This book is written by two Dutch experts in colonial expansion. They have applied modern concepts like economic history, networks, and the geographicThis book is written by two Dutch experts in colonial expansion. They have applied modern concepts like economic history, networks, and the geographical and biological determinism of Jared Diamond to the world in the 17th and 18th century, before Britain became the world's dominant power. These modern concepts make it easier to accept some of the authors' conclusions compared to books of an earlier generation: we "recognise" this book. The book would have been even better if the authors had elaborated more on quite a few subjects. Still it seems a book that is worth reading even for those not specifically interested in Dutch history. It covers much of the globe from Brazil to Persia, paying least attention to Europe....more
The introduction at the start of the 20th century of the Ethical Policy to raise the living standard of the native population of the Dutch East IndiesThe introduction at the start of the 20th century of the Ethical Policy to raise the living standard of the native population of the Dutch East Indies coincided with the introduction of the bolt action rifle. Before the Ethical Policy the conquest of the archipelago's outer territories was deemed too expensive, and with just 4,000 Europeans in the archipelago in 1852, there had not been enough boots on the ground. The fire power of the new riffles made conquest a lot more economical.
The Ethical Policy had ended "the veneration of Mammon" of the colonial government. At the same time a breach of ethical norms set by the Europeans (slavery, suttees, but also smuggling and ransacking) had become a casus belli. It would lead to one of the bloodiest periods of Dutch colonial history. As it is today, the army was seen as an instrument for the spread of civilisation. As an additional benefit, conquest would save the archipelago from British and American interference and thus protect the pax Neerlandica.
Ewald Vanvugt has used the conquest of Lombok to look at the political and cultural effects of such a war on the colonial power.
Unfortunately we learn little about the consequences of the conquest for the people on Lombok. What happened to the raja's land that had generated such generous cash flows? Had the colonial government received any later income from the conquest? The protracted wars in Aceh were so expensive that taxes were raised in the Indies ("paid for by Javanese farmers") and Holland. The conquest of Lombok had also generated a loss. Equally, some of Mr. Vanvugt's quotes are unfortunate. There has never been proof of signs stating "no dogs or natives allowed" in the Dutch East Indies. Pramoedya Ananta Toer is quoted a few times. Pak Pram presented a view on history aimed at nation building, which is not always in line with more neutral observers.
Churchill has called Britain's colonial wars "a lot of jolly little wars against barbarous peoples" (quoted in Richard Toye's Churchill's Empire). Mr. Vanvugt has not mentioned anything equivalent. However you see the same social Darwinism and belief in Western superiority at work, albeit in a more modest form....more
1956 and 1957 were years when both the Soviet Union and the United States were trying to get a foothold in IndonesiThe growing pains of a young nation
1956 and 1957 were years when both the Soviet Union and the United States were trying to get a foothold in Indonesia, a young nation with many natural resources and the largest domino stone for anyone wanting to dominate Southeast Asia. The former colonizers were on the way out. Domestically in Indonesia the Dutch were only significant as scapegoats through the continued occupancy of what is now the Indonesian province of Papua. They had maintained some influence through the Confederation that the Indonesians were about to end. Their main influence was economic by running Indonesia's larger businesses.
The country itself was still trying to find out what it wanted to be: a capitalist or socialist country, a nationalist or an Islamic republic, a country with a strong central state or a confederation. At the same time that its outer islands were revolting against Jakarta, its Western-trained middle classes were Westernising, which created new questions again: how Western was the country supposed to become?
Indonesia had just held its first democratic election. Indonesia had had no civil registration, and 878.305 civil servants were sent out to set this up. 93 of them lost their lives in the process: 19 were killed and 74 were kidnapped. Soekarno's party won, but the Muslim parties came out as the largest block. Soekarno invented Pancasila as a national philosophy to unify the country. The author of this book consequently compares Soekarno to Tito and Mussolini, who wanted to be absolute leaders that could not accept any leadership, even if it was of a religion.
