This book is written by two Dutch experts in colonial expansion. They have applied modern concepts like economic history, networks, and the geographic...moreThis book is written by two Dutch experts in colonial expansion. They have applied modern concepts like economic history, networks, and the geographical and biological determinism of Jared Diamond to the world in the 17th and 18th century, before Britain became the world's dominant power. These modern concepts make it easier to accept some of the authors' conclusions compared to books of an earlier generation: we "recognise" this book. The book would have been even better if the authors had elaborated more on quite a few subjects. Still it seems a book that is worth reading even for those not specifically interested in Dutch history. It covers much of the globe from Brazil to Persia, paying least attention to Europe.(less)
The introduction at the start of the 20th century of the Ethical Policy to raise the living standard of the native population of the Dutch East Indies...moreThe introduction at the start of the 20th century of the Ethical Policy to raise the living standard of the native population of the Dutch East Indies coincided with the introduction of the bolt action rifle. Before the Ethical Policy the conquest of the archipelago's outer territories was deemed too expensive, and with just 4,000 Europeans in the archipelago in 1852, there had not been enough boots on the ground. The fire power of the new riffles made conquest a lot more economical.
The Ethical Policy had ended "the veneration of Mammon" of the colonial government. At the same time a breach of ethical norms set by the Europeans (slavery, suttees, but also smuggling and ransacking) had become a casus belli. It would lead to one of the bloodiest periods of Dutch colonial history. As it is today, the army was seen as an instrument for the spread of civilisation. As an additional benefit, conquest would save the archipelago from British and American interference and thus protect the pax Neerlandica.
Ewald Vanvugt has used the conquest of Lombok to look at the political and cultural effects of such a war on the colonial power.
Unfortunately we learn little about the consequences of the conquest for the people on Lombok. What happened to the raja's land that had generated such generous cash flows? Had the colonial government received any later income from the conquest? The protracted wars in Aceh were so expensive that taxes were raised in the Indies ("paid for by Javanese farmers") and Holland. The conquest of Lombok had also generated a loss. Equally, some of Mr. Vanvugt's quotes are unfortunate. There has never been proof of signs stating "no dogs or natives allowed" in the Dutch East Indies. Pramoedya Ananta Toer is quoted a few times. Pak Pram presented a view on history aimed at nation building, which is not always in line with more neutral observers.
Churchill has called Britain's colonial wars "a lot of jolly little wars against barbarous peoples" (quoted in Richard Toye's Churchill's Empire). Mr. Vanvugt has not mentioned anything equivalent. However you see the same social Darwinism and belief in Western superiority at work, albeit in a more modest form.(less)
The latest (second) edition of Krom's Hindoe-Javaansche Geschiedenis was published in 1931, and it is still about the last overview written about Java...moreThe latest (second) edition of Krom's Hindoe-Javaansche Geschiedenis was published in 1931, and it is still about the last overview written about Java's Hindu-era in a Western language. It is not often quoted anymore, but the newer books that are quoted still often use Krom as a source. More recently a Japanese edition of the book was published with many notes of newer insights.
Our knowledge of Hindu-Javanese history suffers from a lack of written sources, and that has not changed much since 1931. Also, the available archaeological sources were mostly known in the days of Krom already. Krom himself was head of the Archaeological Service of the Dutch East Indies, and he must have had excellent access to any report available. Besides archaeological artefacts there are inscriptions on copper plates and on rocks found throughout Java. There are also reports in Chinese imperial archives and from Arab sources. In these documents however the names alone are already difficult to pinpoint to certain places or people. Tome Pires' report on the final decades of this era was not yet known when this book was written. There are also some Javanese historical sources of which the Nagarakrtagama stands out. Some of the other sources were Dutch war booty from the war in Lombok. Other sources, particularly the Pararaton, seem to contain an unhealthy level of fictitious elements, and were more meant to glorify the ruling house du jour than what actually happened. So what you get is mostly an overview of the various kingdoms that made up the Javanese era, its rulers and their remaining monuments, spiced with details from mainly Chinese reports. Much of the book consists of checking the various theories available, whereupon Krom selects one as the most likely.
Java has had an indigenous religion that prevailed from before the Hindu era until the current day. Twice in its history did a foreign religion have a profound impact on Javanese culture. They make up the start of this book (the introduction of Hinduism) and the end of it (the conquest of Java by Islamic kingdoms). Krom claims that Hinduism and Buddhism have to a large extend been an affair of the elites. It has however always been mixed with local Javanese aspects. The impact of Hinduism and Buddhism deteriorated later on.
