I highly recommend Stephen Batchelor's excellent book "Buddhism Without Beliefs: A Contemporary Guide to Awakening" to anyone struggling to find peaceI highly recommend Stephen Batchelor's excellent book "Buddhism Without Beliefs: A Contemporary Guide to Awakening" to anyone struggling to find peace and meaning in life without any reference to a belief in the super natural. Stephen Batchelor is an atheist. But he also admits, frankly, to being an atheist Buddhist (a member of a religion), and finds nothing incompatible in those claims. This book does an excellent job describing a form of Buddhism that can be practiced without any supernatural or dogmatic beliefs. It is an excellent work on how to synthesize Buddhism with a lack of belief in the supernatural.
Batchelor finds Buddhism completely compatible with a non-belief in the super natural elements of reincarnation and Karma, and suggests that a modern Buddhist could theoretically reject those elements of the earlier tradition. He reminds his readers that the Buddha himself suggested that we need not accept everything in his tradition to be a Buddhist, and that the central teachings of the Buddha involved the nature of suffering, and the mechanisms whereby we may overcome suffering. The other elements such as reincarnation and karma have always been considered as appendages to the core teachings, appendages that Batchelor suggests we can reject if we so choose, while remaining within the large umbrella of Buddhism.
However, he also outlines a way of viewing those ideas without reference to any sort of un-scientific world view. After all, we are all dying and being reborn in some ways every moment of our lives (which can be viewed as a form of reincarnation), and there is a sense in which things have natural consequences, (which can be viewed as a non super natural version of the law of karma).
Batchelor's book is related to Sam Harris' book "Waking Up: A Guide to Spirituality Without Religion" (https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1...). However, Batchelor spends less time than Harris in off topic railings against the foolishness of every other religion but his. Batchelor also seems to recognize (in a way that Harris does not) that spirituality also needs community (the Sangha). And that once you add the Sangha to spirituality, the result is religion. So, instead of advocating for spirituality without religion (as Harris does), he instead advocates for religion (Buddhism) without dogmatic beliefs in the supernatural.
What Harris does best is provide an insider's view of how neuroscience relates to the practice. And what Batchelor does best, is describe how to actually practice and participate in a religion (Buddhism) without reference to any super natural belief....more
A lot of people reviewing this book are complaining about the writing style and seemingly flat characterizations in the story. The writing style usedA lot of people reviewing this book are complaining about the writing style and seemingly flat characterizations in the story. The writing style used in this book is an intentional imitation of ancient Mesopotamian texts and story telling techniques, which was a quirk that I really enjoyed, perhaps because I knew where it was coming from and what she was doing. However, I can understand why others who don't know where this is coming from are having problems with it. This imitation also impacts her characterizations, which are complex when the motives of the characters are examined, but appear flat since the author doesn't make any of these motivations explicit, exactly as was common in most Mesopotamian texts. Again, I liked this, but I admit to not being the average reader. I minored in Ancient Near Eastern History, and even spent a few months trying to learn Sumerian once upon a time, (hint, if you ever go crazy and for some strange reason think of trying to learn Sumerian, don't... Sumerian is HARD).
The themes of faith, doubt, sacrifice, and the search for a seemingly absent God in this story are fascinating, and well worth considering. As is the evaluation of whether we should be willing to do something truly awful in the name of an "almighty" deity.
The book is short, and a very quick read, but is very enjoyable. Although the book is primarily for children, I thought that the complexities of the themes explored made it well worth reading for adults as well.
"Traditionally these are questions for philosophy, but philosophy is dead. Philosophy has not kept up with modern developments in science, particularl"Traditionally these are questions for philosophy, but philosophy is dead. Philosophy has not kept up with modern developments in science, particularly physics. Scientists have become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge." Stephen Hawking
I couldn't agree with that statement more. Some of his other conclusions in the book from which the quote was taken "The Grand Design"... not so much.
