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The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future
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The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future

3.66 of 5 stars 3.66  ·  rating details  ·  434 ratings  ·  62 reviews
What will the economy of the future look like? Where will advancing technology, job automation, outsourcing and globalization lead? This groundbreaking book by a Silicon Valley computer engineer explores these questions and shows how accelerating technology is likely to have a highly disruptive influence on our economy in the near future--and may well already be a signific ...more
Paperback, 262 pages
Published September 22nd 2009 by Createspace (first published January 1st 2009)
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Keith Swenson
It is hard to describe how wrong this sorry excuse for a book is. In fact, so hard I just spent over 12 hours writing down a list of things I felt was wrong or misleading. Here I will give you just a brief synopsis.

First some positives: it is entertaining. I read until the end. It poses some important questions about how the economy will change with the advent of "strong" automation which is likely to displace most of the jobs today. Ford presents reasonable intellectual honesty when he points o
Alexander Fowler
Martin Ford is one of the few people out there who has realized that relentless technological development, especially in AI and robotics, and the free market economy as we know it are inherently incompatible because it will essentially lead to the creation of an almost purely autonomous but jobless economy.

Since the free market economic engine is the mass market, who will be the future consumers of goods and services when intelligent machines take over their jobs? If nothing is done about this
Douglas Summers-Stay
I thought the "lights in the tunnel" metaphor was not very illustrative, but I agreed with everything this book was saying about the upcoming problem. Increasing automation is reducing the ability of the average worker to find any job, and this situation will only get worse as computational power grows exponentially. At some point, many workers will be unable to find any kind of employment at all. I don't know about his solutions, though.
You can download this book for free at http://www.thelight
The author does a great job in describing and arguing how automation and technology is reducing the workforce in many sectors of the economy. He argues well that the question is not how can we create more jobs, but how do we live in an economy that does not require millions of people to actually work the way we have done for centuries? It is not only automation that is replacing the workforce, we simply do not need people to perform manual tasks that technology replaces (e.g. bank tellers, store ...more
David Uriell
The Lights in the Tunnel convincingly describes the inevitability of automation and the effects it will have on the economy, i.e. massive unemployment which depresses demand to the point of systemic collapse. Ford's proposed solution is to redistribute wealth using a new taxation system that taxes capital rather than labor, and to create 'virtual jobs' where people get paid for doing activities that have positive externalities e.g. learning, civic participation, or living an environmentally frie ...more
Greg Linster
The fear of technological unemployment dates back to the eighteenth century when Ned Ludd famously smashed two stocking frames. The word "Luddite" was thus created for anyone who opposed technology. Of course, if you mention technological unemployment to most modern day economists they'll kindly remind you that machines don't actually take jobs from people, but rather, they create more jobs. And, until now, most modern economists have been right. Hence, a belief that machines takes jobs from hum ...more
I thought this was a very interesting book and am perplexed by the only other reader giving it one star. As with any book attempting to peer into the future, much of it is speculation. The author does however work with technology, so it is perhaps well-informed speculation. The title of the book is based on a little thought experiment in which a tunnel represents our free market economy. The many points of light are participants in this economy, each with an income that is spent and replenished ...more
Steven Grimm
Are there going to be more people than economically productive jobs in the future? Ford thinks so and he lays out the reasons why. His proposed solution may or may not be the best possible one and will likely ruffle the feathers of both economic conservatives and economic progressives (it borrows from both lines of thinking), but it's likely a lot better than what'll happen if we keep blinders on about the situation. Even though the book was written in 2009 and is thus slightly out of date regar ...more
I ran across this book ages ago on the Internet and had it on my "to get to eventually" list. After reading it, I really wish I hadn't waited so long. The ideas it covers have the potential to impact everyone; honestly I think it should be required reading for anyone that expects to be alive from pretty much now on...

Martin's case for what truly drives our economy is spot-on. He lays out the case for the impact of automation, software and robotics clearly and addresses the standard arguments aga
Alex Timberman
His analysis was rigorous but all based on the fundamental assumption that automation will kill jobs off – leading to a global crisis. Either he believes in what he writes or he is writing up to the audience that most resonates with the end-of-the-world narrative. The reason why I disagree with him is two-fold: first, political processes (especially democratic ones) will erode the momentum of technology to replace workers, at least to the extent the author alludes to. And second, most of the wor ...more
Kevin Vejrup
This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here.
Certainly a very interesting and probably presentient book. The only negative is the faith the author seems to have in the political process. It is basically our only hope and to me that is reason for concern.
A short and simple "thought experiment" that challenged my thinking about economics and development. The topic is compelling even though the argument put forth in this short volume is a bit thin.

The author proposes a parable of the global economy as a tunnel that is lit up by millions of "lights" or consumers/producers - most importantly consumers because demand drives the economy after all - that are daily contributing to global prosperity. The author then discusses technological advances and
Cory Withers
The first section of this book is dead-on. Ford does a great job of addressing potential issues stemming from automation, as well as countering many economist's claims in dismissing the impact of technology on employment.

The book falls apart when he starts offering solutions however. It's interesting that the core premise of the book is based on pointing out how one of the key assumptions of capitalism is completely wrong, but it seems that it never occurred to Ford that the other assumptions c
This is a stunningly important book and I cannot recommend it highly enough. While the central metaphor ("the lights in the tunnel") is a bit odd, don't let that distract you from the message: namely that automation is improving and spreading at a rapid rate and this has serious implications for our economy. This is the clearest, most concise statement of the problem I've come across that treats this problem in depth. What's more, this is one of the few attempts I've seen to seriously think out ...more
Hoang Nguyen
I finished at chapter two. Rather than building an argument around his theory, the author tried to put too many irrelevant stories into the book. It makes more of an organized fact book than a vision of the future economy.