You find all this back in this snapshot of the mid-1950's by the Dutch journalist Theo C. Drooghe. Soeharto's Orde Baru later solved some of the issues discussed in this book: Indonesia became a centralised state run by a semi-feudal ruler who accepted capitalism with monopolies for his family and cronies. However, although Pancasila is still on schools' curriculum, the arguments about the influence of Islam have not changed very much.
There was one thing that all Indonesians agreed upon: they were entitled to the entire former Dutch colony. The Dutch reluctance to give up Papua led to the expulsion of all Dutch corporations (except the oil company) and their Dutch workers from Indonesian soil by the end of 1957, effectively ending nearly all Dutch influence. On Java, units of the Communist Party occupied the board rooms, together with the military. The communists would later be the big losers, the companies were often mismanaged and many lead marginal existences nowadays or went bankrupt in the Asian Crisis in the late 1990's.
The American diplomat Hugh S. Cumming nicely summarises the conflict: the Dutch wanted to nail down the future relationship with its former colony through treaties and laws. It took 120 years to get good relations between England and the US. No law has accelerated that process.
Admittedly, I picked up this book because of its funny title ("The Coolie Becomes a Gentleman" would be the translation into English) more than anything else. It is a short read and it does not dig very deep. It contains some funny details however. I had somehow never expected that in the 1950's 40% of the Saudis had contracted a venereal disease, for example....more
The latest (second) edition of Krom's Hindoe-Javaansche Geschiedenis was published in 1931, and it is still about the last overview written about JavaThe latest (second) edition of Krom's Hindoe-Javaansche Geschiedenis was published in 1931, and it is still about the last overview written about Java's Hindu-era in a Western language. It is not often quoted anymore, but the newer books that are quoted still often use Krom as a source. More recently a Japanese edition of the book was published with many notes of newer insights.
Our knowledge of Hindu-Javanese history suffers from a lack of written sources, and that has not changed much since 1931. Also, the available archaeological sources were mostly known in the days of Krom already. Krom himself was head of the Archaeological Service of the Dutch East Indies, and he must have had excellent access to any report available. Besides archaeological artefacts there are inscriptions on copper plates and on rocks found throughout Java. There are also reports in Chinese imperial archives and from Arab sources. In these documents however the names alone are already difficult to pinpoint to certain places or people. Tome Pires' report on the final decades of this era was not yet known when this book was written. There are also some Javanese historical sources of which the Nagarakrtagama stands out. Some of the other sources were Dutch war booty from the war in Lombok. Other sources, particularly the Pararaton, seem to contain an unhealthy level of fictitious elements, and were more meant to glorify the ruling house du jour than what actually happened. So what you get is mostly an overview of the various kingdoms that made up the Javanese era, its rulers and their remaining monuments, spiced with details from mainly Chinese reports. Much of the book consists of checking the various theories available, whereupon Krom selects one as the most likely.
Java has had an indigenous religion that prevailed from before the Hindu era until the current day. Twice in its history did a foreign religion have a profound impact on Javanese culture. They make up the start of this book (the introduction of Hinduism) and the end of it (the conquest of Java by Islamic kingdoms). Krom claims that Hinduism and Buddhism have to a large extend been an affair of the elites. It has however always been mixed with local Javanese aspects. The impact of Hinduism and Buddhism deteriorated later on.
When Hindoe-Javaansche Geschiedenis was written there was little knowledge about the arrival of Hinduism in Java, except that an exchange of people and ideas with India already occurred before the coming of Hinduism. The Javanese themselves had built megalithic constructions, and developed iron work, shipping, wet rice farming (which requires political organisation), and astronomy. Hindus sailing eastward must have settled Java roughly in second or the third century. More certainty about their presence exists since the 5th century, when a king named Purnawarman ruled over an area near Jakarta and Bogor. He was probably an Indian settler. Shipping in those days was an Indian business. The Indian influence is restricted to an elite and mostly a pénétration pacifique and concerns social, religious, and moral areas, expressed in Sanskrit, although that was not the spoken language at the time. It remains a mystery why Java (and much of Southeast Asia was more to Indian and not to Chinese influence.
