p.xviii Is the self no longer assumed to be a thing to be approached with optimism, or to be trusted to see anything truly?
p.72 Why is the human brai...morep.xviii Is the self no longer assumed to be a thing to be approached with optimism, or to be trusted to see anything truly?
p.72 Why is the human brain the most complex object known to exist in the universe? Because the elaborations of the mammalian brain that promoted the survival of the organism over shot the mark in our case. Or because it is intrinsic to our role in the universe as thinkers and perceivers, participants in a singular capacity for wonder as well as for comprehension.
p.36 [Title sentence:] Indeed, there is now a suggestion of the pervasive importance to the deep structures of reality of something of a kind with consciousness. The elusiveness of the mind is a consequence of its centrality, which is both its potency and its limitation. The difficulty with which objectivity can be achieved, to the extent that it ever is achieved, only demonstrates the pervasive importance of subjectivity. I would argue that the absence of mind and subjectivity from parascientific literature is in some part a consequence of the fact that the literature arose and took its form in part as a polemic against religion. And it has persisted, consciously or not, in a strategy for excluding thought of the kind hospitable to religion from the possibility of speaking in its own terms, making its own case. Metaphysics in general has been excluded at the same time, even from philosophy, which since Comte has been associated with this same project of exclusion.
p.130 Why this ancient instinct for the greatest questions? It is striking that Freud identifies religion with the meaning of life, and Pinker identifies it with the high-order questions humankind has posed to itself from antiquity. Then both writers for all purposes dismiss these things as insoluble, as if that were a legitimate reason to dismiss any question We may never know why gravity is so much weaker than, in theory, it should be, or know if we are the only one among any number of actual and potential universes. But every real question is fruitful, as the history of human thought so clearly demonstrates.
p.131 So long as the human mind exists to impose itself on reality, as it has already done so profoundly, what it is and what we are must remain an open question.
p.132 Who is that other self needing to be persuaded that there are more than genetic reasons for rescuing a son or daughter from drowning?
p.132 William James says data should be thought of not as givens but as gifts, this by way of maintaining an appropriate humility in the face of what we think we know.
p.133 A bird is not a latter-day dinosaur. (We can assume the ancestor ate and slept and mated, carrying on the universal business of animal life. Still, whatever the shared genetic history of beast and bird, a transformative change occurred over the millennia, and to find the modern sparrow implicit in the thunder lizard is quite certainly an error, if one wishes to make an ornithological study of sparrow behavior. (less)
p.2 Then Allen said, "I've discovered a way to have a lot more time. In the past, I used to look at my time as if it were divided into several parts....morep.2 Then Allen said, "I've discovered a way to have a lot more time. In the past, I used to look at my time as if it were divided into several parts. One part I reserved for Joey, another part was for Sue, another part to help with Ana, another part for household work. The time left over I considered my own. I could read, write, do research, go for walks. But now I try not to divide time into parts anymore. I consider my time with Joey and Sue as my own time. When I help Joey with his homework, I try to find ways of seeing his time as my own time. I go through his lesson with him, sharing his presence and finding ways to be interested in what we do during that time. The same with Sue. The remarkable thing is that now I have unlimited time for myself!"
p.4 "There are two ways to wash the dishes. The first is to wash the dishes in order to have clean dishes and the second is to wash the dishes in order to wash the dishes."
"If while washing dishes, we think only of the cup of tea that awaits us, thus hurrying to get the dishes out of the way as if they were a nuisance, then we are not "washing the dishes to wash the dishes." What's more, we are not alive during the time we are washing the dishes. In fact we are completely incapable of realizing the miracle of life while standing at the sink. If we can't wash the dishes, the chances are we won't be able to drink our tea either. While drinking the cup of tea, we will only be thinking of other things, barely aware of the cup in our hands. thus we are sucked away into the future--and we are incapable of actually living one minute of life.
p.5 I remember a number of years ago, when Jim and I were first traveling together in the United States, we sat under a tree and shared a tangerine. He began to talk about what we would be doing in the future. Whenever we thought about a project that seemed attractive or inspiring, Jim became so immersed in it that he literally forgot about what he was doing in the present. He popped a section of tangerine in his mouth and, before he had begun chewing it, had another slice ready to pop into his mouth again. He was hardly aware he was eating a tangerine. All I had to say was, "You ought to eat the tangerine section you've already taken." Jim was startled into realizing what he was doing.
p.12 ...but not just repeating it like a machine, over and over again. Machine thinking is the opposite of mindfulness. If we're really engaged in mindfulness while walking along the path to the illage, then we will consider teh act of each step we take as an infinite wonder, and a joy will open our hearts like a flower, enabling us to enter the world of reality.
