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King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa

4.14  ·  Rating Details  ·  21,823 Ratings  ·  1,503 Reviews
In the 1880s, as the European powers were carving up Africa, King Leopold II of Belgium seized for himself the vast and mostly unexplored territory surrounding the Congo River. Carrying out a genocidal plundering of the Congo, he looted its rubber, brutalized its people, and ultimately slashed its population by ten million--all the while shrewdly cultivating his reputation ...more
Paperback, 306 pages
Published September 3rd 1999 by Mariner Books (first published January 1st 1998)
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8th out of 1,228 books — 1,208 voters
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A few things. First, I have read widely about Mao's Cultural Revolution and Great Leap Forward (70 million dead), Stalin's purges and programs of collectivization (20 to 50 million dead,) and Hitler's genocide (11 million dead). I am largely unshockable. However, the avarice and deceit of King Leopold II of Belgium in the Congo (10 million dead) has been something of a revelation. I hereby enter his name in my Rogues Gallery roster. It is important that we remember what he perpetrated for his ow ...more
Sep 04, 2013 Michael rated it it was amazing
Recommended to Michael by: chrissie
This work of popular history does a great job of bringing to life the story of King Leopold of Belgium’s orchestration of a private empire in the Congo near the end of the 19th century. His greed driven campaign presaged the 20th century shenanigans with its use of political intrigue, bribery, media manipulation, and lies. The popular explorer Henry Morton Stanley was wooed and appropriated to make his dream become a reality. Its economic success was founded on the institutionalization of slave ...more
Jan 31, 2009 Eric_W rated it it was amazing
The Belgian Congo, as Zaire and now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were formerly called was the creation of King Leopold of Belgium who desperately wanted a colony. By the late 19th century there was little land left for the taking except in Africa and it had become obvious that taking over independent lands was neither wise nor practical. King Leopold II, King of the Belgians, was a man of enormous appetites both for land and food—he once ate two whole pheasants at a restaurant in Paris, ...more
Aug 17, 2007 David rated it really liked it
Shelves: 5q
Horrifying story, rivetingly told. Regrettably, much of my reading of history has been centered primarily on the history of Europe and of the U.S. Hochschild's account of Belgium's exploitation of the Congo left me appalled. Despite the accounts of some truly savage atrocities, I ended up reading it in a couple of marathon sittings. A disturbing book, but one so well-written, I highly recommend it.
Sep 03, 2007 Rashmi rated it it was amazing
Recommends it for: everyone, especially Belgians
This book took me several months to read because it was so disturbing. After reading a chapter and having nightmares, I'd put it away for something else, and then return to it once I'd finished with the other book.

The atrocities committed in the Belgian Congo were nothing short of diabolical. And yet, shockingly, one of the worst genocides of the twentieth century remains relatively unheard of.

I am a big fan of Adam Hochschild; he makes you feel like you're reading a novel rather than a historic
Lisa (Harmonybites)
Jan 04, 2012 Lisa (Harmonybites) rated it it was ok
Recommended to Lisa (Harmonybites) by: The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Ultimate Reading List
If you ask an educated American to name the worst despots and atrocities of the twentieth century, you'll immediately hear such names as Hitler, Stalin, Mao and Pol Pot. Very few would name Leopold II, King of the Belgians and absolute master of the Belgian Congo. I wouldn't have before reading this book, yet a man thousands of miles from a land he never visited is charged with instituting policies responsible for 10 million deaths in the course of a couple of decades, sparking the "first great ...more
This book begins with the assertion of evil. It made me uneasy. I prefer to hear the facts and draw my own conclusions. But I felt far less willing to grant King Leopold’s side another instant of attention after realizing that the facts had been obscured for a century or more by repression of documents relating to the case in Belgian state archives. Better that we finally uncover the ugly truth and take its lesson: unbridled greed may be the ugliest, most unforgivable, most unnecessary sin of al ...more
Jul 05, 2011 Karen rated it really liked it
I had 2 interesting experiences relating to this book while I was reading it. First, I recieved a call from an Airmiles rep who spoke with a thick African accent, he had no difficulty spelling my last name. He told me he came from the Congo, previously a Belgian colony where many names start with "van", hence his ease with my name. After telling him I was reading "King Leopold's Ghost", we talked for quite some time about the state of his homeland. He remarked that the people of the Congo are in ...more
Nov 09, 2015 Max rated it it was amazing
Shelves: world-history
Ten years before the discovery of America, the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão discovered the Congo River. 18 years later another Portuguese ship discovered Brazil. Thus began the lucrative slave trade to supply workers for Brazil’s mines and plantations. Congo ivory was sent to Europe in trade for cheap consumer goods but mostly for guns. The exploitation of the Congo’s resources was underway. By the late 19th century the Europeans were scrambling to dominate Africa and the heretofore impenetrabl ...more
Apr 19, 2013 AC rated it really liked it
A very troubling look at the Belgian involvement in the Congo -- a chapter in the European 'Scramble for Africa' -- that I had not known much about. Leopold, in particular, comes out looking very bad.

