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Friendship: Development, Ecology, and Evolution of a Relationship
Friends-they are generous and cooperative with each other in ways that appear to defy standard evolutionary expectations, frequently sacrificing for one another without concern for past behaviors or future consequences. In this fascinating multidisciplinary study, Daniel J. Hruschka synthesizes an array of cross-cultural, experimental, and ethnographic data to understand ...more
Paperback, 400 pages
Published September 24th 2010 by University of California Press
(first published August 2nd 2010)
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“Friends (at least good ones) like one another, enjoy one another’s company, and maintain mutual goodwill. They help one another in times of need, listen to one another’s problems, make sacrifices, and provide emotional support when necessary. They share confidences and can be trusted not to divulge important secrets. Their relationship is personal and private, and it does not answer to a higher authority. They engage in constructive conflict management, and they try to resolve differences among themselves. Friends should not go to court to resolve a dispute. Ideally, friends do not care what they get out of the relationship but value the friendship for its own sake. They are honest with one another, feel free to express themselves to one another, but do not pass judgment. Finally, unlike partners in kin or work relations, one can choose one’s friends.”
“Mutual Aid. Studies of friendship in Western contexts consistently find that people see friends as people they can trust to offer help, to care for them, to look out for their interests, and to make sacrifices in times of need.23 Of all the qualities of friendship considered here, mutual aid is also the most frequently cited behavior in cross-cultural descriptions of friendship (described in 93 percent of societies and never disconfirmed).”More quotes…