Langston Hughes is a gorgeous, thoughtful, talented poet. He traveled the world,and thus experienced many cultures. The introduction to this particulaLangston Hughes is a gorgeous, thoughtful, talented poet. He traveled the world,and thus experienced many cultures. The introduction to this particular book explains that Hughes was terrible at writing back to people in a timely fashion, but he pretty much always wrote back. The letters would pile up on his bed and in his dresser drawers. When a group (I can't remember the name) wants to begin preserving African American culture for posterity, Hughes is happy to give up the mountains of letters to which he's responded because he never throws them away. So now, a huge chunk of Hughes's life is kept and recorded. The editors of this book aimed to find letters that would capture Hughes's life and not just the best letters or a certain time period or correspondence with a certain person. The result is obviously from a huge, tedious effort.
I couldn't get into the book. There are so many footnotes to explain Langston Hughes's references in his letters: people, places, events, projects on which he is working, etc. The footnotes destroy the feeling of reading an intimate letter, and it's true that not all of them are intimate. I was excited to read on the back cover that Zora Neale Hurston was in this book, but there was only one letter to her, and the footnotes revealed that apparently she took a play that she and Hughes were working on and had it produced without his knowledge--or his name on the credits. That made me feel terrible, as I love Hurston and had to think of her as a cheat.
Truly this book is a gold mine for graduate students writing a paper or thesis on the poet, but for the average reader, it's too detailed to simply sit and enjoy. Because I don't feel like the correct audience for this book (not at this point in my life, anyway), I'm not giving it any starts....more
I've been studying the black experience in America now for quite some time, and while I have a lot to work with, there are some things that I could neI've been studying the black experience in America now for quite some time, and while I have a lot to work with, there are some things that I could never articulate in a way that satisfied me, for instance, race is a construction. I hear that a lot, but I wasn't sure what it meant until I read Coates. Ta-Nehisi Coates explains that people who want to be white are those who know that in order to stay at the top of the mountain, there has to be bottom. Mountains don't float, right? The bottom is essential for there to be a top. In this way, Coates reminded me of Malcolm X, who claimed that when he said "white man" he meant not one individual white person, but the collection of atrocities committed by white men throughout history. After all, Malcolm X did have white friends. So, in the same way, Coates makes his claims accessible to a wide swath of readers by explaining that white people are not evil, it's people "who want to be white" who are destructive. Another interesting point is that after a time, Coates doesn't refer to such people as those who want to be white, but instead calls them the Dreamers. For these people, the American Dream is accessible. They are the people who appear on Coates's TV when he is a boy, a world he knows doesn't reflect his own, but he wishes he could have it. The Dreamers don't even know that they live in ignorance, and Coates would never wish such a state of being for himself or his son to whom he writes his book. People cannot wait for the Dreamers to wake, he writes. People can only hope that Dreamers come to consciousness where things are uglier and harsher, but real.
My favorite part of the book is when Coates talks about The Mecca, which in his context refers to Howard University, a predominantly black college established in 1867. At The Mecca, Coates sees the variety of people who are all labeled "black": people who are from Africa or the U.S., who speak other languages, who emote other cultures, who have black parents or white parents or one parent, people who are from the ghettos and those who are very well-off. It is not the color that unites them; it is the experience of having their bodies seen as disposable or as commodity. While at Howard University, Coates reads so much that the books he absorbs start to complicate and contradict what he's already read. As a professor, here is where I see some amazing richness. It is not often that an autodidact shares his/her experiences while gaining knowledge--Malcolm X is one of the few--and the process of discovery and intense focus is much better than what we can give students in the classroom.
Overall, definitely a must-read book, though some of the references may pass over some readers' heads if they are not familiar to some extent with black history. Also, Coates's writing style employs a lot of sophisticated grammar and sentence structures, which I loved, but may cause some readers difficulty following along....more
I Tweeted a few times with Irvine Welsh today about this book. I can die happy now. I've been fan-girling all over him since 2004. Review forthcomingI Tweeted a few times with Irvine Welsh today about this book. I can die happy now. I've been fan-girling all over him since 2004. Review forthcoming at TNBBC and here!...more
*UPDATE* I interviewed the author about this collection; you can read our conversation HERE.
“Russians do not surrender…we suffer and survive.”
I can’t*UPDATE* I interviewed the author about this collection; you can read our conversation HERE.
“Russians do not surrender…we suffer and survive.”