The book (which I listened to as an audio) is still a bit too long and spends too much time on narrow topics -- and engages in a bit of hagiography of E.D. Morel and Roger Casement. In other words, the author is trying to appeal to the pathos in the reader, where more detachment would have made for
George Bradford
Apr 13, 2008 George Bradford rated it really liked it
Recommended to George Bradford by: John
Shelves: villains
The century that gave us Adolf Hitler, Josef Stalin, Chairman Mao and Pol Pot was ushered in by the worst criminal of them all: King Leopold II of Belgium. That's right, BELGIUM!!! For all the evil perpetrated by the 'A-List A-holes of the 20th Century', none of them outdid King Leopold II.

Between 1885 and 1908, under King Leopold II's rule, an estimated 10 to 13 Million human beings were killed in the African Congo. Those Congolese who survived were tortured, maimed, raped, forced into slavery
Jan 21, 2015 Jim rated it it was amazing
Shelves: history, africa
Before Pol Pot's Kampuchea, Hitler's Auschwitz, and Stalin's Gulag, there was Belgian monarch Leopold II's Congo. For over twenty years, Leopold literally owned the Belgian Congo as a personal fief, free of interference from his own people. While in charge, he ruthlessly exploited the native population in collecting rubber. With his Force Publique enforcers, men were sent out to collect rubber from wild trees while their wives and children were held hostage. If they failed to meet their quotas, ...more
Mar 01, 2008 Chris rated it it was amazing
Shelves: political
A profoundly disturbing account of one of the modern era's forgotten atrocities. The book is written with great empathy yet manages to eschew pity or melodrama, a balance that highlights the horrific, tragic tale of King Leopold's colonization and rape of the Congo. An unnerving reminder of man's inhumanity to man, and how the 20th century was built upon the corpses of tens of millions of African natives.
“Cuore di tenebra” è spesso considerato un’allegoria, o una parabola, freudiana – e Kurtz, il suo protagonista assassino, un folle che ha letto troppo e digerito male Nietzsche.

In realtà, come il libro di Hochschild dimostra, Kurtz fu basato su un collage di figure storiche e l’orrore descritto era realistico quanto mai: il romanzo di Conrad è un ritratto preciso dettagliato e profondo di quello che era il Congo sotto la dominazione del re del Belgio, Leopoldo II, negli
Mar 16, 2010 Alex rated it it was amazing
Shelves: africa, 2010
It's gratifying to get the chance to read a book as powerful and influential as this. King Leopold's Ghost is the book that re-exposed the atrocities Leopold committed against the Congo between 1880 and 1910 - atrocities that sank out of sight after they were finally stopped. An estimated ten million Congolese died during that time.

It's even more gratifying to find that Hochschild's book is well-written, too; it's fast, gripping and clearly laid out. Rarely, I read a book that's so important and
Chance Maree
Jan 02, 2015 Chance Maree rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: historical, africa
King Leopold II of Belgium exploited and ruined the Congo between 1885 and 1908--just over 100 years ago. Eleven million people were killed, not for ideology of any kind, but for pursuit of one man's personal greed. Leopold would not have been able to accomplish this heinous crime alone. He required explorers, government and military personnel, and multitudes of other men and women to silently witness and/or participate in atrocities that reeked with brutality and racism. I, and many others, kne ...more
A stunning and fearsome book, bristling with focused rage at one of the great ignored evils of the 19th century.

This is not merely a catalog of horror, but also a history of the precursor to the modern human-rights movement, revealing the sacrifices and valiant efforts of those who refused to let the atrocities continue.