Our knowledge increases when we arrive in the 7th century when Java, just like India, start building stone dwellings. In this era the first Buddhist pilgrims spentd time in Java, among others to translate Hinayana-scriptures with the aid of a local Javanese person (in a local language). The Indonesian islands must have been quite integrated in Indian life, given that the new school of Tantrism had also made it to neighbouring Sumatra already. Sumatra, with its more central position in between India and China, was another important centre of Indian culture. The inscription of Tjanggal in Kedu from 732 gives more information on the background of Indian immigrants (they came from an area in between Tranvancore and Tinnevelly). The temples of the Dieng Plateau that were dedicated to Shiva from 807 now appear. They are the oldest monuments still standing, but from their style it is obvious that the Art is Indian in origin, but executed by Javanese craftsmen.
The Cailendra dynasty ruled at the same time as Srivijaya in Sumatra. They were followers of the Buddhist school of Mahayana-ism. Krom's knowledge is diffuse about Java and Sumatra. One of them, but likely Srivijaya, conquered Khmer around 800 (an influence you can still see on some temples near Siem Raep) and possibly Cham. In Central Java in the desa Kalasan near Prambanan, influences from the Ganges area are visible. Krom also mentions that the Nalanda University in Nepal received pilgrims from Sumatra. There are also trade relations with Gujarat, the later source of the Islamification of Java. Java and Sumatra become one state under Srivijaya (pagina 145).
The ninth century saw the construction of the great temples of Borobudur (Indian Mahayana, no Chinese influences) and Sewu (Shivaism with local influences) in the Prambanan valley. The influence of Buddhism was centralised. Hinduism more dispersed (154) Later on in that century the relation with Srivijaya was ended. Reports from the Chinese Tang dynasty mention wooden houses, ivory benches, people eating with their hands, hard liquor from coconut flowers, astronomy (same as centuries earlier). The Chinese considered Java a rich island that provided turtle, gold, silver, rhino horn, and ivory. Java consisted of a central kingdom with vazal states. In this centure the name Mataram was used as a name for a kingdom. Buddhism remained relevant besides Shivaism. Kings combine Indian titles with Indonesian names, whereupon Krom concluded that they were Hinduised Javanese, not Indians. Central Java, and particularly Prambanan is the centre of the kingdom, which develops eastward. Gods are called in an order that seems to proof the importance of local animism (page 203).
In 927 it was over for central Java. Under King Sindok, the worldly and spiritual power moves east for unknown reasons. Buddhism disappeared from the scene, except for two minor Tantric documents (page 219). Sindok's daughter probably succeeded him as queen. Java was now a regional player that re-established contacts with China, being serviced by mainly Chinese ships for trade. Marriages occur with Balinese royalty.
Airlangga is the most important king of this century. As a prince he escaped into the forest during an attack, and he lived with hermits. Airlangga was confirmed as king by brahmans shivaists and buddhists (page 243). He slowly conquered the other fiefdoms on the island. Airlangga considered himself a reincarnation of Vishnu. Later in life probably turned to spiritual life. After his death empire split into two by a Buddhist sage/yoga expert/magic teacher/tantrist Bharada who lived in a cemetry.
Kediri comes up as the leading power in the 13th century. Chinese sources mention an organised and monetised society without corporal punishment except for theft (page 285). Chinese sources consider Jawa the second richest foreign land after the Abbasids (page 305). A land of blessed Buddhas and Shivaism with pig and cock fights and a hot-tempered and bellicose population (page 308). Parts of modern eastern Indonesia (Bali, Timor, Ternate, etc.) were fiefdoms. During this centure Hinduised Java reached its zenith of refinement and became the largest empire the archipelago had seen to that day.
