.
Working hard and Doing What’s Most Important.
Working hard involves putting in a lot of hours and doing a lot of stuff.
Doing what’s most important always involves making tough choices.
No amount of hard work can compensate for avoiding a difficult decision.
Delegation and Task Assignment.
You delegate power, not tasks.
Telling people what to do is task assignment.
Giving them the power to do it is delegation.
Reverence and Respect.
Whatever-and whoever- is perfect and cannot be improved deserves reverence.
Anything that can be improved deserves the respect of open discussion about how it can be improved and whether it should be.
Cooperating and Competing.
The difference between these two involves information.
If you’re sharing it, you’re cooperating. If you withhold it for whatever reason, you’re competing. How much information should you share with your supervisor and your subordinates? It is just one of the many dilemmas a manager has to balance every day.
96 Breeding for the wrong characteristics
On teams, why brightest and most creative most difficult to manage. Would be easier to hire all easy people who don’t ask questions or want to do things their own way. Tempting to avoid them and try to get by with less talented people who are easier to work with. “You know enough not to give in to this temptation, but it definitely makes your job harder. Nobody said management was easy.”
“To stay sane and get ahead, you have to fit in, be cheerful, and please your boss.”
“Businesses need people at all levels to be flexible and creative, to anticipate problems, and to make decisions for themselves.”
Some of the important attributes that managers should make an effort to nurture:
Creativity – creativity and rebellion grow from the same roots. Both are characteristics of people who see things differently than other people might. Creative people may be exasperating in their stubborn unwillingness to conform. They may seem to be more trouble than they are worth until you need a radically different approach to a problem , and then they are life savers.
Critical Thinking – people who notice problems and point them out are necessary to keeping a business healthy. These people often make life uncomfortable for other employees and especially for their managers. If we ignore the complaints or pass them off as a bad attitude we teach everyone to keep their mouth shut. Then no one points out problems that could affect the bottom line.
Initiative – Nobody likes mistakes but they can be the result of employees taking initiative. Do not treat mistakes like sins or you will breed a strain of employees who are better at covering their tails than seizing opportunities.
“The temptation is strong to hire and promote people based on how easy they are to manage rather than how well they supply the critical traits that a company needs.” “Nobody said good management was easy.”
98 Teamwork Pg 272
“Most people would agree that teamwork implies a group of people working together, pooling their resources to accomplish mutual goals, and placing their own needs secondary to the needs of the group. Easy to define, hard to do.
The problem is that people don’t automatically know how to work as a team. Unless the common needs are explicitly defined, the group’s needs will end up being synonymous with the desires of the most assertive member or of the boss.
People who ride over other people are seen as having leadership qualities; people who bring up problems are seen as not being team players.”
Businesses are full of frustrated, somewhat assertive people who, having thought that being part of a team meant they would have a part in making decisions, offered an opinion and then discovered that teamwork really meant keeping your mouth shut, smiling, and doing what you are told.
Managers are not taught how to get their people to play as a team, and were not able to figure it out for themselves.
98 How to encourage teamwork
Unless something is done to prevent it, teams have a way of drifting in the direction of hierarchical management. They are easier to run that way, but their main advantage – that of having many brains working on the same problem – is canceled out for the expediency of having one brain thinking – and many hands following directions.
Here are some suggestions for encouraging real teamwork:
Arrange Contingencies, and Enforce them Carefully- If you want to maintain the spirit of teamwork, make sure that all team members share in rewards and punishments equally. If someone can advance by being a member of a team … some of the more assertive members will use the team as a vehicle to do so. As soon as one of the players starts putting his or her own needs ahead of the needs of the team and getting rewarded for it, the whole team concept is out the window.
“Continually Redefine Teamwork- To keep a team functioning as a team, you have to talk continually about the definition of teamwork on this project and in this setting. Team goals must be clearly specified, as well as each member’s responsibility for meeting those goals. It needs to be clear in everyone’s mind which behaviors are characteristic of cooperation and which are characteristic of vying for control. It’s hard to specify these behaviors in advance, but it is easy to see them when they occur. That’s why you have to talk about it on a regular basis. Being a team leader means leading these discussions.”
See that Each Member can be Heard- To keep a team working as a team, you also have to ensure that each member can be heard by the group at any time. If several people become dominant and others fear retribution if they disagree, people with alternative ideas merely keep quiet and grumble to each other as the team falls apart. It may be helpful to have some anonymous way of getting
“Teamwork can be a real benefit to a business, but, as with any other equipment, it continually nees to be adjusted, monitored, and improved. It also helps to know how to operate it.” Pg 275
99 Evolution of a Manager
You are newly promoted
You know your goals and objectives
You’d like to talk it over with your boss or other team leaders, but there never seems to be time …
Since you were promoted … maybe you should know all about managing already …
No one knows how to manage immediately
Managers are people and “they grow and develop and evolve.”
“As managers grow, their conceptions of what managing is evolves as well.”
Most managers reinvent themselves as they collide with the harsh realities of existence.
Development in human beings -- and managers – follows certain predictable patterns. “We all move from self-conscious fits and starts to fluid grace in performing our tasks, from seeing only black and white to recognizing subtle shades of gray, and from wanting all we can get to wanting to be useful.” pg 275
“Some people can get stuck at a certain stage, but most people grow and develop throughout their career. With experience, we learn better ways to do things and better ways to think about things. This is the quiet joy of our careers – not the accolades, testimonials, and promotions, but the knowledge that we are actually getting better. One of the great thrills of life is using yourself to full potential.” pg 276
Survival Solution: How managers grow and develop
There are 5 things you can manage:
To be a mature manager you must be able to manage all 5.
“Managing Money: managers who don’t manage money don’t last long. Cost control is the minimum. If a new manager does nothing more than stay within budget, he or she will eventually discover than merely avoiding costs does not create anything new. As managers mature, they begin to conceive of many less as treasure to be hoarded and more as a tool to be used. It takes money to make money. Managing money well involves a clear conception of what you’ll get for what you spend.” Pg 276
“Managing Tasks: as people mature, their conception of managing tasks moves from doing the job themselves, or telling other people exactly how to do it, to encouraging people to do it their own way. A beginning manager is a single person with many sets of hands. As a manager matures, he or she becomes more able to use excess heads as well as hands.