People usually consider walking on water or in thin air a miracle. But I think the real miracle is not to walk either on water or in thin air, but to walk on earth. Every day we are engaged in a miracle which we don't even recognize: a blue sky, white clouds, green leaves, the black, curious eyes of a child--our own two eyes. All is a miracle.
p.14 Mindfulness is at the same time a means and an end, the seed and the fruit.
p.15 Breath is the bridge which connects life to consciousness, which unites your body to your thoughts. Whenever our mind becomes scattered, use your breath as the means to take hold of your mind again.
p.22 Suppose there is a towering wall from the top of which one can see vast distances--but there is no apparent means to climb it, only a thin piece of thread hanging over the top and coming down both sides. A clever person will tie a thicker string onto one end of the thread, walk over to the other side of the wall, then pull on the thread bringing the string to the other side. Then he will tie the end of the string to a strong rope and pull the rope over. When the rope has reached the bottom of one side and is secured on the other side, the wall can be easily scaled. Our breath is such a fragile piece of thread. But once we know how to use it, it can become a wondrous tool to help us surmount situations which would otherwise seem hopeless. Our breath is the bridge from our body to our mind, the element which reconciles our body and mind and which makes possible one-ness of body and mind.
p.23 they say that proper breathing is more important than food.
p.29 No matter what task or motion they undertake, they do it slowly and evenly, without reluctance.
p.30 Prepare a pot of tea to sit and drink in mindfulness. Allow yourself a good length of time to do this. Don't drink your tea like someone who gulps down a cup of coffee during a work break. Drink your tea slowly and reverently, as if it is the axis on which the whole earth revolves--slowly, evenly, without rushing toward the future. Live the actual moment. Only this actual moment is life. Don't be attached to the future. Don't worry about things you have to do. Don't think about getting up or taking off to do anything. Don't think about "departing".
p.31 Somehow we must find a way to allow each worker a day of mindfulness. Such a day is crucial. Its effect on the other days of the week is immeasurable.
p.33 Why should you meditate? First of all because each of us needs to realize total rest. Even a night of sleep doesn't provide total rest.
You cannot go as far in meditation lying down as by sitting. It is possible to find total rest in a sitting position
p.37 Someone might well ask: is relaxation then the only goal of meditation? In fact the goal of meditation goes much deeper than that. While relaxation is the necessary point of departure, once one has realized relaxation, it is possible to realize a tranquil heart and clear mind. To realize a tranquil heart and clear mind is to have gone far along the path of meditation. Of course, to take hold of our minds and calm our thoughts, we must also practice mindfulness of our feelings and perceptions. To take hold of your mind, you must practice mindfulness of the mind. You must know how to observe and recognize the presence of every feeling and thought which arises in you. The Zen Master Thuong Chieu wrote, "If the practitioner knows his own mind clearly he will obtain results with little effort. But if he does not know anything about his own mind, all of his effort will be wasted." If you want to know your own mind, there is only one way: to observe and recognize everything about it.
p.38 During meditation, various feelings and thoughts may arise. If you don't practice mindfulness of teh breath, these thoughts will soon lure you away from mindfulness. But the breath isn't simply a means by which to chase away such thoughts and feelings. Breath remains the vehicle to unite body and mind and to open the gate to wisdom.
p.39 When I mentioned the guard at teh emperor's gate, perhaps you imagined a front corridor with two doors, one entrance and one exit, with your mind as the guard. Whatever feeling or thoughts enters, you are aware of its entrance, and when it leaves, you are aware of its exit. But the image has a shortcoming: it suggests that those who enter and exit the corridor are different from the guard. In fact our thoughts and feelings are us. [...:] We are both the guard and the visitor at the same time.