Anggrok, a former bandit, worked himself up to king and becomes the founding father of the Singasari and Majapahit dynasties. During this age the style of the temple buildings became more Javanese and kings combined Vishnu or Shiva with Buddha. Krtanagara split the kingdom split in eastern and western zone, a fact that would not change anymore. Kublai Khan sent the envoy M'eng Ki demanding submission, but the envoy is sent back with a mutulated face. Java has grown bigger again, with vazal states in Sumatra, the Malaysian peninsula, and the lesser Sunda islands. Religiously, King Krtanagara was a Tantric Buddhist, and writer of a treatise on yoga and an expert in Tarkka and Wyakarana sastras and consecrated as the Dhyani-Buddha. He was murdered by a Kediri vice roi, causing the end of the Singasari-dynasty.
Around the fall of Singasari, the Chinese Yuen dynasty sent a penal expedition to Java (the expedition report is included in the book, page page 357). This interference helped Wijaya founding Majapahit. Court ceremonial grew under subsequent kings. After the death of Jayanegara, the kingdom was ruled by a female regent (page 384). One of her sons was Hayam Wuruk, who ruled together with his "prime minister" Gajah Mada. The very talented Gajah Mada had promised to devour "palapa", an important promise often linked to spiced food, until much of modern Indonesia (including Temasek, modern Singapore, and Pahang on the Malaysian peninsula), but not Sunda (West Java), would be part of his master's sphere of influence. Bali was also conquered. This was an important development as it allowed the continuation of Javanese literature after Java became Muslim. In 1349 a Chinese source stated Java was the foremost among the barbarian states, given its beautiful buildings, fertile land and dense and peaceful population (page 398). On a mission to the Chinese court Java offers, among others 300 "black slaves". Majapahit developed a sophisticated administration (page 420), and an important Shiva monument at Panataran.
Hayam Wuruk death in 1389 started the decline and fall of Majapahit. A civil war on Java caused by the weakness of Javanese rulers in the early 15th century allowed the outer islands to break away from the centre. The rise of Islamic Malacca and the consequent change in trade flows must have been a factor in the spread of Islamic states in the archipelago. Again China interfered in Javanese and Sumatran affairs (page 433). The Ming dynasty sent the famous admiral Cheng Ho to Java. Cheng Ho caused regime change in the little Chinese-run state on Sumatra. The Chinese description of Majapahit by Ma Huan described a reduced Hindu influence and an increase in indigenous Indonesian influence (page 443). Conflicts were solved with the kris and widow burning occurred. The king weared sarongs and travelled by elephant and ox cart. People chewed sirih, and the marriage ritual described was almost like in the 1930's. The art form wayang beber already existed. As far as Krom was concerned, Javanese culture had change little since these days. Ma Huang also mentioned Islamic and Chinese immigrants. The Islamic traders specialised in the spice trade. Temples constructed in these days became smaller and less adventurous in style. Hinduism "retreated" into the mountains and allied itself with older Indonesian elements (page 446), founding Argapura and other Shiva temples (also Lawu, Sukuh, and Ceta). Buddhism disappeared from the scene.
Krom believed that Daha near Surabaya conquered Majapahit. Daha was still a Hindu. The cities on the coast had become more and more Islamic, although they still recognised the Hindu sovereigns (page 452). The Portuguese De Barros mentioned the spread of "the pest of Islam" from Malacca via the trade routes. Malacca was now the great emporium between the Eastern states and India, particularly Gujarat and Pase, where Java's Islam originated. Islam spread through marriage like Hinduism earlier, but it does so faster, as it required conversion of the female partner. It is however peaceful, and did not affect Javanese culture itself. Islam adapted, and a converted Javanese remained Javanese first (page 455). Wayang and the Mhabharata remained, and the first Islamic monuments look foremost Javanese.