Immature managers attempt to control the process as well as the product. They manage every task as if it were the rapid, orderly production of hamburgers at a fast-food restaurant. IF you manage for hamburgers, you get hamburgers. Forget new ideas and groundbreaking insights: the best that you can hope for is that your work comes out cooked on both sides. “ pg 277
“Managing People: The simplest way of managing people is by telling them what to do. Mature managers develop a complex understanding of the people who work for them so they can lead these people to places they never would have gone themselves. There is a huge difference between being a taskmaster and being a leader.” Pg 277
“Managing Image: the world no longer beats a path to the inventor of the better mousetrap. To get anywhere, you have to be able to promote yourself and your product. As people mature, they management of image moves from manipulating other people to think what you want them to think, to presenting yourself and your product as they really are to a market – either superiors, constituents, or customers – that really needs what you have to offer.” Pg 277
“Managing Power: To the immature manager, power is an end in itself. It is something that you use to get your own way. The temptation is strong to use power to make life as pleasant and comfortable as possible. This is kind of using a Ferrari only to commute to work. It looks good and feels good, but its potential is wasted on the task. The mature use of power is in creating a vision, an idea that is bigger than the person thinking it, and bringing it to life in the real world.
Maturing as a manager means moving from a conception of the world that is no larger than yourself to seeing a larger system and knowing you have an important place in it. It is the drive to attain this state of balance and usefulness, far more than greed and ambition that is responsible for the great things that business, and people in business, can do.” Pg 277
101 Taking that next step
Why haven’t you done it already?
We all have things that we know we should do but haven’t done them y et …
We do something else instead so we don’t do what we really need to do …
“As a sane and successful adult, you have to be able to make yourself do things you don’t want to do”
Accept that you really need to do it
Just do it
Know exactly what you need to do now – break it down if it is too bug
Do it or Else –
Do it for a reward – figure out small steps and short term rewards and it will work ….
Short term Rewards are the only kind of rewards that work!
Do it for someone else – and make sure you have no strings attached to the endeavor
Do it for internal rewards – do it if it will make you feel like good people – which raises your self –esteem …
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Nov 01, 1995
Patron Behavior in Libraries” by Beth McNeil and Denise J. Johnson notes
This book approaches patron problems from a service rather than a disciplinary Patron Behavior in Libraries” by Beth McNeil and Denise J. Johnson notes
This book approaches patron problems from a service rather than a disciplinary stance. (p. vii)
The homeless have always been a part of the American landscape, especially in urban areas, and the problem seems to be growing incrementally every year. More and more of them seek refuge in public libraries. (p. 3)
There is a growing number of so-called working poor, who are scarcely better off than the homeless or the chronically unemployed. (p. 4)
Homeless people are often homeless because they fell through the “cracks” in the network that is supposed to provide for their basic necessities. (p. 5)
Homeless persons with nowhere else to go naturally gravitate to public buildings as a haven from the streets, a place with public restrooms, and quiet rooms where one can read, socialize, and on occasion, sleep without the requirements of paying for the privilege. (p. 8)
Class I Class II Class III
(Table did not transfer)
Mentally Ill Patrons
Mentally ill patrons often cause the most concern for library staff. (p. 18)
A naïve employee with little or no knowledge about the mentally ill may feel very anxious when trying to respond to situations with the mentally ill. He or she may feel paralyzed with doubt, fearful of making things worse in an attempt to make them better. The lack of a firm but compassionate response, however, will often only exacerbate the problem. With training, staff can be better prepared to cope with difficult behavior when it occurs, possibly containing it before it becomes more serious. (p. 20)
At a minimum, managers should keep a supply of self-study materials including this book … with discussion of events that have actually occurred and perhaps role-playing ways they were handled and could be handled in the future. Provide opportunities to attend formal instruction in psychopathology, theories of personality, and behavior modification… (p. 20)
Reasons for the increase in disturbed patrons in the library
Beginning in the mid-1970s legal precedents shifted the focus to patient’s rights i.e., patients could not be hospitalized against their will unless they were clearly a danger to themselves or to others. (p. 21)
Causes of Mental Illness
It is important that all staff who deal directly with patrons have at least an embryonic idea of what causes mental illness. There are two primary types of causes of mental illness – organic and functional. (p. 22)
Are caused by biological factors, usually with objectively measurable damage to the nervous system. For instance, genetic factors can lead to malformation or progressive deterioration of the nervous system. The former insures that full development of the healthy brain will never take place, while the latter over time brings a worsening loss of memory and self-control. Persistent or intense alcohol drinking, drug abuse, or excessive exposure to environmental contaminants can chemically induce permanent brain damage. Various brain infections, diseases such as arteriosclerosis, or accidental injury to the brain can cause permanent damage to the brain. Often such destruction will limit only perceptual or muscular capacity, but sometimes it is associated with personality disturbances and odd behavior.
Are those caused by psychological or social factors, with no apparent physical damage yet resulting in abnormal changes in behavior. Prolonged, unrelieved stress, for example, can lead to counterproductive attempts at coping which lead to bizarre behaviors. For instance, people deprived of warm, loving environment throughout childhood, especially if also subjected to abuse, may develop problems with personality adjustment. Veterans of brutal combat environments may develop post-traumatic stress disorder. In both cases, it is not the person’s fault that he or she was exposed to the situation which consequently affected behavior. (p. 22-23)
Types of Mental Illness
Psychopathologies run the gamut from relatively mild to quite severe. The milder forms are more common and more likely to appear in a library setting. Those individuals with more serious cases are likely to be institutionalized and will not appear in public as frequently.
Neuroses (Anxiety Disorders)
The various kinds of neuroses or anxiety disorders comprise the bulk of the milder mental illnesses. Neuroses are all characterized by the presence of abnormally intense or long-lasting anxiety. The mere presence of anxiety does not, of course, imply neurosis. Anyone facing a test, enduring an unpleasant job interview, or having a close brush with a major accident would justifiably experience some anxiety. Normal anxiety could even be intense and long-lasting, as long as the severity and duration were related realistically to actual stressors in the environment. For example, anxiety over a major and risky surgery might be strong and enduring. This is all normal. But what if the anxiety is out of all proportion to any actual stimulus in the environment? And, more over, what if it begins to distort and even paralyze more and more of the person’s ability to function? Such signs indicate neuroses. There are many types of neuroses.
Phobias are extreme anxieties over specific objects or events. For instance, some people have extreme fears of heights, automobiles or even being around other people. They eventually orient their lives around avoiding the stimuli which provoke the anxiety.