When Hindoe-Javaansche Geschiedenis was written there was little knowledge about the arrival of Hinduism in Java, except that an exchange of people and ideas with India already occurred before the coming of Hinduism. The Javanese themselves had built megalithic constructions, and developed iron work, shipping, wet rice farming (which requires political organisation), and astronomy. Hindus sailing eastward must have settled Java roughly in second or the third century. More certainty about their presence exists since the 5th century, when a king named Purnawarman ruled over an area near Jakarta and Bogor. He was probably an Indian settler. Shipping in those days was an Indian business. The Indian influence is restricted to an elite and mostly a pénétration pacifique and concerns social, religious, and moral areas, expressed in Sanskrit, although that was not the spoken language at the time. It remains a mystery why Java (and much of Southeast Asia was more to Indian and not to Chinese influence.
Our knowledge increases when we arrive in the 7th century when Java, just like India, start building stone dwellings. In this era the first Buddhist pilgrims spentd time in Java, among others to translate Hinayana-scriptures with the aid of a local Javanese person (in a local language). The Indonesian islands must have been quite integrated in Indian life, given that the new school of Tantrism had also made it to neighbouring Sumatra already. Sumatra, with its more central position in between India and China, was another important centre of Indian culture. The inscription of Tjanggal in Kedu from 732 gives more information on the background of Indian immigrants (they came from an area in between Tranvancore and Tinnevelly). The temples of the Dieng Plateau that were dedicated to Shiva from 807 now appear. They are the oldest monuments still standing, but from their style it is obvious that the Art is Indian in origin, but executed by Javanese craftsmen.
The Cailendra dynasty ruled at the same time as Srivijaya in Sumatra. They were followers of the Buddhist school of Mahayana-ism. Krom's knowledge is diffuse about Java and Sumatra. One of them, but likely Srivijaya, conquered Khmer around 800 (an influence you can still see on some temples near Siem Raep) and possibly Cham. In Central Java in the desa Kalasan near Prambanan, influences from the Ganges area are visible. Krom also mentions that the Nalanda University in Nepal received pilgrims from Sumatra. There are also trade relations with Gujarat, the later source of the Islamification of Java. Java and Sumatra become one state under Srivijaya (pagina 145).
The ninth century saw the construction of the great temples of Borobudur (Indian Mahayana, no Chinese influences) and Sewu (Shivaism with local influences) in the Prambanan valley. The influence of Buddhism was centralised. Hinduism more dispersed (154) Later on in that century the relation with Srivijaya was ended. Reports from the Chinese Tang dynasty mention wooden houses, ivory benches, people eating with their hands, hard liquor from coconut flowers, astronomy (same as centuries earlier). The Chinese considered Java a rich island that provided turtle, gold, silver, rhino horn, and ivory. Java consisted of a central kingdom with vazal states. In this centure the name Mataram was used as a name for a kingdom. Buddhism remained relevant besides Shivaism. Kings combine Indian titles with Indonesian names, whereupon Krom concluded that they were Hinduised Javanese, not Indians. Central Java, and particularly Prambanan is the centre of the kingdom, which develops eastward. Gods are called in an order that seems to proof the importance of local animism (page 203).
In 927 it was over for central Java. Under King Sindok, the worldly and spiritual power moves east for unknown reasons. Buddhism disappeared from the scene, except for two minor Tantric documents (page 219). Sindok's daughter probably succeeded him as queen. Java was now a regional player that re-established contacts with China, being serviced by mainly Chinese ships for trade. Marriages occur with Balinese royalty.
Airlangga is the most important king of this century. As a prince he escaped into the forest during an attack, and he lived with hermits. Airlangga was confirmed as king by brahmans shivaists and buddhists (page 243). He slowly conquered the other fiefdoms on the island. Airlangga considered himself a reincarnation of Vishnu. Later in life probably turned to spiritual life. After his death empire split into two by a Buddhist sage/yoga expert/magic teacher/tantrist Bharada who lived in a cemetry.