p.42 Dispersed mind is also mind, just as waves rippling in water are also water. When mind has taken hold of mind, deluded mind becomes true mind. True mind is our real self, is teh Buddha: the pure one-ness which cannot be cut up by the illusory divisions of separate selves, created by concepts and language.
p.45 While you sit in meditation, after having taken hold of your mind, you can direct your concentration to contemplate on the interdependent nature of certain objects. This meditation is not a discursive reflection on a philosophy of interdependence. It is a penetration of mind into mind itself, using one's concentrative power to reveal the real nature of the object being contemplated. Recall a simple and ancient truth: the subject of knowledge cannot exist independently from the object of knowledge. To see is to see something. To hear is to hear something.
p.46 Every object of the ind is itself mind. In Buddhism, we call teh objects of mind the dharmas. Dharmas are usuallly grouped into five categories: 1) bodily and physical forms 2) feelings 3) perceptions 4) mental functionings 5) consciousness. These five categories are called the five aggregates. The fifth category, consciousness, however contains all the other categories and is teh basis of their existence. Contemplation on interdependence is a deep looking into all dharmas in order to pierce through to their real nature, in order to see them as part of the great body of reality and in order to see that the great body of reality is indivisible. It cannot be cut into pieces with separate existences of their own.
p.48 People normally cut reality into compartments, and so are unable to see the interdependence of all phenomena. To see one in all and all in one is to break through the great barrier which narrows one's perception of reality, a barrier which Buddhism calls the attatchment to the false view of self. Attachment to the false view of self means belief in the presence of unchanging entities which exist on their own.
p.49 Perhaps one can say that we are only alive when we live the life of the world, and so live the suffereings and joys of others. The suffering of others is our own suffering, and the happiness of others is our own happiness. If our lives have no limits, the assmbly of the five aggregates which makes up our self also has no limits. The impermanent character of the universe, the success and failures of life can no longer manipulate us. Having seen the reality of interdependence and entered deeply into its reality, nothing can oppress you any longer.
We must learn to see that the person in front of us is ourself and that we are that person.
p.51 Meditate on the corpse until you are calm and at peace, until your mind and heart are light and tranquil and a smile appears on your face. Thus, by overcoming revulsion and fear, life will be seen as infinitely precious, every second of it worth living.
p.22 St. John the Apostle, Patron Saint of writers. The story goes that the old saint would be asked every Sunday to give the homily at Mass, but all...morep.22 St. John the Apostle, Patron Saint of writers. The story goes that the old saint would be asked every Sunday to give the homily at Mass, but all he would ever say was, "Little children, love one another." When it was suggested he might vary his message, St. John seemed surprised, explaining gently that mutual love was the Lord's command, and that if we keep it, is all we need.
p.58 St. Augustine "You have us for Yourself, O God, and our hearts are restless until they rest in You."
p.68 St. Anthony Abbot Patron Saint of basket-makers. One of the reasons why the saint had such frightening temptations was that he was determined to take seriously teh biblical exhortation to "pray without ceasing," thinking it meant to do nothing else. But in a dream an angel advised him to work as well, that this was another form of prayer. When St. Anthony pointed out that there was no work in the Egyptian desert, the angel tartly told him to climb a palm tree, collect the leaves, and weave them into mats. This sensible advice gave his life the balance it had needed. There is no point in giving God what he is not asking, and the human mind needs to "pray always," but in different ways.
p. 70 St. Martin of Tours: Apostle of the Gauls St. Martin has the distinction of being the first Christian pacifist or, at least, the first we know about. He came from a military family and obediently followed his father into the emperor's legions, patrolling the frontiers. But when war broke out, St. Martin saw, young as he was, that it was a war of aggression, an unjust war, and he resigned his commission. He volunteered to walk in the vanguard carrying a cross, to be killed if need be, but he himself would not kill. The world was baffled by his behavior and still is: this episode is rarely portrayed. But we can all understand the story here. St. Martin meets a naked beggar. He gives him all he can, which is half his uniform cloak. That night, Christ appeared to him, wearing the half-cloak. That night, Christ appeared to him, wearing the half-cloak, saying, "My friend Martin gave me this." St. Martin was still a pagan at the time, but this incident led to his conversion and his dramatic refusal of worldly values. We are shown here, not the actual cutting of the cloak, but Martin's moment of decision. It seemed a smallish thing, to be improperly dressed as an officer for the sake of charity, but it changed his life.