Obsessive-compulsive reactions occur when people have odd thoughts (obsessions) or weird behaviors (compulsions) which they find irresistible. For instance, one library patron was constantly plagued by the thought that he might do himself or others harm. Another constantly wrote the same meaningless message on napkins, library slips, and various scraps of paper, producing dozens of copies each day and leaving them scattered all over the library. Such behaviors are manifestations of deeper underlying conflicts that the person feels incapable of facing.
Other anxiety disorders include such reactions as converting anxiety into bogus physical symptoms, perhaps of paralysis, blindness, or lack of feeling in their legs. These conditions must be distinguished from deliberate fakery, on the one hand and actual organ damage due to stress, such as ulcers, on the other. For example, in conversion reactions the person thinks and acts as if damage has occurred, but it has not.
These involve disturbances in personality or interpersonal relations. For example, the psychopath or sociopath does whatever he or she wants regardless of the effects on others. Addictive personalities often turn compulsively to alcohol, drugs, or sex.
Adjustment and Impulse Control Disorders
Some patrons have trouble controlling their impulses and may repeatedly violate library rules of normal standards of decency. The kleptomaniac, for example, feels compelled to steal things, even things he doesn’t really want or need, and these may include books and other items from the library.
Psychoses involve deep, serious breaks with reality and major breakdowns in behavioral functioning. The following personality types are among those suffering from psychoses.
Schizophrenics. These individuals have fragmented personalities out of touch with the reality around them. They may have weird ideas incomprehensibly expressed in splintered, often meaningless speech. For instance, with much careful listening you might catch on that they are trying to describe how aliens from spaceships have landed in their library and are disguising themselves as books; books with the letter “K” in the title indicate hidden aliens; these books must be destroyed at once to prevent an alien invasion. What distinguishes the schizophrenic from a mere prankster is that the former not only has some very odd, manifestly ridiculous ideas, but is incapable even of expressing them in a straightforward way. A schizophrenic’s ideas and speech may constantly slip off focus, change direction, or degenerate into meaningless gibber. Further, his or her emotional reactions may bear no relationship to what is said.
Paranoides. These individuals often claim to be someone great or famous and usually maintain that others are out to get them. A paranoid may claim to be an actual famous person, perhaps Abraham Lincoln, or just some grandiose but fictional character, or perhaps the head of some mysterious spy agency that does not even exist. Such individuals are not merely pranksters and may be dangerous. Paranoids have a way of turning suspicious that others are pursuing them. For instance, the paranoid who thinks he is Lincoln may complain that one of the other patrons is John Wilkes Booth stalking him. The one who thinks he is a “super spy” may complain loudly and often to all who will listen that some of the library staff are enemy spies. Unlike schizophrenics, typical paranoids can express themselves well verbally. You can readily tell what their ideas are, but these notions have absolutely no bearing on reality. (These two separate patterns can also overlap in what is known as schizophrenia, paranoid type).
Armed with an elementary understanding of the types of psychopathology most likely to appear in public places, library staff can begin to make reasonable assessments of the risks posed by such people.
Neurotics may be quite upset and could in a moment of panic accidently injure themselves. But they do not pose much risk to other patrons or staff except for being minor, but vexing, nuisances. The same is true for mentally deficient or retarded individuals, unless they have become agitated (perhaps by being teased or provoked).
Schizophrenics have a greater nuisance factor if they continue to insist their delusional ideas are true. They may get upset when confronted or challenged regarding the validity of their ideas. When upset, they may tend to lose self-control and accidently harm themselves or others. They generally do not intend violence. The same is usually true of people with the lesser personality disorders, although when inebriated with alcohol or illegal drugs, they have more potential for violence in response to perceived threats.
Paranoid people can definitely pose a high risk. The guy who thinks he is a “super spy” may decide to “get” the staffers he thinks are spies before they can get him. Psychopaths are others with severe personality disorders may also become dangerous, because they do not care or are incapable of caring about who gets hurt as they pursue their own desires. In both cases, there is a real threat, because the person will not respond realistically to the normal social forces which keep most people in line.
KNOWING HOW TO RESPOND
Naturally, the library staffer’s response should be proportionate and related to the level of risk posed by the patron with a behavior disorder.
When dealing with a disturbed patron in the low risk category, there is no reason for concern. Try to calm and reassure the anxious patron and provide kind but firm guidance as to what the patron should do. The neurotic will usually respond to such social pressure. Higher authorities to help with the situation generally are unnecessary.
When confronted with patrons in this category, the employee should not act alone if possible. He or she should bring a co-worker or supervisor into the situation, both as a witness to the odd behavior and as back-up in case things turn worse. Do not humor the schizophrenic’s delusions, but also do not remind him or her too strongly of reality. Stay calm and polite, directing the patron not to persist in telling you’re the story. Refer him to the police or to a mental health facility instead.
Always consider a psychopath or paranoid to be dangerous even if he or she at times seems jocular or friendly. If alone when he expresses paranoid ideas of grandeur or persecution, do not contradict him or attempt to explain away his claims. He could work you into his delusion, deciding you are an enemy he must attack. Instead, try to keep him calm until further help can be obtained. Supervisors must be informed; also contact library guards or police. (p. 22-27)
As indicated above, not all mentally ill patrons present problems. Some may be present in libraries regularly – perhaps even daily or over long periods of time – without creating disturbances or causing others fear or discomfort. If not presenting problems, these patrons should be allowed their rightful “use” of the facilities: if they request information or materials, they should be accorded the same respectful treatment and quality service as other patrons.
Confronting Problem Patrons (p. 33)
Reacting to Security Incidents
Problem patron incidents in libraries affect a lot of people besides those immediately involved. These individuals will have a variety of reactions which someone in t he library must be prepared to handle.
What are some of the perpetrator’s reactions? Many will deny their behavior, some will shout or curse, and others will go on the offensive, accusing staff or other patrons of misbehavior. Some individuals may resort to vandalism, violence, or assault. A good number of perpetrators, when confronted by an authority figure, may simply panic and, with luck, they will flee. Some, however, attack.
What are the reactions of other patrons who encounter such individuals in the library? Many are frightened or intimidated, and some will believe that the library is not safe and may never come back. It is likely that some will complain to the first librarian they see, or to the “head honcho,” and demand that something be done to protect them. Remember, the staff must also deal with the patron who may be fearful of mentally ill patrons.
Who Reacts … and How?