Kediri comes up as the leading power in the 13th century. Chinese sources mention an organised and monetised society without corporal punishment except for theft (page 285). Chinese sources consider Jawa the second richest foreign land after the Abbasids (page 305). A land of blessed Buddhas and Shivaism with pig and cock fights and a hot-tempered and bellicose population (page 308). Parts of modern eastern Indonesia (Bali, Timor, Ternate, etc.) were fiefdoms. During this centure Hinduised Java reached its zenith of refinement and became the largest empire the archipelago had seen to that day.
Anggrok, a former bandit, worked himself up to king and becomes the founding father of the Singasari and Majapahit dynasties. During this age the style of the temple buildings became more Javanese and kings combined Vishnu or Shiva with Buddha. Krtanagara split the kingdom split in eastern and western zone, a fact that would not change anymore. Kublai Khan sent the envoy M'eng Ki demanding submission, but the envoy is sent back with a mutulated face. Java has grown bigger again, with vazal states in Sumatra, the Malaysian peninsula, and the lesser Sunda islands. Religiously, King Krtanagara was a Tantric Buddhist, and writer of a treatise on yoga and an expert in Tarkka and Wyakarana sastras and consecrated as the Dhyani-Buddha. He was murdered by a Kediri vice roi, causing the end of the Singasari-dynasty.
Around the fall of Singasari, the Chinese Yuen dynasty sent a penal expedition to Java (the expedition report is included in the book, page page 357). This interference helped Wijaya founding Majapahit. Court ceremonial grew under subsequent kings. After the death of Jayanegara, the kingdom was ruled by a female regent (page 384). One of her sons was Hayam Wuruk, who ruled together with his "prime minister" Gajah Mada. The very talented Gajah Mada had promised to devour "palapa", an important promise often linked to spiced food, until much of modern Indonesia (including Temasek, modern Singapore, and Pahang on the Malaysian peninsula), but not Sunda (West Java), would be part of his master's sphere of influence. Bali was also conquered. This was an important development as it allowed the continuation of Javanese literature after Java became Muslim. In 1349 a Chinese source stated Java was the foremost among the barbarian states, given its beautiful buildings, fertile land and dense and peaceful population (page 398). On a mission to the Chinese court Java offers, among others 300 "black slaves". Majapahit developed a sophisticated administration (page 420), and an important Shiva monument at Panataran.
Hayam Wuruk death in 1389 started the decline and fall of Majapahit. A civil war on Java caused by the weakness of Javanese rulers in the early 15th century allowed the outer islands to break away from the centre. The rise of Islamic Malacca and the consequent change in trade flows must have been a factor in the spread of Islamic states in the archipelago. Again China interfered in Javanese and Sumatran affairs (page 433). The Ming dynasty sent the famous admiral Cheng Ho to Java. Cheng Ho caused regime change in the little Chinese-run state on Sumatra. The Chinese description of Majapahit by Ma Huan described a reduced Hindu influence and an increase in indigenous Indonesian influence (page 443). Conflicts were solved with the kris and widow burning occurred. The king weared sarongs and travelled by elephant and ox cart. People chewed sirih, and the marriage ritual described was almost like in the 1930's. The art form wayang beber already existed. As far as Krom was concerned, Javanese culture had change little since these days. Ma Huang also mentioned Islamic and Chinese immigrants. The Islamic traders specialised in the spice trade. Temples constructed in these days became smaller and less adventurous in style. Hinduism "retreated" into the mountains and allied itself with older Indonesian elements (page 446), founding Argapura and other Shiva temples (also Lawu, Sukuh, and Ceta). Buddhism disappeared from the scene.
Krom believed that Daha near Surabaya conquered Majapahit. Daha was still a Hindu. The cities on the coast had become more and more Islamic, although they still recognised the Hindu sovereigns (page 452). The Portuguese De Barros mentioned the spread of "the pest of Islam" from Malacca via the trade routes. Malacca was now the great emporium between the Eastern states and India, particularly Gujarat and Pase, where Java's Islam originated. Islam spread through marriage like Hinduism earlier, but it does so faster, as it required conversion of the female partner. It is however peaceful, and did not affect Javanese culture itself. Islam adapted, and a converted Javanese remained Javanese first (page 455). Wayang and the Mhabharata remained, and the first Islamic monuments look foremost Javanese.
Krom assessed that the fall of the Hindu state was caused predominantly by their internal weaknesses vis-à-vis the growing self confidence of the coastal Islamic (city) states and their supporters at the court in the interior (page 465). If Majapahit was conquered remained a question for Krom, its implosion was more important.(less)