p.79 St. Christopher [About the story of carrying the child Christ on his back:] It is a legend and not a history, this story, but it expresses the truth of the saint's name, Christopher, Christ-bearer, to which we are all called and which may sometimes weigh us down with the sorrows of the whole world. Christianity is not an easy option, not an escape. It tackles reality in all is forms, but it does so by the grace of God.
p. 70 He also gave me to understand that my own glory wouldn't be apparent to mortal eyes, that it would consist in becoming a great Saint!!!...This d...morep. 70 He also gave me to understand that my own glory wouldn't be apparent to mortal eyes, that it would consist in becoming a great Saint!!!...This desire might seem foolhardy if one were to consider how weak and imperfect I was, and how much I still am after seven years spent in the religious life, but nonetheless I still feel the same audacious confidence that I'll become a great Saint. That's because I'm not counting on my merits, since I have none, but I hope in the One who is Virtue, Holiness Itself. It is He alone who, being content with my feeble efforts, will raise me up to Himself and, covering me with his infinite merits, will make me a Saint.
85 Often in front of me people would brag about the intelligence of others, but never about mine. So I concluded that I didn't have any, and I resigned myself to seeing myself as being deprived of it...
My sensitive and loving heart would have easily given itself away if it had found another heart capable of understanding it....I tried to link up with other little girls my age, especially with two of them. I loved them, and for their part they loved me as much as they were capable of loving. But alas! How narrow and flighty is the heart of created beings!!!...Soon I saw that my love wasn't understood.
With a heart like mine, I would have let myself be taken and my wings clipped, and then how would I have been able to "fly away and find rest"? How can a heart that is given over to the affection of created beings be intimately united with God? ...I feel that that is not possible. Without having drunk from the poisoned cup of the too-ardent love of created things, I feel that I cannot be deceived.
86 I have seen so many souls, seduced by that false light, flying like poor butterflies and burning their wings, then coming back toward the true, the sweet light of love that gave them new wings, more brilliant and light, so that they might fly toward Jesus, that Divine Fire "who burns without consuming." Oh! I feel it: Jesus knew I was too weak to be exposed to temptation. Perhaps i would have let myself be burned up completely by the deceitful light if I had seen it shining before my eyes...
"Whoever has been forgiven little, loves little" [Lk. 7:47], but I also know that Jesus has forgiven me more than He did for Mary Magdalene, since He forgave me in advance, keeping me from falling. Oh! How I would like to be able to explain what I'm feeling!... Here's an example that will interpret my thoughts a little: Suppose that the son of a capable doctor encounters on the road a rock that makes him fall, and that as a result of this fall he breaks a limb. Immediately his father comes to him, picks him up lovingly, takes care of his wounds, and in so doing uses all the resources of his art, and soon his son, now completely healed, bears witness to his gratitude. Without any doubt, this son is quite right to love his father! But I'm going to make still another supposition. The father, knowing that on the road his son was taking there was a rock, hurries to go before him and removes it (without anybody seeing him). Certainly, this son, the object of the father's prevenient tenderness, not KNOWING the misfortune from which he's been delivered by his father, won't bear witness of his gratitude, and will love him less than if he had been cured by him.... But if he comes to know the danger that he has just escaped, will he not love him more? Well, I am this child who is the object of the anticipatory love of a Father who sent His Word not to redeem the righteous but sinners. He wants me to love Him because He has forgiven me, not much, but everything. He didn't wait for m to love Him much like Mary Magdalene, but He wanted ME TO KNOW how much He loved me with an inexpressible anticipation, so that now I might love Him to distraction! ...I've heard it said that there is no pure soul that an be found who loves more than a repentant soul. Oh! how I would like to belie that saying!...
92 "Life is your ship and not your dwelling!..."