Obviously, a library worker must analyze the situation and respond quickly. But who? There is no time for a conference and one cannot just flip a coin. Usually the responsibility for this should be that of the ranking (or senior) employee of the library department or branch involved. When possible, another staff member should be a witness but should not have to do or say anything. Presence alone and provide moral support and increase the safety factor. Those at the desk should be told where you are going and why and be ready to call the police if needed.
While proper reactions are very important, it is also possible to overreact. Consider the library security guard who, when approaching almost anyone exhibiting negative behavior, pulls out his chemical spray and holds it down by his side, within view of the patron. He considers it a precaution in case the confrontation turns negative, but that “readiness” undoubtedly will escalate more situations than it calms.
At some point it’s evident that someone on staff must confront the individual whose behavior is disruptive, destructive, or dangerous. That is not an easy assignment and should not be undertaken too casually. Except for emergencies, when you must react immediately, most difficult library situations will allow some maneuvering room. This is the period of time when the respondent decides: (1) where to confront, (2) who or what to take along, (3) what to say, and (4) other related factors.
Where to confront the perpetrator
Where should the confrontation occur? As a general rule, select a location which is neutral (i.e. not an office), where you and the patron will be visible to other staff, and where possible disruption of other patrons will be minimal. As a safety precaution, select a site with at least two routes of egress: you do not want the patron to feel cornered, and you may need to escape.
Ran out of space ...more
Notes are private!
May 13, 2011
Apr 01, 2008
Apr 01, 2008
Sisyphus – punished for all eternity by having to push a huge boulder up a hill … where it hovers for a nanosecond … and topples back down to Foreward
Sisyphus – punished for all eternity by having to push a huge boulder up a hill … where it hovers for a nanosecond … and topples back down to the bottom … Sisyphus has to chase after the boulder … put his shoulder to it … and push it up the hill again … and again … and again.
Do you know someone like Sisyphus? Someone who frustrates or angers you with a contrary response to an ordinary demand? (keep your hands to yourself) And does this person lack the skills to change his behavior? And do you try to cajole or reason with him, to no avail? Do the two of you get stuck in this no-win situation? Does the situation end with his inevitable meltdown and your futile punishment?
Do you feel like you are the one pushing a boulder up a hill over and over and over again?
Jed Baker gives us the tools to deal with and prevent out-of-control behavior. He leads us grown-ups in how to change our own behavior in order to help our children change theirs.
Jed shares a four-step program that can prevent melt-downs.
The first step is to accept and appreciate your child. The three “musts” in this first step are
a. To control your own temper
b. create and atmosphere where the child feels competent
c. and avoid constant power struggles.
The second step is to de-escalate a meltdown with a distraction that you are pretty sure will comfort the child
The distraction may be a hug or a moment of bouncing on your knee. Physical contact and playful movement deliver soothing sensory input that may be all you need to diffuse the meltdown.
The distraction may be a favorite toy, a good joke, or a collectible playing card.
The third step is to understand why meltdowns reoccur. The ABCs of behavior – antecedent, behavior, and consequences – and determine the specific triggers of your child’s meltdown.
The fourth step is to create logical plans to prevent meltdowns. These plans make sense. Some children have meltdowns because they are on sensory “overload” or “underload.” Here you will find suggestions for ways to change the level of sensory stimulation that may contribute to out-of-control behavior.
It encourages us to become mindful, flexible, and hopeful, so we can model positive behavior for our children.
It is filled with compassion for our young children who also are pushing a rock up the hill … over and over again. These children are doing everything in their power to cope. This book will give strategies to help all succeed.
Develop a Trusting Relationship
CH1 Meldowns: When rewards and punishments are not enough
“…bright young boy with unpredictable outbursts” ignored therapist until therapist made him smile … therapist wanted to reward child … said when had 5 fake dollar bills would give him a piece of candy … child had a meltdown … banging elbow against wall enough to leave a hole in the wall. Mom later said child was struggling with math … therapist had threatened child with having to count … so meltdown …
These challenging moments are exhausting for all … They may involve any upsetting behaviors that are hard to control, such as kicking and screaming, refusing to listen, physical aggression, or bad language.
From Jed’s point of view … “Meltdowns are escalating negative emotional reactions.”
The Usual Parenting Advice: Start with Consistent Rules and Consequences
The starting point is:
… we need to create rules and be consistent in enforcing them.
… we need to control our own tempers and calmly follow through with the rules that we have set.
“We understand that kids need structure and discipline to help them learn and behave. We set rules so they know what to expect. We have consequences, both rewards and punishments, to make clear the importance of following those rules. Without rules and consequences, our lives would be chaotic.” P. 5
Limits of Discipline
We escalate the discipline level if the child doesn’t obey … and this is fine as long as the result is a positive change in behavior. When a positive change in behavior is not the result of the discipline … there is no value in continuing.
“When consistent rewards and punishments are not working, it is time to try a new strategy” p.7
But aren’t meltdowns just manipulative behavior?
Difference between meltdowns and tantrums
---Meltdowns are always out of control – give some leeway
---Tantrums are manipulative behavior – hold fast to rules
There is a 3rd choice – understand the problem so that we can create a plan to prevent it from happening.
“When the challenging behaviors continue despite consistently enforcing the rules, it does not matter anymore whether the behavior was intention. We need to understand the triggers to those behaviors and/or teach better ways to cope with those triggers.” P.8
When traditional discipline falls short --- we need another plan.
Meltdowns occur when children are asked to do things beyond their capability at the time.
Book offers a 4 step model – based on research – to help deal with and also reduce the number of meltdowns.
An overview of the 4-step model
Step 1 – to accept and appreciate the child
Maintaining a positive relationship with the child is important
1. First we must be able to control our own temper. This is easier when we do not see the child’s behavior as a threat to our own competence, but rather as a function of the child’s current inability to cope with frustration.
2. Second, to reduce the child’s frustration, we must create an atmosphere in which the child feels competent. If the child always feels criticized he or she will begin to tune us out in an effort to protect self-esteem. Ample praise and setting up activities in which they can succeed help to build a sense of competence and trust in the adult caregiver.
3. Finally, we must avoid constant power struggles. When children fail to follow a particular rule consistently it may be time to change the demand rather than force them to comply. All children are different, thus the exact same expectations may not apply to all children.
