The End of History and the Last Man
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The End of History and the Last Man

3.42 of 5 stars 3.42  ·  rating details  ·  2,140 ratings  ·  141 reviews
In 1989, Francis Fukuyama began an explosive debate about the future of the world in the post-Cold War era with an article entitled ‘The End of History and the Last Man’. This seminal book expands on his original work to address the fundamental and far-reaching themes of the new millennium. The result is nothing short of an historical and philosophical primer for the onsla...more
Published September 1st 2010 by Penguin Books, Limited (UK) (first published January 1st 1992)
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Fukuyama has been an ideological whipping boy since 2001 for his supposed remarks on the 'end of history' being interpreted as triumphal praise for the United States for winning the cold war. Much of this criticism is largely misplaced. He does start off with the bold assertion that liberal-capitalist-democracy is the end point of history, but uses the rest of his chapters to back off from this assertion into a more tepid series of observations.

He does not support liberal-capitalist-democracy f...more
K.D. Absolutely
Apr 06, 2014 K.D. Absolutely rated it 3 of 5 stars  ·  review of another edition
Recommended to K.D. by: 501 Must Read Books
Shelves: 501, history, non-fiction
Intelligently written history book that is included in the 501 Must-Read Books. Published in 1992 and based in the authors earlier essay, The End of History, this book says that since the end of Cold War in 1989, history also ceases because there is no balance of power and so liberal democracy will prevail unopposed. The essay came out of course after 9/11 when the landscape of the world was changed especially because of the economic crisis that followed the attack.

Fukuyama expounds on the earli...more
Fukuyama has been much ridiculed since the publication of this book, and the piling-on only increased in intensity after the towering cataclysm of September 11th seemed to herald the exact opposite of what Fukuyama allegedly proclaimed. I say allegedly because Fukuyama himself backed away from the logical implications of his own theory long before the final page—in a review of Trust, another Goodreads member accused Fukuyama of incessant hedging, an imputation with which I concur. This is the wa...more
I normally dont get down with political philosophy books, but this one really explores some serious ideas while putting them in the context of history. Fukuyama bases almost all of his ideology off of Hegel and Kojeve, a modern Hegel scholar from Czech Republic. I love history yet have found Hegel incomprehensible and too dense to even consider buying one of his tomes - for people who are interested in history or the idea of dialectics, read this book. Fukuyama explains Hegel while placing him i...more
Though I disagree with the assumptions that Fukuyama makes in this book, I applaud his ability to define such a coherent theory on social evolution. I read this book together with Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations". The pair of books suggest that academia is perhaps less about identifying truth than about presenting well-structured arguments.

In "The History of Man", Fukuyama walks through the development of democratic society based on Christian principles and claims it as the final stage of p...more
“But it is not necessarily the case that liberal democracy is the political system best suited to resolving social conflicts per se. A democracy's ability to peacefully resolve conflicts is greatest when those conflicts arise between socalled "interest groups" that share a larger, pre-existing consensus on the basic values or rules of the game, and when the conflicts are primarily economic in nature. But there are other kinds of non-economic conflicts that are far more intractable, having to d
The main thesis of this book is that the combination of free market capitalism and liberal democracy (based on human rights) represents 'the end of history'. To wit, all countries and peoples in the world will eventually attain this supposedly homogeneous state of government, and it will be stable and self-sustaining. The justification for this thesis is based predominantly in philosophy, although also in history. It is interesting to note that far longer is spent on justifying the long-term sus...more
نهاية التاريخ لا تعني نهاية الحياة وحركتها بالنسبة للكاتب وانما وانما نهاية مرحلة تاريخية وسابقة وبداية مرحلة اخرى ومن الذين نظروا لنهاية التاريخ
هيجل حيث راى أن التاريخ انتهى عام 1860م، لأنه رأى في دحر نابليون للملكية البروسية في معركة (يينا) انتصاراً لمُثل الثورة الفرنسية
ثم ماركس الذي قال ان التاريخ سيحقق نهايته بانتشار الشيوعيه
ثم فيبر الذي راى الرأسمالية نهاية للتاريخ
وبعد سقوط الاتحاد السوفياتي وانتصار امريكا على الدول الشيوعية جاء فوكوياما وقال ان الليبرالية الديمقراطية هي نهاية التاريخ

Mohamed Ateaa
كالمرة الاولي ايضا لم اقتنع بما حاول ان يقنعني به ف 300 صفحة
محمد إلهامي
نظرية متهافتة وتافهة، كتبها تحت تأثير "الوهم المُسْكِر" بنهاية التاريخ بعد سقوط الاتحاد السوفيتي.