104 I felt a great desire to work for the conversion of sinners, a desire that I had never felt so strongly....In a word, I felt charity enter into my heart, the need to forget myself in order to please others, and ever afterward I was happy! One Sunday, as I was looking at a photograph showing Our Lord on the Cross, I was struck by the blood that was falling from one of His Divine hands. I felt great pain at the thought that this blood was falling to the ground without anyone hurrying to collect it, and I resolved to keep myself in spirit at the foot of the Cross in order to receive the Divine dew that was flowing down from it, understanding that I must then spread it over souls....Jesus' cry on the Cross also resounded continually in my heart: "I am thirsty!" [Jn. 19:28]. These words set on fire within me a keen fervor that I hadn't known before...I wanted to give something to drink to my Beloved, and I felt myself consumed with thirst for souls....It was no longer the souls of priests that attracted me, but those of great sinners. I was burning with the desire to snatch them from everlasting flames...
112 It isn't to remain in the golden ciborium [the covered receptacle that holds the consecrated Communion wafers:] that He comes down every day from heaven. It's to find another heaven that is infinitely dearer to Him than the first one, the heaven of our soul, made in His image, the living temple of the adorable Trinity! [1 Cor. 3:16]
209 Jesus does not ask for great actions, but only for abandonment and gratefulness. [...:] Offer to God a sacrifice of praise & thanksgiving." [Ps 50:14, Heb 13:15]
219 She knows only one thing, and that is to love you Jesus.
219 But how will she bear witness to her Love, since Love is proved by works? Well, the little child will throw out flowers, she will use her perfumes to give a lovely fragrance to the royal throne, she will sing with her silvery voice the hymn of love...Yes, my beloved, that is how my life will be consume. ...I have no other means of proving my lobe for you than to throw flowers, that is, not to pass up any little sacrifice, any look, any word, to take advantage of all the little things and to do them out of love.
247 I understood how much my love for my sisters was imperfect. I saw that I wasn't loving them as God loves them. Oh! Now I understand that perfect charity consists in bearing with others' faults, in not being surprised at their weakness, in being edified by the little acts of virtue that we see them practice. But above all I understood that charity ought not to stay enclosed in the depths of the heart.
249 Since they take my little acts of virtue for imperfections, they can just as well be wrong when they take as a virtue what is only imperfection. [Concerning being non-judgmental:]
264 [God:] has always used His creatures as instruments for doing His work in souls. If the canvas on which an artist paints could think and speak, certainly it wouldn't complain about being constantly touched and retouched by a brush, and neither would it envy the role of that instrument, because it would know that it's not to the brush but to the artist who directs it that it owes the beauty that it bears. As for the brush, it couldn't take glory in the masterpiece that it made. It knows that artists aren't inconvenienced: They make child's play of difficulties, taking pleasure in sometimes choosing instruments that are weak and defective... Beloved Mother, I'm a little brush that Jesus has chosen to paint His image on the souls that you've entrusted to me. An artist doesn't use just one brush, he needs at least two. The first one is the most useful --with it he gives the general colors, completely covering the canvas in a short time. The other, smaller one, he uses for the details.
267 Love is fed with sacrifices. The more the soul refuses natural satisfactions, the more its tenderness becomes strong and impartial.
268 I see with happiness that by loving Him, the heart becomes enlarged. I see that it can give incomparably more tenderness to those who are dear to it, than if it were to concentrate on a self-centered and unfruitful love.
269 The rosiness has disappeared...You feel that doing good is something almost as impossible without God's help as making the sun shine at night...You feel that you must absolutely forget your own desires and personal conceptions, and guide souls along the path that Jesus has traced for them, without trying to make them walk along your own path.
279 I've noticed (and it's quite natural) that the holiest Sisters are the most loved. People seek out their conversation, and they render services to them without their asking for them. In short, these souls who are capable of enduring the lack of consideration and tact find themselves surrounded with the affection of everyone.
xii - The desert Fathers believed that the wilderness had been created as supremely valuable in the eyes of God precisely because it had no value to [...morexii - The desert Fathers believed that the wilderness had been created as supremely valuable in the eyes of God precisely because it had no value to [humanity:]. The wasteland was the land that could never be wasted by [humanity:] because it offered them nothing. There was nothing to attract them. There was nothing to exploit.
p.6 - Words of Martin Luther King, recently shot, copied on the plane. He said: "So I say to you, seek God and discover Him and make Him a power in your life. Without Him all our efforts turn to ashes and our sunrises to darkest nights."