Step 2 – de-escalating a meltdown
There will be moments when a child with melt down
Now comes the screaming and tantrum in public
People are staring and we feel judges and embarrassed
Chapter 4 talks about using the art of distraction to de-escalate a melt down.
Although distraction is a crucial crisis management skill, we do not want to rely on it too often.
It is much more productive to learn how to anticipate the situation that can trigger a meltdown and develop a plan to prevent them from happening.
Step 3 – Understand why a meltdown keeps occurring
Meltdowns in very young children are not abnormal behaviors. Self-control is something that that develops with age. There are certain characteristics that make certain individuals more likely to melt down than their peers.
Meltdowns as the flight, fight, or freeze response
When we feel extremely threatened, we all are prone to react automatically with an intense emotional response to fight, flee, or freeze as if our life depended on it. This survival mode response in many ways fits the definition of a meltdown. The emotional center of our brain takes over so we don’t have access to our reasoning ability.
This is often referred to as the “crocodile” or the “reptilian” brain taking over. The “reptilian” part of our brain (particularly the limbic system) controls our fight, flee or freeze response. The neo-cortex section of the brain is the newer part of our brain and controls which is associated with planning and reasoning. When we feel threatened, the “reptilian part of our brain takes over. This quick, non-thinking response has survival value, but in a world where perceived threats are not life-threatening, the fight, flee or freeze response can lead to meltdowns. Basically the automatic response hijacks the planning and reasoning area of the brain.
Goleman in “Emotional Intelligence” points out that it is impossible to reason with someone during an emotional hijacking. He also describes how distraction can shift the individuals attention away from the triggering event until they are calm.
An Overactive Emotion Center
Anyone can have a meltdown. Certain characteristics are associated with the limbic system, which seems to lead to a difficulty in controlling emotions. These include:
--attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
All these are associated with greater irritability and emotional reactivity
Characteristics that make the environment more threatening
In addition to being more emotionally reactive – certain environmental conditions can trigger a threat response in a situation we would consider harmless.
--sensory challengers (sensitivity to noise, light, touch, smell, or taste)
--or difficulties integrating all these sensory inputs
--Motor difficulties – especially a speech problem makes it difficult to communicate needs
--difficulties with abstract thinking
Without the cognitive flexibility to understand and process new events, many individuals will be thrown into meltdown mode.
Long-term studies from infancy through childhood – show that certain individuals are born with a more difficult temperament. This is often associated with greater negative emotional reactions to new situations.
Thomas and Chess examined 9 key dimensions of behavior in newborns.
1. activity level
2. rhythmicity (schedule for feeding, sleep and elimination)
3. approach/withdraw patterns
5. threshold of responsiveness
6. intensity of reaction
7. quality of mood
9. attention span and persistence
When evaluated appox 60% of children could be placed in 1 of 3 categories that remain stable over time.
The “easy child” can accept frustration with less fussiness, maintain a more positive mood, and can easily adapt to to change.
The “difficult child” shows a more negative response to new situations and more intense crying and tantrums when frustrated.
The “slow-to-warm-up child” initially shows a mild negative reaction to new situations, yet gradually adapts with more exposure to these situations.
Parental response can alter a child’s temperament in some cases … the timid child who is gently encouraged to be more outgoing by their parent – and thus are gradually exposed to new situations – become less fearful.
Although having a difficult temperament does not mean that one has a “behavior disorder” certain behavior disorders are associated with greater levels of frustration.
Have greater impulsivity and are less able to control their emotional response-
--mood disorders such as bipolar disorder
Have greater challenges in handling new situations and prefer repetitive routines-
--those with autism spectral disorder
--sensory processing disorder
--anxiety disorders … such as obsessive compulsive disorder
Difficulties with Abstract thinking and Perspective taking
Abstract thinking is the ability to imagine that which is not directly perceived by the senses.
When asked to imagine that “pigs can fly” --- some bright individuals cannot put together the picture of a pig and a picture of wings in their mind to imagine that pigs can fly. They know that pigs cannot fly ... and they cannot imagine that they can. They will get angry … when pushed about the concept … because they cannot imagine that pigs can fly.
When one has challenges with abstract thinking, it may be difficult to take another’s perspective. What other people are thinking and feeling must be imagined. That may not come naturally to certain individuals.
There is research on the function of brain cells called mirror neurons, which seem to affect an individual’s ability to empathize and understand what others are feeling. When an individual has trouble with the functioning of these mirror neurons, the effect is that they will have difficulty taking other people’s perspectives. Taking other people’s perspective helps us to socialize with them.
When perspective taking does not come naturally, it makes it more likely to misinterpret others, which can lead to greater frustration and meltdowns.
Many individuals can be extremely inflexible in how they handle the daily challenges of life. Part of this may be related to trouble with abstract thinking. When it is hard to use the imagination it may be harder to solve new problems.
When it is hard to use one’s imagination, it becomes harder to solve new problems, and the likelihood of frustration increases, which may lead to meltdowns.
Example is wrong driving directions … a street is not where the directions show it should be …
If have difficulty with abstract thinking could be stuck at this point.
It would be difficult to imagine what to do next.
Frustration would grow leading to a possible meltdown.
Without the use of abstract thinking - may not think to ask for directions.
For those who cannot brainstorm solutions to new problems – must have some prep for unanticipated challenging events
--if give them directions
--also give them a phone number to call if anything doesn’t work
--and may need to remind them to call if anything goes wrong
A good prevention plan can help to avoid meltdowns.
An Explosive Combination
Imagine someone who has a difficult temperament, is inflexible, and struggles to understand other’s point of view. They come to new situations and don’t have the problem-solving skills to handle them.
Then they get overly upset as if they were in a life threatening situation.
These individuals are continually confronted with problematic events and cannot cope.
We need to know how to calm meltdowns.
We need to be able to anticipate meltdowns – by anticipating and preparing for triggering events.