ليست المأساة فقط في أن قصة "نهاية التاريخ" هي قصة متكررة في الفلسفة الغربية، كلما وجد القوم فكرة أعجبتهم وحققت بعض النجاح سارعوا إلى القول بأن هذا نهاية التاريخ.. إنما المأساة في أن الكاتب لم يجتهد لضبط نظريته الفكرية بل انساق وراء أحلامه وصار يحشد المعلومات لتحقق فكرته المسبقة حشدا غير منطقي ولا متماسك.

المهم في هذا الكتاب هو نظرته -كغربي- إلينا كمسلمين، أو كما يسمينا عالم ما قبل التاريخ.. هذه النظرة...more
Arun Divakar
When I was done with this book, all I had in my head was a faint buzzing. I took it initially to be a sign of incomprehension but later figured it out to be one of weariness. The weariness stemmed from the theories that the author postulates in the book. A quick look at the reviews tells me that I am not the only one with the same ideas. According to Fukuyama, we reach the end of history when we achieve the liberal-capitalist democratic form of government. He is quick to tell us that this does n...more
Steve Greenleaf
At the Jaipur Literature Festival, I looked forward to hearing a program on “History Strikes Back & the End of Globalism”. It was dialogue between John Ralston Saul & Hubert Vedrine (a former French foreign minister). I hadn’t read either author, although Saul’s Voltaire’s Bastards is packed with my other books back in Iowa City). I wasn’t sure what to expect. The Glamorous Nomad and C joined me. We were in for a surprise.

Saul opened the session by singling out “some guy called Francis...more
Starts off supposedly as an attempt to map out a sort-of Hegelian Universal History, but ultimately, Fukuyama does little to create one, this side of suggesting that Thymotic Desires have something to do with it, and quickly devolves into a baseless, hackneyed lamentation of modern liberal ideologies and democratic viewpoints as an End of History, and the Nietzschean Last Man, without ever truly explaining definitively what is so terrible about either. Sure, he explains the supposedly boring, me...more
Ryan Milbrath
Francis Fukuyama: the eternal political optimist. A second generation Japanese-American, Fukuyama grew up in Chicago: the eternal haven for free-market capitalism and gangsters. Upon receiving a degree in classics from Cornell and a doctorate in government from Harvard he wrote, among other things, “The End of history and the Last Man.” Fukuyama has written several other works of political science and has advised the likes of the Reagan administration. Despite these controversial moves, I do not...more
Sarah Shahid
لن أدخل في التأملات والأفكار الفلسفية التي خاض بها فوكوياما والتي حرفته عن الموضوع الأساسي وذلك بعرضه لأفكار هيجل المنشورة في كتاب موطننا لالكسندر كوجييف، لكنني سأنعت مقاله هذا كما نعت معاصرو كوجييف إطلاقته في نهاية التاريخ بأنها نوع من أنواع الشذوذ والعمى المثقفاتي

من المؤكد أننا لم نصل إلى نهاية التاريخ وهذا ما تؤكده أزمة الركود التضخمي لعام 2008 والتي لم يُعثر لها على حل حتى الآن، حيث سيكون لهذه الأزمة أبلغ الآثر على مستقبل العلاقات الدولية لما يُتوقع من انهيار المنظومة الرأسمالية أو على الأقل...more
Ray Hartley
Francis Fukuyama must hold the title for Most Misunderstood Intellectual. He is derided for having predicted in this seminal work written after the fall of the Berlin wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union that history had "ended". Of course history didn't end and that was not what Fukuyama was suggesting. He was positing that that there would be no "higher stage of development" which would follow capitalism and liberal democracy. Instead, there would be a continuous refinement and adjustment...more
Someone says Fukuyama is an arshole and he probably right. His writing was purely speculative and befitting the circumstances when it was written. The demised of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall.Now that much water has flowed under the bridge, coupled with the 9/11, the scenario of the world geo-political picture has changed. The Russian embracing crude capitalism with the oil and gas will eventually squeezing the Western Europe, the rising of China and India as Asian superpower and...more
John Doe
Apr 12, 2013 John Doe marked it as to-read  ·  review of another edition
It is weird to think of History as moving toward a goal, the realization of liberal democracy with a well educated public and a reasonably free press.

But, if the goals are like directions to help guide our choices than we can make reforms that bring us closer to a functioning democracy. We can even call that progress.