Highly recommended - for those who want to see humanity at its most evil and also at its highest peak.
Mar 31, 2008 Renee rated it it was amazing
Recommends it for: Everybody
Recommended to Renee by: Chris LaMonica
Shelves: africa, history
King Leopold's Ghost is much more than a historical account of the forgotten atrocities perpetuated on the Congolese people. It is nothing less than an epic tale centred around a colonial monster and the brave men and women who fought against him.

Far from being a dry scholarly examination of African history Hochschild brings to life the complex characters who supported and opposed Leopold's Congo.

Hochschild follows the story of the Congo from pre-European contact to its devastated current state.
Nov 16, 2014 GT rated it really liked it
Shelves: history
After reading this book, I wonder how many times this has been played out in Africa and around the world. In this story a king becomes a billionaire at the expense of ten million African lives and no one remembers. Unfortunately the book did not have a deep emotional impact I anticipated. Since I have read similar books, I was able imagine the pain and suffering these people experienced but they are mostly silent in this book. The reader gets a shadow here-and-there, like Leon Rom’s flower bed o ...more
Guy Portman
Apr 09, 2014 Guy Portman rated it really liked it
Shelves: non-fiction
The Belgian King, Leopold II, had grown envious of his European neighbours’ portfolio of colonies, and longed for a colony that he could call his own. After much deliberation Leopold set his heart on a vast tract of land in central Africa. British explorer Henry Morton Stanley was contracted to explore the interior, and to stake the King’s claim there.

Leopold cunningly alleviated concerns over the forthcoming land grab by claiming that the territory would be a free trade zone, and insisting that
A very disturbing book that puts light on colonialism. Hochschild writers very well; at no point is the book boring nor does it read like a list. Hochschild is also even headed. He doesn't whitewash - good guys have flaws, and he mentions them. Hochschild does make the reader think about how the West sees Africa not only during the colonial period but even today. It is a book everyone in Europe and the United States should read. What I really enjoyed was the fact that Hochschild doesn't just foc ...more
Jul 22, 2008 Elizabeth rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Recommends it for: Everyone
Shelves: africa
Appalling and fascinating. I had no idea that the people of Congo were treated this AFTER the Civil War and well into the 1900s. What was most interesting to me was to learn how King Leopold conducted his power-grab in Africa and sufficiently distanced himself from the actual goings on the county. (His methods for wealth extraction required forced slavery and mass killings.) That in itself says a lot about the psychology of blame. He certainly appeared to have a clear conscience. I probably neve ...more
Feb 07, 2011 Tinea rated it it was amazing
Brutal. Come to know this story. Hochschild is an American from UCBerkeley who wrote the kind of self-conscious history you would expect from a social justice activist, focusing in on the standpoints of the people whose words he has access to in the archives and the people whose voices are absent from written record. Unlike most colonial history which is in itself an artifact of colonial literature, this is an accessible entry-point for a student of colonialism who doesn't want to or isn't prepa ...more
Dec 02, 2010 GWC rated it did not like it  ·  review of another edition
A colonial morality play. The story in "King Leopold's Ghost" is a powerful one -- colonization taken to its extreme -- but the book is rendered mediocre by the author's trite moralizing, lack of historical rigor, and tiresome reliance on depicting every actor with either a halo or horns. Leopold, here an antagonist of extraordinary guile, is only weakly connected to the governmental and business interests with which he worked; the reader is given pages of anecdote concerning the king's depravit ...more
Aug 21, 2015 Jane rated it really liked it
Read this a few years back when I was still working. As I remember, good summary of 19th century colonial exploitation of the natives and also a lot on Heart of Darkness.
lyell bark
Apr 21, 2013 lyell bark rated it really liked it
fun little book about leopold scheming to build big houses and buy hats for his 16 year old prostitute girlfriend, and stanley bumbling through the jungle mowing down everything in sight with those proto-mahcine guns, i forgot what they were called. sorry. extracting and moving vast quantities of material wealth from its ite of production and extraction to far distant metropoles "for the win" as cory doctorow would say.

also i understand that all anglo-american pop histories need to compare pre-a
Michael Gerald
Sep 05, 2015 Michael Gerald rated it really liked it
"Exterminate all the brutes!"

This infamous line came from one of the most influential novels of the nineteenth century, Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. I knew that the novel was inspired by events in the Congo during that time. But I had no idea of the extent of the horror brought on it by its colonizer, Belgium and its king, Leopold II. Then I read this book.