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May 17, 2011
Jan 01, 2008
Nov 18, 2008
Outliers: the story of success by Malcom Gladwell c 2008 this one is for fun – purchase own copy
Read large print book while listening to CD … was enjo Outliers: the story of success by Malcom Gladwell c 2008 this one is for fun – purchase own copy
Read large print book while listening to CD … was enjoyable … Page Numbers match up with large print copy
Self Made Men and Women no one does it alone… p26
--Benefits of hidden advantages
--Extraordinary opportunities and cultural legacies
--Makes a difference -- where and when we grew up
--The culture we belong to
--Legacies passed down by our forebears
Early age Canadian Hockey players set on fast track –
Season runs from Jan to Dec
Jan – Feb – Mar players are bigger and have an advantage at such an early age
So Jan –Mar birthdays have better chance of getting on fast track
Education in America runs same way – start on gifted programs early on – Denmark waits until children are 10
Bill Joy, Bill Gates, Steven Jobs all born in the 50s
- And all had the opportunity to put in 10,000 hours on computers
Lewis Terman and his termites – p. 107
Trouble with IQ tests
Trouble with Geniuses – can answer the questions – some just cannot live in the real world and communicate with others and deal with real life situations
Practical Intelligence is important too – Chris Langan – lacks this p. 151
Ravens Progressive Matrices – measure of abstract reasoning skills
Once you are smart enough … doesn’t matter how much more smarter you are to determine success … just have to be smart enough
If you are born between large generations have some benefit too p.206
--- spacious schools available
---need to fill jobs left open by previous generation because next generation has a need for services
3 qualities of work to make it satisfying to most people
Connection between effort and reward
These 3 qualities makes work meaningful p.225
1990 air crash of a plane from Columbia to New York City … and other crashes … human error … Weather was poor … Pilot and crew are tired … p.265 – 335 these pages worth reading if nothing else.
Plane crashes are much more likely to be the result of an accumulation of minor difficulties and seemingly trivial malfunctions rather than dramatic equipment malfunctions p.274
Running late so pilots hurrying
Pilots awake for long hours and end of shift
2 pilots not familiar with each other
Typical accident involves at least 7 consecutive human errors – usually errors of teamwork or communication
Mitigated speech – downplay problems
Use when embarrassed
Use when being polite
Or when we are being deferential to authority
Each country has different ways of dealing with authority – linguist actually have a scale
These are the communication strategies that a plane crew may use
1. Command – “turn 30 degrees right” That’s the most direct and explicit way of making a point imaginable. It’s zero mitigation.
2. Crew Obligation Statement – “I think we need to deviate right about now.” Notice the use of “we” and the fact hat the request is now much less specific. That’s a little softer.
3. Crew suggestion – “Let’s go around the weather.” Implicit in that statement is “we’re in this together.”
4. Query – “Which direction would you like to deviate?” That’s even softer than a crew suggestion, because the speaker is conceding that he’s not in charge.
5. Preference – “I think it would be wise to turn left or right.”
6. Hint – “That return at twenty-five miles looks mean.” This is the most mitigated statement of all.
“The ability to succeed at what we do is powerfully bound up with where we’re from.”
Uncertainty Avoidance – how does the culture tolerate ambiguity – countries most reliant on rules – top 5
Bottom five - culture is best able to tolerate ambiguity
1. Hong Kon
How much a culture values and respects authority p.308
Power Distance Index (PDI)
Compare list with plane crashes by country they match up very nicely. P314
The five lowest pilot PDIs by country
15. United States
17. South Africa
19. New Zealand
Rice Paddies and Math Tests p. 336
Rice takes time and care to grow as a crop
Just have to keep at it until it is done
Most folks stop trying to finish a math problem after a minutes …
Some folks will stay with a problem until they solve it or are told to stop …
Kipp School in New York - p. 374
Students spend more time in school
Students spend more time on homework
Also “honor” from down south
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May 13, 2011
Apr 01, 2002
May 01, 2002
New Supervisor Training by John E Jones & Chris W Chen
Determine needs of new supervisors and adapt training materials to perceived needs qu New Supervisor Training by John E Jones & Chris W Chen
Determine needs of new supervisors and adapt training materials to perceived needs quickly.
One author well-versed in Adult leaning theory and methodology … co-author actively involved in training
CH 1 Introduction: How to Use This Book Effectively
First level supervisors make a dramatic impact on employee performance and behavior.
Frontline supervisors are a main determinant of performance, retention, and morale in an organization.
New supervisors can create a huge liability if they don’t know their responsibilities or the magnified impact of their actions.
Information in this workbook is for new supervisors and current supervisors.
Top 10 Mistakes Made by New Supervisors
1. Seizing Power and Attempting to Hold on to it
2. Failing to solicit feedback
3. Delegating without authorizing
4. Reprimanding employees in the presence of others
5. Supervising everyone the same way
6. Keeping the interesting work for themselves
7. Siding with team members
8. Distancing themselves from direct reports
9. Promoting an us-versus-them attitude
10. Engaging in illegal behaviors
To employees, the supervisor is the organization, and the supervisor’s main task is the development of the team.
The First Step of Training includes IDing what your trainees need to learn.
CH 2 Assessing the Learning Needs of New Supervisors
Methods for Needs Assessments
1. Survey – advantages of surveys include the speed of data collection, objectivity, repeatability, and ease of analysis. “Multirater” or “360 degree” assessments are preferable to simple self-assessments
2. Interview – talking face-to-face or by telephone with prospective trainees
3. Job Analysis – use the job description to determine specific competencies – many job descriptions don’t make sense so this method only works when job descriptions are relevant.
4. Organizational Analysis – sometimes the organizational vision, mission, values and goals statements provide information needs for training.
5. Mixed Method – a combination of methods often provide the best info.
General Warnings and Caveats
• Don’t ask anyone about others’ needs – managers don’t always know what their people need - and if managers are the sole source of info – supervisors may not feel involved in the process – in fact they could feel threatened.
• Don’t assess needs you cannot meet – asking about specific competencies sends a message that the organization is willing to training in the competency to raise skill levels – don’t ask if you are not willing to invest time in training.
• Involve new supervisors directly – ask useful questions and listen careful to stated needs.
• Make the identified needs an obvious part of your training design – mention the areas or trends ID’d during the assessment period
• Don’t think of training as a “magic bullet” – instead of or in addition to training, a supervisor may need individualized coaching, counseling or consulting. This one-on-one interaction should be customized to each supervisors unique situation.
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May 13, 2011
Jun 08, 2010
Jun 08, 2010
I love Meg Cabot, in part because she rarely dissapoints. When I pick up a Meg Cabot book, whether it is a kids book, teen book, or adult, I know I am I love Meg Cabot, in part because she rarely dissapoints. When I pick up a Meg Cabot book, whether it is a kids book, teen book, or adult, I know I am going to get a fun, fast read.
In "Insatiable," Cabot delivers a fun take on the current vampire craze. The main character, Meena Harper hates vampires, and she really hates that her new boss is making her add a vampire to the soap opera where she is a dialogue writer.