I don't think I want to read this anytime soon, though. It is not obvious to me why liberal democracy is our goal, it certainly isn't everyone's goal. So, I don't think I will agre...more
Mohammad Aboomar
I am mesmerized by how clear and convincing this book was. Ideas like the directional interpretation of history, the master/slave relationship, the struggle for recognition and thymos were new to me. Now I have to read Hegel, Nietzsche and Koheve to get more into the author's frame of mind.

I agree with Fukuyama about many points, above all his portrayal of liberal democracy as the end of history according the Hegelian approach. My main disagreement with him is that he puts the US and Europe in t...more
Dave Peticolas

This book has a similar problem as The Selfish Gene, namely, both authors chose as their title a provocative phrase that is easily misunderstood without reading further, thus inviting a host of criticism from people who did not bother to read between the covers.

That being said, this book does have a number of flaws. The basic premise is that Hegel's conception of dialectical history (as interpreted by a later philosopher, Alexandre Kojeve) is true as given and liberal democracy represents the en

Basically, I was reading this as background for some research on Peter Sloterdijk, and, despite its obvious political bias and some really questionable methods (the stats around the "success" of liberal democracy), I was surprised to find a much more thoughtful synthesis of Hegel/Nietzsche/Kojeve than's still some weird apologetics for neoliberalism, but not entirely without merits at points, albeit in a crazy right-wing Nietzschean way.
Jason Williams
Is this guy friggin serious? Leave it to a neocon to write such an ahistorical history. I'm reminded of a Frederic Jameson line: "this whole global, yet American, postmodern culture is the internal and superstructural expression of a whole new wave of American military and economic domination throughout the world: in this sense, as throughout class history, the underside of culture is blood, torture, death, and terror."
The only interesting thing about this book is how it was so dominant when it came out, with everybody cheering for the conversion of the former "communist" nations to "democracy", and how irrelevant it is now.

This guy is kind of an asshole, and his sole accomplishment is that we can gauge which way the ideology of hegemony is pointing by the relative popularity of his cheerleading efforts.
Fukuyama is much more intellectually honest than I expected. There were a couple of weird blind spots where he just asserted an ideological point without explanation, but on the whole this was pretty fascinating and (like one of the blurbs says) deserves to be taken seriously.
This book explains a lot about the world. Not everything but a lot. And it's gotten a bad rap because most people who criticize it haven't read it and assume his thesis is far simpler - and erroneous - than it actually is.
Jimmy is currently reading it
Aug 10, 2014
Of course, some of Fukyama's predictions have been disproved by recent history (it was written two decades ago!), and you could argue that he does not give enough attention to new ideologies, such as feminism, ecologism, multiculturalism, and in my opinion he really underestimates nationalism as an ideology (cue the latest European elections), but overall I found his application of Hegelian philosophy to the ideas of liberalism, his views on human nature, international relations, and most impor...more
Unul dintre scenariile care m-au fascinat întotdeauna este acela al unei întâlniri imaginare dintre autor și cititor. La prima strigare, e ca un joc de tenis cu peretele – niciodată nu vei ști ce răspunde cu adevărat celălalt, nici tu, ca autor, nici eu, ca cititor. Dar câte lucruri vom învăța unul despre celălalt.

Cu Fukuyama am purtat, cred, printre cele mai multe discuții imaginare de până acum. Asta pentru că Sfârșitul istoriei și ultimul om pune atât de multe probleme – de la legitimitatea r...more
Steven Schoonover jr.
Fukayama makes the case that liberal-capitalism is the final political revolution....
Bomo Albert-oguara
Francis Fukuyama makes a fetish of western democracy as the be end and end all for the progress of mankind.Liberal democracy as the apogee of political organization of society has been debunked by the experimental success of the dualism that China's ascendancy on the world stage has offered as an alternative trajectory of political organization of modern society.The cost to ordinary Chinese citizens is of course the trade off when one considers the fact that it took the Chinese about thirty year...more
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Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born 27 October 1952) is an American philosopher, political economist, and author.
Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese-American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church and received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago. His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fu...more
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“It was the slave's continuing desire for recognition that was the motor which propelled history forward, not the idle complacency and unchanging self-identity of the master” 16 likes
“For Hegel, freedom was not just a psychological phenomenon,
but the essence of what was distinctively human. In this sense,
freedom and nature are diametrically opposed. Freedom does not mean the freedom to live in nature o r according to nature; rather, freedom begins only where nature ends. Human freedom emerges only when man is able to transcend his natural, animal existence, and to create a new self for himself The emblematic starting point for this process of self-creation is the struggle to the death for pure prestige.”
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