Krom assessed that the fall of the Hindu state was caused predominantly by their internal weaknesses vis-à-vis the growing self confidence of the coastal Islamic (city) states and their supporters at the court in the interior (page 465). If Majapahit was conquered remained a question for Krom, its implosion was more important....more
Before he became famous as his generation’s foremost historian of Java, Dr De Graaff had been a history teacher at various secondary schools in the DuBefore he became famous as his generation’s foremost historian of Java, Dr De Graaff had been a history teacher at various secondary schools in the Dutch East Indies. He had been an advocate of a benign kind of colonialism, which you find reflected in this History of Indonesia, published in 1949 when Indonesia became independent. Dr. De Graaff had intended to include more of the Indonesian side than in the books of his predecessors, who mostly relied on foreign (Western, Chinese, and Arab) sources. Given the limited native sources of information available, he integrated some of the legends from the babads: his experience as a history teacher clearly shines through. Given his opinion on colonialism, Dr. De Graaff is somewhat more positive (or should I say “tolerant”) about the more controversial figures of colonial rule than later generations.
Various newer histories have since replaced this 500-page book, however few in Western languages cover the prehistory of Indonesia and the various “outer islands” as extensively as this book. Funnily, he also included the Dutch colonies and trading posts managed from Batavia. The short chapters (of limited interest) on Taiwan, Ceylon, Nagasaki, and the Cape of Good Hope make Indonesia look like the centre of global empire.
Although I seemed to have encountered some errors in this first edition, I found the book still quite readable, although I skipped a few chapters where I had read newer books....more
Martin van Creveld, the military historian, stated that there are two strategies to win against a guerrilla force. The first strategy is to go for the hearts and minds of the local population, and to accept relatively heavy casualties among the regular army’s troops. The British did so against the IRA in Northern Ireland. In this media age it is the only possible approach for civilised nations. The second strategy is to openly use overwhelming force and accept innocent victims. Mr. Van Creveld gave the Syrian Baath-regime’s conquest of Hama as an example, where somewhere between 10,000 and 30,000 civilans were indiscriminately killed. Mr. Van Creveld could also have pointed at his former compatriot Raymond Westerling.
Captain Raymond Westerling was one of the few Dutchmen that have an opera based upon their lives. This book is his (auto-)biography, written originally in French by the right-wing historian and veteran of the Algerian War Dominique Venner. I have not seen the original edition, but doubt if it contains all the newspaper clippings and other documents that Westerling used to state his case to his compatriots. The book is written in the third person, and contains lots of dialogues that were never recorded ad verbatim. It breathes the hard-boiled romance of soldiery, and possibly reflects the novels Westerling read as a child. Westerling’s own hand seems to be more visible the more the book progresses through time, and as his role becomes more controversial. Venner clearly adored his subject, comparing him to Lawrence of Arabia, who also played a historic role on the fringe of a central conflict (like the Arab dessert vs. the Somme), and who wanted to be one with the native people in the country where he fought.
The book follows Westerling’s life as a soldier until the 1950’s. Westerling was born in Istanbul to a third-generation Dutch immigrant and his Greek wife. He spoke French, Greek, and Turkish, but hardly any Dutch. Westerling volunteered at the Dutch consulate in 1941 when he was 22 years old. He was then sent to Britain for training. Here he followed the British army’s commando training, including toughness training, unarmed combat, and silent killing. Westerling also worked as an instructor to new recruits in these fields. He also worked for the British counter espionage special branche. Westerling later got his baptism of fire on the Western front, and was wounded in a German rocket attack on Dutch soil.