The book has a lot of tongue-in-cheek references to pop-culture vampire phenomenons such as "The Twilight Saga" and "True Blood."
Overall, I really enjoyed this book. If you're looking for something fun, and light, this is the perfect book for you.
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Jun 18, 2010
Jun 19, 2010
Jun 18, 2013
Jul 09, 2013
Well, writing good funny books must run in the Evanovich family! Janet's neice Stephanie definitely has a handle on how to get the reader's attention Well, writing good funny books must run in the Evanovich family! Janet's neice Stephanie definitely has a handle on how to get the reader's attention and it was easy to feel like you could relate to where the main character Holly was coming from. At the young age of 30, she found herself a widow and alone. To compensate she ate to comfort herself. By chance she meets a personal trainer on a plane and he offers to help her get back into shape. You can guess where it goes from there! I would recommend this book to anyone. It was such a joy to read, down to earth and relate-able!! So Pull up Your Big Girl Panties and check out this book!! ...more
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Oct 17, 2013
Jun 01, 2004
Jan 01, 2008
Start Right … Stay Right … Lead Right by Steve Ventura (62 pages)
“Rank does not confer privilege or give power. It imposes responsibility” Peter Druck Start Right … Stay Right … Lead Right by Steve Ventura (62 pages)
“Rank does not confer privilege or give power. It imposes responsibility” Peter Drucker
Having a leadership position and being a leader are not the same thing.
To be a leader you must do what leaders do
This book highlights 26 things that leaders do.
9 Lost Luxuries Page 12
-Thinking mostly about yourself or putting your own needs first
-Acting on feelings rather than facts or jumping to conclusions and reacting in “knee-jerk” fashion
-Whining to others or commiserating with their discontent
-Forming op inions and making judgments knowing only “one side of the story”
-Continually blaming “them” or “they” and expecting someone else to fix what is broken
-Not listening to others’ ideas, concerns and opinions
-Taking sides, overtly favoring some people, and excluding others
-Wearing your emotions “on your sleeve”
-Closing your eyes or walking away when things happen that are just not right
YOU and your MINDSET
Accept that your “results” now come through others
As a leader your job is not to do the work but to direct, encourage, support and develop others to do the work. Their successes are your successes and their failures are your failures.
Be a Leader - not a “boss” nor a “pal”
Bosses rely almost always on authority and control
Pals trade on friendship
Leaders motivate, inspire, and model top notch performance and conduct
Page 15 in the box
The boss drives people, the leader coaches them,
The boss depends on authority; the leader upon good will.
The boss inspires fear; the leader inspires enthusiasm.
The boss says “I”; the leader says “We.”
The boss fixes the blame for the breakdown; the leader fixes the breakdown.
The boss says “Go”; the leader says “Let’s Go!”
~H. Gordon Selfridge~
YOU and your PEOPLE
Clarify your expectations … and theirs
Sit down with each of your team members and describe – in specific, behavior terms – what they need to do to be successful in your eyes. It is unfair – not to mention stupid – to expect people to know what you want them to do if you haven’t told them. … And don’t forget to ask people what they need and want from you.
Let them know how they are doing
Proving specific, detailed feedback needs to be an ongoing process rather than a once-a-year event during an evaluation.
Do right by those who do right
“Catching people doing things right” – and recognizing them for it - needs to be a top priority for leaders. Reinforced behavior is repeated behavior.
Give them a voice … and a say
If you want employees to act like partners in the business treat them like partners. Start with 4 simple words: “What do you think?” And then foster a workplace in which team members ideas and concerns are welcomed, considered, and appreciated.
Explain “why’s” as well as “what’s”
“Because I said so” is a big turn off for adults. Knowing why increases employee commitment to doing what needs to be done. It is how you lead adults.
Ask them how you’re doing
Ask an open ended question such as: What one or two things can I do, or stop doing, that would make me a better leader in your eyes?” Then thank each team member for their input and then act on what you hear.
Deal with performance problems early
Real problems don’t go away, they grow. A leader’s job is to help, guide and motivate employees to be a successful as they can possibly be. Free Performance Problem Discussion Checklist: go to www.walkthetalk.com
11 Safe Assumptions Page 30
Most people realize that making assumptions is bad and can get your into serious trouble. As the saying goes “when you ASSUME, you make an ASS of U & ME.” Nevertheless, as humans we all tend to make them. So here are some safe ones …. Things you can feel OK in assuming as a leader:
- the emails you send will be seen by more people than those they’re addressed to.
-things said “just between you and me” won’t stay that way.
-in all of your dealings with people, what does around WILL come around – back at you.
-your employees cannot read your mind.
-problems you choose to avoid will usually get worse.
-“as long as you don’t hear from me, you’ll know you’re doing OK” is just not true.
-treat one team member poorly and ten people will hear about it – including your boss, and employee relations.
-your ability to get another leadership position will be directly related to how well you do on the job you have now.
-whenever you think “no one will know,” someone will.
-whenever you think “no one cares,” someone will.
-whenever you think you are as good as you need to be, YOU AREN’T!
Make sure they have the ”tools” they need
Ask “what do my people need to meet or exceed my expectations?” Or better yet ask them what they need? And then get it for them whenever possible.
Respect their time
Make sure meetings are necessary and well managed. Approach employees with your needs at appropriate and convenient times for both of you.
Help them deal with change
Continual change is a reality of today’s business life. How to help employees deal with change:
1. Explain why the change is required or necessary
2. Describe the expected benefits to be gained (what’s in it for us)
3. Provide training and resources necessary to implement the change
4. Solicit or address any employee questions or concerns
5. Be patient – expect mistakes as new habits are formed
6. Demonstrate support and commitment to the change yourself
Nip conflicts in the bud
Where there are people working together, there will be tension. Conflicts that are left alone rarely improve with age. When two employees are at odds with each other the tension and stress of their conflicts will spill over on to other members of the team. Confirm that there is a conflict and then work with involved team members to develop actions plans to address the problem. Free Conflict Warning Signs: go to www.walkthetalk.com
Be flexible and “zero tolerant”
Be flexible whenever you can, be firm whenever you must.