I can’t even remember how I was introduced to Zarina Zabrisky’s work, but we’ve been in contact for so long now that I consider her a friend whom I would love to meet some day. Zabrisky is a Russian-American woman living in California. Her work is art meets the political, a mashup of filth and beauty. I commented on the horror in her short collection, Iron. American decadence contrasts the difficulties of navigating government institutions in Russia in the novella, A Cute Tombstone. Later, Zarina asked me to put together a virtual book tour for A Cute Tombstone, and I learned more about funeral portraits in Russia and the band Pussy Riot. Zarina later asked me to put together another virtual book tour for her first novel, We, Monsters.
Explosion is more like Zarina’s earlier short collection. There are 14 very short stories in Explosion, and all are from the point of view of a Russian. Sometimes the setting is California, but it’s almost always Russia.
Right away I notice all the drug use; there is so much heroin. “Why?” I ask. Truthfully, my knowledge of Russia is as deep as a puddle, so I made use of my college’s database and started hunting around for articles. Hours and hours later, I felt mad but a bit enlightened. John M. Kramer, author of the article “Drug Abuse in Russia,” notes that a study from 2010 found”Russia has almost as many heroin users (1.5 million) as all other European countries combined (1.6 million)” (31).
While most of Zarina’s stories have characters addicted to heroin, the story with the clever name “Heroines” stands out. The narrator speaks to the reader, explaining that she wants to tell us about her friends. She says, “I have a lot of friends. I’m Russian and my girlfriends are Russian.” Next is a list of tragic stories: Alina, dead from a heroin overdose; Marina with Hep C (“We all got Hep C together”); Anna, whose husband abandoned her and their daughter, forcing her to marry again (“In Russia, if you don’t have a man, you’re a waste”); Lana the mail order bride. In many of the 14 stories, women must attach themselves to men to survive. While most of the stories aren’t about drugs, it’s always there, always present, and Zarina captures the essence of the setting because so many Russians are actually addicted.
Disease, like Marina’s Hep-C, is a massive problem. According to Gregory Gilderman, author of the article “Death by Indifference,” a study conducted in 2009 found that somewhere “between 840,000 and 1.2 million are HIV-positive” in Russia, which has a population of around 143,000,000 (44). A lot of the spread of HIV has to do with dirty needles. While some countries like the U.S. have needle exchange programs to slow the spread of people contracting HIV or hepatitis, “nongovernmental organizations [in Russia] that advocate harm reduction strategies—needle exchanges, providing condoms to sex workers—face police harassment and criminal penalties” (Gilderman 45, emphasis mine). Zarina’s collection of stories points out the dark times of the Soviet Union resulting from the leadership, without being an in-your-face condemnation that comes off as “preachy.” Truthfully, based on the articles I read, Russia today and the Soviet Union aren’t really that different.
If you’re using or dealing drugs, mum’s the word. But in Explosion, if you’re thinking anything you shouldn’t, you must be silent, too. A girl in 1986 writes in her diary, “Be silent, hide and keep secret your feelings and thoughts. … The thought spoken is a lie.” When the girl starts asking her father, a scientist, questions, he praises her, but the mother scolds them both for saying things that are not acceptable in the Soviet Union, including questions about God. The mother also warns, “And you better only discuss such things like [God] at home, not at school.” More research reminded me that the Soviet Union declared the nation atheist, so God talk was forbidden.
Silence, silence everywhere. In another story, a woman won’t phone the police at the request of a foreign man because she believes the police and the bad guys are the same thing. He asks, “Are you refusing to call?” and she thinks, “I’m refusing to die.” Zarina, ever the supporter of Pussy Riot, also fits the story of the band recording their punk prayer into one of her stories. “For the government, men with voice are more dangerous than drug pushers,” she writes, “And women with voice — even more so.” Sometimes, Zarina’s voice is more forceful, such as the reference to Pussy Riot, which stands out as being obvious protest in literature, but the subtle undercurrent of silencing remind me again of 1984 and the Thought Police. Such moments are as quite as the citizens, creating a parallel in content and the message.
Explosion creates an array of women surviving the Russia that Pussy Riot protests. “You have big boobs and speak English,” one woman is told. She could work as a prostitute and get intel from foreigners. “The just under one million sex workers in Russia, for instance, live at the whim equally of pimps and the police, and have no practical recourse if they are raped or assaulted,” Gilderman writes (48). The other option is to marry foreigners. “What’s love?” one woman asks her sister, “I’ll find you a husband. I’ll get you out of here.” Women have no autonomy in Zarina’s collection, not even when they move away. “Unfortunately, for many adolescent boys and even adult men, the shaping of their male identity involves the debasement and suppression of girls,” (61) adds T.A. Gurko, author of “Underage Females’ Experiences Of Sexual Relations, Motherhood, And Married Life.”