Bearing the name of the book, his simulation of the world with the lights in the tunnel is hardly absorbing nor a good abstraction of reality. It has not enlightened the way I look at the world. In fact, if we form two separate worlds of bright lights and dimmer lights, one wit
Daniel Lemire
Pretty good book about what the future might hold. In short: automation and unemployment. It is a convincing scenario.
Max Nova
Martin Ford is either totally insane or a total genius. I'm inclined to believe the latter. With his computer science and business background, Ford makes bold predictions about the rate of technological change and its implications for the economy and society of the future. I've actually been having a similar conversation with my college friends for the past few months - so it was encouraging to see an independently-derived prediction along those same lines. Ford essentially claims that automatio ...more
I want my ocular implant as badly as the next person (actually I probably want it more), so I spend a lot of time looking for signs and symbols that my implant will be a reality for me not my grandchildren hence I read this book. Of course my biggest disappointment was that this book had absolutely nothing to say on the topic of ocular implants, but what he did have to say about technology and the future economy was thought provoking. His central thesis is that as technology accelerates, "machin ...more
An interesting view of the future which gets bogged down a bit sometimes its own analogy (the lights in the tunnel) and has a habit of making things a bit complex. But I liked some of the ideas and thoughts about the future, and I rarely walk into a big supermarket or department store these days without thinking about what is going to happen to all those retail jobs that are bound to disappear. Just look as space in your local Tesco's is given over to self-checkout. And this is just the start of ...more
The author is trying to motivate people, and mostly governments, to prepare for the eventual future when so much of the work people do is automated, that we no longer have enough people employed to support our economies.

There were a couple of points in the book that I thought were a bit... hand-wavy.
The author provides a graph showing the capabilities of computers vs the capabilities of humans, mapped over time, with the human graph leveling off as the technology graph easily surpassing it. That
The Hermit's
A book on how automization influences the economy for better and worse(physics/math students and computers now being recruited to Wall Street) and how we can adjust to it amidst rising unemployment due to offshoring and machines taking over most work, and how even offshoring and 'knowledge work' is being automized. Think Indian IT/customer service being replaced by smart voice robots. One example of this he uses is the field of Radiology that required 13 years of post high school education. But ...more
Kathleen Brugger
There is a huge change coming, and very few people are talking about it. In the not-too-distant future almost everyone is going to lose their job. Not to offshoring—the Chinese will lose their jobs too. Robots and computers will be doing all the work.

Martin Ford wrote this book as a wakeup call. There is an incredibly bright future ahead of us, he says, but only if we navigate the transition to this jobless future well. The key is figuring out how to pay people an income even though they aren’t
The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future was an interesting read given recent media attention to automation in the workplace and talk of a "jobless recovery". The author argues that we are on the cusp of a major shift in workplace automation and that today's manufacturing automation is synonymous with the early days of the computer industry. Martin Ford sees that there will be a very distinct non-linear or exponential increase in automation at w ...more
This is another book on economic implications of automation. What makes it stands out among similar books such as, the “race against the machine” is its original proposals. Previously, (re)-education and entrepreneurship had been proposed as ways to deal with the challenges of automation, but no one proposed such serious ideas as tax system and virtual jobs. We will have to wait and see how things will turn out, but it is always useful to think ahead.
Interesting read. One certainly can't accuse Ford of not thinking outside the box.

I have the general feeling that his predictions of increasing workplace automation and increasing productivity underestimate the ability of the free market and advancing technology to create new jobs. That is to say, he may be underestimating the resiliency of creative destruction in the face of advancing technology. I'm no economist, and neither is the author, and I just get the sense that there is a little bit of
As you read about robots making hamburgers, factories full of robots and even IBM’s Watson computer learning medicine can you say with 100% certainty that your job will forever be safe from the reach of a machine that could do what you do more quickly and accurately than a human ever could?

Even if the answer to that question is “No, a robot could never do my job”, what would happen to your job if huge sections of the population (i.e. consumers) eventually become unemployed due to the aforementio
The first half of the book deserves four stars, the second half two. It starts with a very solid discussion of the impact automation will have on the economy and society, addressing many of the interesting points of the Singularity crowd without getting into their unsupported theories. This part was well-supported food for thought.

Unfortunately, the book's discussion of solutions was disappointing. They're problematic for those of us who don't view consumerism as the ultimate good, and more impo
Paul Reynolds
I thought the first half of the book was excellent, highlighting the issues and portraying views of what the future could look like. I thought the second half of the book that proposed solutions was difficult to get through. I would recommend reading for anyone interested in this subject. Looking forward to Ford's next book.
The book is a really thought provoking analysis how the continuing automation might impact our economic lives. The assumptions are clearly set out and the analysis equally brutal, honest and concise. The author clearly knows what he is talking about.

Some of his reasoning gets weaker when he goes into non-tech items (philosophy, Marx) and it is quite possible that a follow up after a bit more thorough study of Marx and some philosophers who have made observations on the danger of tying mans wort
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Martin Ford is the author of the two books Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future (2015) and The Lights In the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future (2009) — both dealing with the effects of automation and mass-unemployment. He is the founder of a Silicon Valley-based software development firm, and obtained a computer engineering degre ...more
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