But in what way is philosophy dead? Clearly the love of wisdom is not dead, but it may well be that the field of liberal arts philosophy may indeed be dead (or at least loosing relevance and productivity).
To attempt to discover the real truth requires more than sitting and thinking, it requires observation, and then modeling, which requires math. This means that today the mathematicians and physicists are doing the real leg work of philosophy, while the liberal arts philosophers are, for the most part, spinning their wheels.
There is a feeling that theology and philosophy should be the ones asking the questions about morality, theology, meaning, and God, while science should keep its distance. But I believe that you can't ask these questions correctly without a firm grounding in the observations of science and physics, which MUST inform any inquiry into philosophy, or even theology. As Einstein said, science without theology is lame (in the sense of not having the power to move things forward), while theology without science is blind (in the sense of moving forward, but not seeing where it is really going).
Therefore, I find that I simply can not agree with those that say that science should leave such theological matters to religion. In my view, Stephen Hawking has every right to venture into the field of theology, and to bravely see what implications his understanding of the laws of physics has on his understanding of God. This is a useful and potentially very productive undertaking.
Let us take some of Hawking's conclusions in this book as an example, and see how science can inform theology:
1. In the beginning, the world was very small, thus the rules of Quantum Mechanics hold, and things like the universe can (and indeed will) appear out of nothing without violating the rules of quantum mechanics, so long as it eventually cancels itself out, just as virtual particles usually do.
2. The universe has an equal amount of positive and negative energy, and so is a cosmic free lunch, and can (and will) appear out of nothing (essentially, the universe cancels itself out, much like virtual particles do).
3. But the universe was also hugely massive, so it followed not only the rules of quantum mechanics, but also the rules of relativity, which says that mass bends space and time, and at the point where you have enough mass to make a black hole (as we clearly had in the early universe), time itself stops, so there IS no time before the big bang, time curves back upon itself, and comes to a single closed point, creating a beginning not only of the universe, but of time itself, and thus it creates a beginning to the chain of causation. The chain of causation (where the causes come before the results) comes to an end at the Big bang, which necessarily had no cause, because there was no time before the big bang for that cause to act in.
His conclusion? There is no God in the platonic sense of the "prime mover" or "first cause" because 1. we don't need him to explain how and why the universe could come into being, (quantum mechanics does that) and 2. there could be no creator of the universe, because there was no time before the universe was created for Him to act in. Essentially, God could not "cause" the universe, because relativity guarantees that there was no time in which he could act to initiate such a cause, and after the big bang bangs, we don't need Him to explain the progression of the universe from that point on (the laws of nature do that).
Whether or not you agree with these conclusions (which I do not), it is clear that a firm understanding of the issues surrounding quantum mechanics should indeed necessarily inform our theology. Even if his reasoning here is flawed, that is the way science works. It is necessary for someone to make these sorts of inferences, so that science can move forward and either prove or disprove this theory.
So, why don't I come to the same conclusions as Hawking? His reasoning appears rather solid at first glance. However, relativity and quantum mechanics are notorious for their inability to play nicely together, and there are a myriad of potential theories that have been proposed in an attempt to produce a good theory of quantum gravity. He is here espousing one of these theories, granted, it is the one that is (so far) the most mathematically robust, but it is by no means the only solution to this problem. For example, some theories of quantized time predict a big bounce instead of a big bang, in which case there was indeed time before the big bang. Another competing theory predicts that two of the membranes predicted by M-theory collided, producing the big bang, again, this is a theory that predicts time before the big bang. Still other theories predict that there are other dimensions of time, outside of our own. It is also unclear to some whether quantum fluctuations can create virtual particles without space or time in which to create them, which could cast doubt on whether a quantum fluctuation alone could create the universe from no-where and no-when. The possibilities are nearly endless. And, most importantly, we have yet to find observations that can clearly differentiate between many of these competing theories. Essentially, we have no observationally verified theory of quantum gravity, which is necessary before we can make any real predictions of how the universe behaved in these early moments that are so essential to Hawking's arguments.