On the 11th of September 1945, lieutenant Westerling was dropped by parachute near Medan on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The Japanese have then surrendered some 3.5 weeks earlier, but are still mostly in charge. All Dutch citizens in the colony had been interned in concentration camps for years, where they found some uncomfortable protection from marauding local gangs, that claimed to fight for independence, but were often just bandits. The Japanese were still mostly in charge, and would remain so for months in various areas of the archipelago. There were also some contingents of British troops, mainly consisting of soldiers from British India. The British played a fishy role in the liberation of the Dutch East Indies, demanding Dutch ships and troops to help with the liberation of British territories, but not offering many reciprocal services to the Dutch.
Besides Westerling, there were just two other Dutch military in Medan, and they were all under control of the British. With the help of local Dutch Eurasians and native Indonesians sympathetic to the colonial regime, the young lieutenant slowly managed to increase the area under Dutch control, and thus managed to normalise life for the city’s citizens. He liberated more Dutchmen from camps near Medan, enabling him to increase the Dutch presence. The British found that Westerling had broadly the same ideas about the country as the nationalists. The Turk, as his nickname was, hardly had a flag to fight for, “all he could do was following his instinct and consciousness”. In Medan Westerling aimed at the hearts and minds of the citizenry, and although thugs put a price on his head, he received little resistance. Westerling also set his first steps in intelligence, setting up an information network, and attacking the enemy with disinformation. The book describes how he used his commando training to kill a gang of bandits with just the aid from a few locals that were either pro-Dutch or pro-independence. On several occasions Indonesians saved his life, and Westerling picked up a profound love for the country. In an appraisal of his time in Medan, the local pro-Dutch sultan stated that Westerling operated “somewhat drastically”, but that this was appropriate given the chaotic situation.
After his time in Sumatra, Westerling moved to Batavia, where he was promoted to captain, and asked set up a special forces unit, with native soldiers from the colonial army and Dutch volunteers. The training was tough, very tough, and aimed at complete control over fears. His troops had to be able to operate in small groups or even individually. “The jungle and the night are your best friends.” Ethics were not on the programme, at least not beyond respect for civilians, nationalists, and absolute obedience to Westerling. And the unit’s aim was not victory against the nationalists, but rather the protection of the Indonesian people.
Westerling and his troops were quickly dispatched to Makassar, the capital of the island of Celebes, and now called Ujung Pandang. At the time it wa a serious trouble spot. Local bandits and nationalist thugs had infiltrated the local police and intimidated the local people. As a consequence, social life and the economy were paralysed. Westerling defined his own solution, and got it accepted by his commanding officer. According to Westerling there was no normal military solution for a guerrilla attack from a village. If you used the normal military means, you shoot both at your opponents and at the villagers, creating a common interest between guerrillas and villagers. It was much better to get the villagers deliver you the guerrillas. This could be accomplished through consequent aiming your actions to the people. In the case of Celebes, summary execution of the criminals would, in the Eastern way, return the people’s trust in the government and lead to self defence.
And this is what he did. Westerling first sent out reconnaissance men to identify the criminal elements in a village. Then he would march in with his troops, round up the people, and separate the men from the women. The “criminals” on his list would be brought forward, and executed in front of the men. In other cases he would ask the villagers in a “court martial” who the “criminals” were, and execute them. He would then ask the imam for the village’s oath of allegiance. Westerling advocated that from his experience (in a country were he had just spent 1.5 year), the Indonesian farmers had a highly developed sense of justice that would work just fine to separate the criminal elements from the compromised. Written proof was not required. Westerling followed up with financial support.
He was highly successful. After 3 months normalcy was restored. In the mean time Westerling ruled like a god over life and death. He was not proud of his successes, but “moved like a predator in the jungle”. He personally shot a spy in the Sociëteit, a club for local businessmen, and when he felt his troops performed their role as executioners with too much enthusiasm, he took over that role. This way he Westerling took full responsibility for his actions, but also answered “to the deeply rooted sense of the Indonesian people that the enforcer of justice and the executioner are one and the same face”: “This people have become mine through election.” Westerling claimed that what he did was not counter terrorism in the sense of Van Creveld, as he aimed precisely at the criminal elements.