Staying In Shape – here are some exercises to avoid – 18 examples Page 38
Looking to build or strengthen your “leadership” muscles? Here are some exercises … TO AVOID:
-Jumping to conclusions
-Passing the buck
-Grabbing the credit
-Throwing your weight around
-Stretching the truth
-Bending the rules
-Breaking your promises
-Stepping on others
-Dodging your duty
-Running your mouth off
-Plugging your ears
-Shooting down the organization
-Pulling others into your funk
-Holding others back
-Pressing “my way or the highway”
-Just skating by
Help them learn and grow
The more your people know and are able to do, the more successful they will be.
Be “choosey” about who you hire and promote
Nothing is more important than staffing. The more effort you put into hiring and promoting the less effort you will have to devote to managing the performance and behaviors of the people you bring on. Hiring people who are smarter than you are is a good start.
YOU and your BEHAVIOR
Set the example … and the tone
From conduct to commitment … attendance to attitude … respect to responsibility … work ethic to ethics at work … show your people what you want them to do. They follow the leader. Free … Success Killing Phrases (and thoughts) to avoid: go to www.walkthetalk.com
Stay connected and accessible
1. Maintain regular contact with every member on your team
2. Make sure there is a way for your people to contact you whenever they need to do so
3. Return all calls and messages from team members [and your supervisor] the same day you receive them
A Crash Course on Leadership – 10 Tips Page 45
10 most important words
“What can I do to make you more successful?”
9 most important words
“I need you to do this, and here’s why…”
8 most important words
“That’s my mistake and I will fix it.”
7 most important words
“My door is always open to you.”
6 most important words
“Let’s focus on solving the problem.”
5 most important words
“You did a great job!”
4 most important words
“What do YOU think?”
3 most important words
“Follow my lead”
2 most important lead
The MOST important word
Keep your Commitments
All successful leaders keep their promises and commitments. As a leader your word is only as good as your last promise kept … or broken.
Don’t pass the buck … or the blame
1. You must own your organizations mission, plans and initiatives
2. You must own all the duties and responsibilities that come with your job
3. You must own the performance and results of your team
4. You must own your personal mistakes and shortcomings
Don’t shoot the messenger
Don’t punish people who bring you bad news … instead thank them … they are doing you a huge favor.
Appreciate individuals who are different – especially those of other races, cultures, creeds and national origins. It’s the legal thing to do … it’s the moral thing to do … it’s the smart thing to do.
7 Quotes from Leaders - Words to lead by Page 52
“Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.”
~Dwight D Eisenhower~
“Leadership should be born out of the understanding of the needs of those who would be affected by it.
“A good leader takes a little more than his share of the blame, a little less that his share of the credit.”
~Arnold H. Glasgow~
“Leaders don’t force people to follow – they invite them on a journey.”
~Charles S. Lauer~
“Outstanding leaders go out of the way to boost the self-esteem of their personnel. If people believe in themselves, it’s amazing what they can accomplish.”
“The key to successful leadership today is influence, not authority.”
“Being powerful is like being a lady. If you have to tell people you are, you aren’t .”
Model the best, remember the worst
Have you worked for leaders? Model your behavior on their best practices. Have you worked for jerks? Remember what they did and what not to do.
Keep learning and growing yourself
When do you reach the point where you know everything you need to know as a leader? Never.
Perform with ethics and integrity
Think before you act. Then “do the right thing.”
8 item ethical action test on Page 56.
A. Is it legal?
B. Does it comply with our rules and guidelines?
C. Is it in sync with our organizational values?
D. Will I be comfortable and guilt-free if I do it?
E. Does it match our stated commitments and guarantees?
F. Would I do it to my family or friends?
G. Would I be perfectly OK with someone doing it to me?
H. Would the most ethical person I know do it?
From “Ethics4Everyone” www.walkthetalk.com
Free … Ethics Self-Assessment: go to www.walkthetalk.com
“Integrity is not a 90 percent thing, not a 95 percent thing; either you have it or you don’t!”
How Successful Am I Self-Assessment – 26 questions Pages 58-59
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May 13, 2011
Jan 01, 2008
Mar 17, 2008
This author wrote the book Stiff about the "life" of a cadaver and wrote this book in all seriousness but w/ a smattering of humor. I learned alot abo This author wrote the book Stiff about the "life" of a cadaver and wrote this book in all seriousness but w/ a smattering of humor. I learned alot about the history of scientific sex! Its been a battle to have any research done to help this subject and even today it's hard to find funding to support research into the betterment of sex!! I would recommend it to the curious and copulating. ...more
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Oct 17, 2013
What a captivating book. It was my first Alex Cross book and now have to start from the beginning of the character. I read this book in one week. I wa What a captivating book. It was my first Alex Cross book and now have to start from the beginning of the character. I read this book in one week. I was half way through it when I got home from work and stayed to up finish because I HAD to know how it ended. Word of advice....don't be eating while you read it because you will mostly like get sick to your stomach! ...more
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Mar 11, 2010
Mar 17, 2010
Dec 24, 2009
Feb 09, 2010
In 1940 the lives of three women become intertwined during World War II. The book tells the story of the war through the lives of these three women an In 1940 the lives of three women become intertwined during World War II. The book tells the story of the war through the lives of these three women and how it makes a difference in their lives. This is not a history book - it is more of a mix between popular, literary and historical fiction. ...more
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Sep 06, 2010
Oct 17, 2002
Feb 11, 2003
One part historical account of the Chicago Worlds fair, one part account of an early american serial killer. Seriously, this book has just about every One part historical account of the Chicago Worlds fair, one part account of an early american serial killer. Seriously, this book has just about everything a nerd like me needs!! It has history, intrigue, mayhem, and murder.
Very well written. For the most part it reads like a novel rather than a work of non-fiction. Very cool.
I really enjoyed this book- Jenn McC. ...more
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Apr 06, 2010
Apr 15, 2010
Apr 06, 2010
Jan 01, 2009
Sep 22, 2009
I LOVED this book! It was creepy and spooky and exciting all at the same time. I loved the historical setting mixed with the creepiness of having a ra I LOVED this book! It was creepy and spooky and exciting all at the same time. I loved the historical setting mixed with the creepiness of having a race of super monsters attacking a small new england town. So awesome!
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Oct 01, 2010
Jan 14, 2010
Feb 02, 2010
2 Adult women/sisters try to deal with their mean mother as their beloved father ask as his dying wish they give their mother a chance and listen to h 2 Adult women/sisters try to deal with their mean mother as their beloved father ask as his dying wish they give their mother a chance and listen to her story that until now she would never tell them. ...more
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Dec 10, 2011