So, if we take this into consideration, we can rephrase Stephen Hawking's brilliant deduction differently. IF we accept THIS theory of quantum gravity, together with its predictions about quantum fluctuations and the beginning of time, THEN the universe necessarily had no cause within our dimension of time, and thus, there is no God that exists solely within our universe's dimension of time. I believe that this is a valid deduction, and, to some extent, it should inform our understanding of God. It is only unfortunate that he didn't state his conclusions with this level of cautiousness. Instead, he is far more confident in his conclusions than is warranted by the data, and he leaves out the many "if"s that should have preceded his conclusion. This was perhaps my only serious disagreement with the Book.
And what of my own conclusions about God? That is not really what this review is about, but to be short:
Theleologians in my chosen branch of Christianity have often said that God does not just predict the future, he quite literally sees it. For this to be the case, God must, of necessity, exist outside of our dimension of time, and likely outside of our dimensions of space as well. I find the fact that science is now predicting a universe of multiple dimensions and multiple universes (some with different laws of physics), and is finding that God cannot exist only within our dimension of time and still create the universe, to be quite faith promoting since that is in line with what I believed all along.
Stephen Hawking would likely take issue with my interpretation of his work, but hey, that is what Science is all about, and we should be grateful to Stephen Hawking for so clearly expressing this brilliant deduction. ...more
This book was wonderful. I recommend it to anyone interested in these issues. I almost believe that it should be required reading for anyone who is aThis book was wonderful. I recommend it to anyone interested in these issues. I almost believe that it should be required reading for anyone who is a member of a religious, military, political, or other obedience driven institution. As a descendant of John D. Lee, it has special significance to me personally.
The book is a wonderful treatise on how otherwise good people can be brought to do monstrous things, and how situations can so easily escalate beyond our control. It has taught me a lot about always taking the most reconciliatory course, and taking it early, before things get out of control. It has also taught me a lot about the importance of using the Church's controls and councils appropriately. These councils are set up to prevent this very sort of thing, and when they were used correctly, the correct conclusion was reached, it was only when a few leaders chose to disregard the conclusions and recommendations of the council that things turned evil.
Since we are all in positions where such events can happen, it behooves us all to understand the issues involved, so that we can protect ourselves, and insure that if we were, say, a guard at Auschwitz, or a member of a Mormon militia ordered to kill innocent civilians, or a Muslim told to fly an airplane into a building, we would say, NO, and mean it....more
I would guess that whenever you give a review this bad to a book by a general authority of the Church, some explanation is needed.
As much as I love EI would guess that whenever you give a review this bad to a book by a general authority of the Church, some explanation is needed.
As much as I love Elder Richards, that doesn't mean that his book is great. So, what's wrong with it? The book never suggests bible-bashing, and in fact says that bible bashing is a bad idea, but in my experience, the effect of this book on missionaries is nevertheless to encourage debate and bible-bashing.That is not a good way to teach the gospel.
Worse, although the doctrine contained in the book is invariably true, the book tends to see that doctrine in the Bible in places where it doesn't really exist. Thus the book often drastically mis-interprets the Bible in order to see LDS doctrine in it. Although the doctrine is true, it isn't always in the Bible in all the places we sometimes think that it is. So when missionaries argue about the doctrine from this book, first, they shouldn't be arguing at all, and worse, when they do argue, they are wrong more often than not.
Missionaries especially should stay away from this book....more
This book has quite a few historical inaccuracies in it. It was good for its time, but is very out of date. Unfortunately, nothing better has yet to bThis book has quite a few historical inaccuracies in it. It was good for its time, but is very out of date. Unfortunately, nothing better has yet to be written by a general authority of the Church about the life of Christ, but something better is desperately needed. There are a lot of ways in which this book could be improved upon....more