King Leopold's desperate attempts to have a colony like the rest of the major European powers had at the time led to one of the worst
Will Byrnes
A compelling history of the impact of the West on the Congo
Joseph Rice
Jul 01, 2015 Joseph Rice rated it really liked it
Shelves: history
This is a strong 4.5 rating.

If you asked most people what was the first genocide of the 20th century, most would probably only mention the Holocaust. A few might be aware enough of the Armenian genocide committed by the Ottoman Empire. Hardly anyone would know about the situation in the Congo, where millions of Africans were sacrificed to feed the egomania of King Leopold of Belgium.

The Belgian Congo was first created as a personal fiefdom of King Leopold, who harbored grand visions of tiny Belg
Jan 04, 2015 Fraser rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
A fantastic piece of work, threading together the various narratives of the systematic colonial exploitation of the Belgian Congo.

This book at barely 300 odd pages packs a lot of detailed analysis and reads like a well paced detective thriller. Clearly passionate like the heroes who uncover enslavement and greedy exploitation, Hochschild takes great care with his narration. He discusses the weaknesses of the sources of information (lacking the Congolese voices for example), and takes into accoun
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Great African Reads: Mar/Apr: DRC | "King Leopold's Ghost" 127 115 Nov 01, 2010 02:58AM  
  • In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu's Congo
  • The Scramble for Africa: The White Man's Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912
  • Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa
  • Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya
  • The Fate of Africa: A History of Fifty Years of Independence
  • Africa: A Biography of the Continent
  • A Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and Hope of Africa
  • The Zanzibar Chest
  • "Exterminate All the Brutes": One Man's Odyssey into the Heart of Darkness and the Origins of European Genocide
  • Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe
  • When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda
  • The Shadow of the Sun
  • A Savage War of Peace: Algeria, 1954-1962
  • Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda
  • The White Nile
  • The Fear: Robert Mugabe and the Martyrdom of Zimbabwe
  • Unfinished Empire: The Global Expansion of Britain
  • The Assassination of Lumumba
Hochschild was born in New York City. As a college student, he spent a summer working on an anti-government newspaper in South Africa and subsequently worked briefly as a civil rights worker in Mississippi in 1964. Both were politically pivotal experiences about which he would later write in his book Finding the Trapdoor. He later was part of the movement against the Vietnam War, and, after severa ...more
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“Most striking about the traditional societies of the Congo was their remarkable artwork: baskets, mats, pottery, copper and ironwork, and, above all, woodcarving. It would be two decades before Europeans really noticed this art. Its discovery then had a strong influence on Braque, Matisse, and Picasso -- who subsequently kept African art objects in his studio until his death. Cubism was new only for Europeans, for it was partly inspired by specific pieces of African art, some of them from the Pende and Songye peoples, who live in the basin of the Kasai River, one of the Congo's major tributaries.

It was easy to see the distinctive brilliance that so entranced Picasso and his colleagues at their first encounter with this art at an exhibit in Paris in 1907. In these central African sculptures some body parts are exaggerated, some shrunken; eyes project, cheeks sink, mouths disappear, torsos become elongated; eye sockets expand to cover almost the entire face; the human face and figure are broken apart and formed again in new ways and proportions that had previously lain beyond sight of traditional European realism.

The art sprang from cultures that had, among other things, a looser sense than Islam or Christianity of the boundaries between our world and the next, as well as those between the world of humans and the world of beasts. Among the Bolia people of the Congo, for example, a king was chosen by a council of elders; by ancestors, who appeared to him in a dream; and finally by wild animals, who signaled their assent by roaring during a night when the royal candidate was left at a particular spot in the rain forest. Perhaps it was the fluidity of these boundaries that granted central Africa's artists a freedom those in Europe had not yet discovered. ”
“As the years passed, new myths arose to explain the mysterious objects the strangers brought from the land of the dead. A nineteenth-century missionary recorded, for example, an African explanation of what happened when captains descended into the holds of their ships to fetch trading goods like cloth. The Africans believed that these goods came not from the ship itself but from a hole that led into the ocean. Sea sprites weave this cloth in an "oceanic factory, and, whenever we need cloth, the captain ... goes to this hole and rings a bell." The sea sprites hand him up their cloth, and the captain "then throws in, as payment, a few dead bodies of black people he has bought from those bad native traders who have bewitched their people and sold them to the white men." The myth was not so far from reality. For what was slavery in the American South, after all, but a system for transforming the labor of black bodies, via cotton plantations, into cloth?” 5 likes
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