Again, Westerling was acquitted by his superiors. He himself stated some 800 people died because of his actions. Nationalist propaganda still mentions 40,000, but that is certainly exaggerated. Newer estimates stop at a few thousand, including those killed by local militias. Opposition against his action came up almost instantly and remained until Westerling’s death in the 1980’s. Political leadership always supported him half-heartedly, as in the end they would be held responsible.
The book also dedicates chapters to the conquest of nationalist capital Yogyakarta by the Special Forces troops not under Westerling’s command, and his poorly executed coup attempt in Bandung in 1950. Here again, Westerling thought that he was the man to protect the Indonesian people against “Javanese” oppression.
As far as I could check the facts in this book are mostly correct, but the interpretation leaves plenty of room for discussion. Reading this book often reminded me of Coppola’s flawed epos Apocalypse Now, with Westerling as another Colonel Kurtz. Willard, the man sent to assassinate Kurtz recognizes this hypocrisy by stating that his mission to assassinate Kurtz as a murderer “. . . in this place [Vietnam:] was like handing out speeding tickets at the Indy 500.” Earlier on in the movie, General Corman states that "in this war, things get confused out there, power, ideals, the old morality, and practical military necessity. Out there with these natives it must be a temptation to be god. Because there's a conflict in every human heart between the rational and the irrational, between good and evil. The good does not always triumph. Sometimes the dark side overcomes what Lincoln called the better angels of our nature. Every man has got a breaking point. You and I have. Walter Kurtz has reached his. And very obviously, he has gone insane." I don’t think Westerling was insane. Kurtz’ monologue at the end of the movie comes closer: “you have no right to call me a murderer. You have no right to call me a murderer. You have a right to kill me. You have a right to do that, but you have no right to judge me. It's impossible for words to describe what is necessary to those who do not know what horror means. Horror. Horror has a face, and you must make a friend of horror. Horror and mortal terror are your friends. If they are not, then they are enemies to be feared. They are truly enemies.”
Westerling was a courageous and charismatic man, operating in extreme circumstances. He was a special forces soldier, solving a problem with the means of his profession. In the late 1940’s, ethics were left much more to the individual than now, and Westerling followed his instincts. He had been extremely successful for some time, and received support from the people he protected and his superiors. His modus operandi in South Celebes was not supported by law, but in the circumstances nobody saw an alternative solution for a situation that had clearly gone out of hand. In Makassar, his leadership was unchecked by any authority, although they could have done so if they had wanted to. I would not say that Westerling was a victim of circumstances, which he would likely not have accepted anyway. But his actions seem the product of the time and circumstances as much as of his own character.
And Westerling was also a romantic susceptible to hubris, and not corrected by his surroundings. His tombstone in Amsterdam reads “rakyat memberi beliau gelar ratu adil”, which means as much as “the people gave you the name ratu adil”. Ratu Adil is the name of a Javanese king, who, coming from the Middle East, will one day rule Java and create justice and prosperity. This he clearly never accomplished.
In Indonesia, Westerling’s heritage lives on. When you visit Indonesia as a Dutchman, his name is sometimes mentioned, and always in a negative way. After independence, the maverick Indonesian general Nasution tried to recruit as many of Westerling’s troops as he could. Himself a theoretician of guerrilla and counter guerrilla warfare, Nasution thought they were the best soldiers he had ever seen. Some of Westerling’s troops joined the Moluccan rebellion in 1950. They outgunned the Indonesian national army, who asked another Dutchman that had settled in the country to set up their own special forces unit, Kopassus. In 2008, Discovery TV elected Kopassus as one of the three best special forces units in the world, after the SAS and the Mossad. Wearing the same red berets as Westerling, Kopassus excels in counter guerrilla, camouflage, strategy, and general toughness. They have also committed serious war crimes in East Timor in the 1990’s. ...more