Women are often seduced by the promise of marriage because they are “whores” and “sluts” and compromise Russia’s traditional values when they are single. One character is in love with a drug dealer, who promises to marry her. She feels no concern when she discovers she’s pregnant, but T.A. Gurko notes, “As the men [in the survey] put it, ‘promising her you will marry her does not mean you will.’ At best he may offer to get her an abortion; at worst he will do everything he can to cut off the relationship” (67). I don’t mean to imply that I’m fact-checking Zarina’s work; men abandon women in all countries. But the situations present in her collection, because they reoccur so much, made me want to learn more. Very few books encourage me to be more knowledgeable. In this case, gaining information made me sympathetic for the plight of women in Russia — they don’t even have tampons, one character points out.
Poverty is a big factor in survival, especially for women and their children, who are almost always abandoned in these stories. Poverty can be conveyed in simple descriptions, and Zarina always picks just the right images: “watery mud covered everything in view: a playground with iron bars and broken swings, homeless dogs, and a skinny cow by the broken fence, chewing on a plastic bag.” That bag may not mean much to you (except concern for what it will do to the cow’s intestines), but check this out:
If Russia represents poverty, America is wealth. A young girl covets a plastic bag a schoolmate has — I know, right? — and finally trades a great deal for it. She is so happy:
I took the bag and sniffed it. It definitely didn’t smell of all-purpose Russian soap … the smell of grease, dirt, and poverty. … This bag smelled like chewing gum, like a dream: foreign, delicious, the aroma of unknown tropical countries, coconuts and pineapples I have never tried, of exotic sea ports. … Weakly, vaguely, the bright plastic smelled of America.
Zarina mentions good teeth and iPhones as symbols of doing well in America, choosing examples that are subtle, but easy for this American reader to compare.
Again, the theme is subtly in each story, but over 14 stories it adds up to a strong, unmistakable picture of an oppressive, anti-female Russia. There isn’t a single quote that can capture the feel of the whole collection, but when it adds up, you start to get a gross feeling in your stomach — a totally appropriate response to the massive injustices, poverty, starvation, dismissed lives, and deaths that could have been prevented. Though it is an unpleasant feeling, imagine the people who are living it and remember that literature is meant to teach us about those unlike ourselves, to open our worldview and do something about it.
I want to thank Zarina Zabrisky for a copy of Explosion in exchange for an honest review. Please come back tomorrow to Grab the Lapels to read an interview I conducted with Zarina about her newest collection!
Gilderman, Gregory. “Death By Indifference.” World Affairs 175.5 (2013): 44-50. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 11 May 2016.
Gurko, T.A. “Underage Females’ Experiences Of Sexual Relations, Motherhood, And Married Life.” Russian Social Science Review 45.3 (2004): 58-77. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 11 May 2016.
Kramer, John M. “Drug Abuse In Russia.” Problems Of Post-Communism 58.1 (2011): 31. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 May 2016....more
"Write for yourself, do not concern yourself with pleasing your audience (it is impossible, anyway)" (73).
"It is all right not to know what it is you"Write for yourself, do not concern yourself with pleasing your audience (it is impossible, anyway)" (73).
"It is all right not to know what it is you are tying to communicate, exactly, ahead of time. Part of the creative process is exploring our thoughts, letting our guard down, and laying ourselves on the line, as we try to work through these things" (73).
According to Chris Ware and Seth (pen name of Gregory Gallant), "when you sit down to draw, you should 'dress for work.' Have respect for your craft. Put on a pair of pants" (71).
"Admittedly, art is like spit. It does not repulse or even worry us while it is still inside of us. But once it exits our body, it becomes disgusting" (73).
This book is like a syllabus that has passages that read as if spoken by the teacher to add in explanation. Brunetti writes with the confidence of a person who is a master of his skill. I found this book to be helpful with my fiction writing and that it does not simply apply to cartooning....more
I'm on page 42, but I'm going to stop. I teach composition in college and thus am too aware of things like the author making assumptions. For instanceI'm on page 42, but I'm going to stop. I teach composition in college and thus am too aware of things like the author making assumptions. For instance, there is no evidence of how Moreau's family felt the day he became a priest, but the author says we can assume because they've always been leaning toward this moment since it was a big risk for Moreau to leave the family farm. I also don't like how the author leads conversations by deciding what was good/bad instead of reporting information without bias, which is what I expect as a reader of a biography....more