7 - We are all secrets. But now, where there are suggested gaps, one can divine rocks and snow. "Be a mountain diviner!" [from a plane:]
9- A. Stern says of Sartre, "Each philosopher can only give the truth of his own existence. That is to say, philosophy is not a universal or impersonal science. Each individual perspective requires the others as its complements. The Existentialist's world view is determined by his actions and his means of action."
10- Unamuno said, "Philosophy is a product of each philosopher and each philosopher is a [human:] of flesh and blood, who addresses [themselves:] to other [humans:]of flesh and blood like [themselves:] and whatever [they:]may do, [they do:] not philosophize with [their:] reason alone but with [their:] will, [their:] feeling, [their:] flesh and blood, with [their:] whole soul and [their:] whole body. It is the whole [human:] who philosophizes in us."
16 - Not to run from one thought to the next, says Theophane the Recluse, but to give each one time to settle in the heart. Attention. Concentration of the spirit in the heart. Vigilance. Concentration of the will in the heart. Sobriety. Concentration of the feeling in the heart.
40 - "Let the painter come to terms with his impatience." Words of Moliere on The Painter of Frescoes and the comic playwright. Nominalism of Moliere. Repeated hammering on one point until the character is depersonalized, generalized: "miser! miser! miser!" This is also the art of torture in the police state. To repeat an accusation until it sticks and the accused is both generalized and objectivized by pain. To "make an example of."
p. 34-35 "the whole universe surrounding Saint Francis is surrouded by infinite gentleness and of "the most gentel feeling of devotion toward all thin...morep. 34-35 "the whole universe surrounding Saint Francis is surrouded by infinite gentleness and of "the most gentel feeling of devotion toward all things"; "he felt as if transported by a heartfelt love by all creatures." Because of this, he walked with reverence over rocks, in considerations of the One who Himself is called Rock; he gathered the worms in the road so that they would not be stepped on by travelers; he provided the bees with honey and wine in the winter so that they would not perish from hunger and cold. Here is made clear a distinct way of being-in-the-world, not over things, but together with them, like brothers and sisters of the same family. To his own agonies and sufferings "he gave not the name of pains but of brothers." Death itself was for him a friend and a sister. Because of this, the Franciscan world is full of magic, of reverence of respect. It is not a dead and inanimate universe; things are not tossed here, within the reach of possessive appetites of hunger; nor are they placed one beside another. They are alive and have their own personality; they have blood ties with humanity; they live in the same Father's house as humanity."
p.35 "How did Saint Francis arrive at this intimate sympathy with all things? In the first place, because he was a great poet, not romantic but ontological, that is, a poet capable of capturing the transcendent and sacramental message that all things send out."
p. 36 "However, recourse to the poetic soul of Francis does not explain adequately the depth of his experience of being-with-things as brothers and sisters of the same household. At the root of it all, there is the religious experience of the universal fatherhood of God. The paternity of God was not for Francis a cold dogma and a conclusion of the rationalist as to the contingency of creatures. It was a profound emotional experience; it meant a cosmic identification with all the elements. The truth of the universal fatherhood of God is the nucleus of the message of Jesus."
p.37 "When he sings, he does it with all creatures, as is said in his wonderful "Canticle of Brother Sun." He does not sing alone through the creatures. It would be selfish to become deaf to the hymn that they themselves sing to the creator. He sings with them, with the cricket, and with the lark: "The sister larks praise their Creator. Let us go among them and sing ourselves to the Lord, reciting his praises and the canonical hours." Modern humanity has difficulty singing along with things because we are not with them. Because of this, we cannot hear their essential ballad."
p.38 The core of this effort at interiorization centered around the theme of poverty. Poverty, fundamentally, does not only consist in not having things, because individuals always have things: their body, their intelligence, their clothes, their being-in-the-world. Poverty is a way of being by which the individual lets things be what they are; one refuses to dominate them, subjugate them, and make them the objects of the will to power. One refuses to be over them in order to be with them. This demands an immense asceticism of the renunciation of the instict to power, to the dominion over things, and to the satisfaction of human desires. Poverty is the essential path of Saint Francis, realized in the physical place of the poor. The poorer he was, the freer and more fraternal he felt. Possession is what engenders the obstacles to communication between human beings themselves and between persons and things. Interests, selfishness, and exclusive possessions interfere between the individual and the world. They are placed at a distance and a well of alienating objectifications is sunk between them. The more radical the poverty, the closer the individual comes to reality, and the easier it is to commune with all things, respecting and reverencing their differences and distinctions. Universal fraternity is the result of the way-of-being-poor of St. Francis. He truly felt a brother because he could gather all things devoid of the interest in possessions, riches, and efficiency. Poverty is thus a synonym for humility; this is not another virtue, but an attitude by which the individual is on the ground, in the earth, at the side of all things. Converting oneself to this way of being, and in the measure of its realization, one is rewarded with the transparence of all things to the divine and transcendent reality. In this way, universal reconciliation and a cosmic democracy is achieved."
p.42 "His dark night was transformed into day, feeling already within the Kingdom of God, which is the symbol of total reconciliation, of the overcoming of all contradictions, and the greatest realization of humanity with the cosmos and with God."
p.52 [Definitions of poor:] "The poor are defined in terms of relationshiop, because there are no rich or poor in themselves. In an economic sense, poor(pauper) is in opposition to rich (dives); in a political sense, poor (minor, impotens) is opposed to powerful (potens, maior); in a hygienic sense,m poor (infirmus, esuriens, famelicus, vulneratus, debilis) is distinct from healthy (sanus); in a cultural sense, the poor are illiterate (imbecillis, simplex, idiota) as opposed to educated; and so on. As is evident, the concept of poor must be wide to adequately capture the phenomenon, which is multidimensional."
p.54 Within this structuring, the poor (at the same time Christian) find themselves below and at the margin. But they have never been forgotten. Essentiallky the strategy of the hierarchiacal Church is conditioned by the place of power that it occupies. The poor will almost always be seen, though with notable exceptions, from the perspective of the rich. And so the poor always seem inferior, in need, and the object of charitable activity. The politico-pastoral strategy will take the form of aid and paternalism. [...:] The cura pauperum found its formulation in two basic principles that summarize the assistive attitude of the entire ancient Church: first, the individual is to be considered solely as the administrator of the goods at hand, never as their owner, because only God is owner; second, the surplus of the rich is what is needed by the poor, and as a result, alms are a necessity of justice and not an expression of charity."
p.55 "The life of the poor is worth more than the property of the rich." [concerning the idea that "the starving man forced to rob is innocent":]<?
p.56 "With the advent of modern states, the charitable institution was not only reserved to the Church. Princes and kings themselves assumed the responsibility for attending the poor." [What is the reasoning of the reversal in the modern day?:]
p.56 With the industrical revolution and the breakdown of the medieval order, the problem of the poor took on a gravty it had not had before. One only needs to read the pages of Das Kapital by Marx about the historical origin of capital and the social cost demanded of the poor, submitted to every type of pressure and exploited by rising capitalism, soulless and fierce. With the acceleration of the production process within the forms of capitalism, the problem of the poor became worse on a worldwide level. The Church felt overcome in its ability to help."
p.57 The project of the base is not to make of Lazarus a guest at the table of the rich, but rather that in their situation they may earn their food. Because the Church failed in this, it ceased being a Church for the poor without becoming a Church with the poor, much less of the poor. [...:] It discovered primarily the value of teh poor, their ability to resist, the dignity of their struggle, their solidarity, their strenghth, associated with the gentleness for life and family, their ability to evangelize the entire church. In the midst of the, the Church was slowly changing its vision: instead of seeing the poor from the perspective of the rich, it began to see them with the eyes of the poor. From the very social place of the poor one can perceive the necessity for structural changes in society in the direction of a greater justice, communion, and participation.