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Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed
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Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed

4.17 of 5 stars 4.17  ·  rating details  ·  1,234 ratings  ·  112 reviews
In this wide-ranging and original book, James C. Scott analyzes failed cases of large-scale authoritarian plans in a variety of fields. He argues that centrally managed social plans derail when they impose schematic visions that do violence to complex interdependencies that are not -- and cannot be -- fully understood. Further the success of designs for social organization ...more
Paperback, 445 pages
Published 1998 by Yale University Press
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Seeing Like a State by James C. ScottThe Mind in the Cave by James David Lewis-WilliamsCrowds and Power by Elias CanettiThe Wheels of Commerce by Fernand BraudelKeeping Together in Time by William Hardy McNeill
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The best laid schemes o' Mice an' Men,
Gang aft agley. (Go often awry.)
An' lea'e us nought but grief an' pain,
For promis'd joy!

-Robert Burns

Seeing Like a State is a deeply impressive book.

It begins, in all places, with the study of 'scientific forestry' in 18th century German Prussia. The Prussian state was interested in more accurately quantifying tax revenue, and one possibility was the measurement of forests. This involved cutting down the trees and planting them in neat rows, and measuring
This is an amazing book--I haven't been this enthused about a social science text since I read Braudel's "The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II" about one zillion years ago.

The first chapter of “Seeing like a State” is a brilliant tour de force of how James C. Scott approaches his thesis and his method for analyzing it. Looking at the “acknowledgements” page of the book gives one indication why this chapter is so good: it has been worked and reworked a number of
Michael Burnam-fink
This is the kind of book that restores my faith in academic theory. It should be required reading for anybody interested in the exercise of power, economic development, or large scale systems.

In Seeing Like a State, Scott explores how attempts to radically transform and improve the human condition have failed. He identifies the central problem of statecraft and of government as one of legibility; the state must make its citizens and their activities visible before it can appropriate revenue and
There are times when you read a book and it's as if someone's opened a window to let the light in. I had one of those moments just 20 minutes or so after cracking open Scott's Seeing Like A State. In his book, Scott tries to unpack the various failures in high-modernist, authoritarian state planning, from the building of Brazil's new capital in Brasilia, Soviet collectivization and ujamaa villages in Tanzania. These case studies form the heart of the book and while interesting, were not what spa ...more
Zeynep K
james c. scott, devletin bizleri daha minnoş vatandaşlar -insanlar veya bireyler değil, vatandaşlar- haline getirmek için denediği sivil mühendislik projelerini dört ana bölümde incelemiş. kısacık bir girişi takiben; birinci, ikinci ve üçüncü bölüme gelişme, dördüncü bölüme ise sonuç diyebiliriz;

1.devletin okunaklılık ve basitleştirme projeleri
2.dönüştürücü vizyonlar
3.kırsal yerleşimin ve üretimin toplum mühendisliği
4.kayıp halka

ilk iki bölümü zevkle, kana kana, damarlarımda sıcacık anarşizm ile
Mistaken notions I previously held that this brainy tome corrected:

-- "Physiocrats" advocate government by massage therapy.

-- "Usufruct" is available in a fun variety of colorful flavors.

-- If someone tells you that something is "immanent", just hang around and wait for it to happen.

-- "Pari Passu" is what's for lunch at the ashram.

-- Upon reading (p. 19 of Kindle edition) that a particular type of tree was a “bread-and-butter tree”, it is appropriate to rush into the nearest park with a shaker
Having read Stephen Pinker's excellent, The Blank Slate, and devouring Nassim Nicholas Taleb's superb duology of, The Black Swan and Anti-Fragile, James C. Scott's, Seeing Like a State, fits quite snugly in this cloud of anti-authoritarian, anti-state, anti-liberal, but most importantly, anti-modernism sentiments that has been seething for the past few decades. While Pinker's focus is psychology/linguistics, and Taleb's is Finance/Philosophy, Scott's diatrabe against the state is manifested in h ...more
Margaret Sankey
So, you're the state, and you've devised a brilliant modernization plan--people must choose last names (Mindanao), accept new standardized measurement (France's colonies), live on redivided farmland carefully surveyed to give each person equal sections (Stolypin's Russia), move to a beautiful new capital designed by Le Corbusier (Brasilia), or grow a single, new crop (collective villages, Tanzania), but the ungrateful wretches don't like it! Scott examines why, with the best intentions, planned ...more
This book finds Scott resting on his laurels a bit too much, writing a book which falls awkwardly between pop-academia a la Guns, Germs and Steel, and full-on academia. Too much simplifying to hold a lot of water in the academy, but still too opaque for the masses. The first few chapters of this book are pretty good, but by the end, you start to catch on that his argument is pretty simplistic, and sort of flawed. I read this at the same time,. chapter by chapter, as Timothy Mitchell's Rule of ...more
Elizabeth Theiss
One of my favorite political science books of all time, Seeing Like a State underscores the importance of a vibrant civil society and the foolhardiness of state central planning. Scott provides a series of instructive and fascinating case studies from disasters associated with the shift to mono cropping in poor nations to the folly of city planning in Brasilia.

This is a book full of insights into administrative hubris and its consequences. I remember when it first came out, John Grey's review i
Zara Rahman
This was fascinating - a very long read, which took me quite a while to get through, but separated enough into distinct chapters and sections, to make taking my time over it okay. It was excellent background reading for me for the podcast I'm working on, as it explains a number of case studies around imperialistic science, colonialism, technology and power, and goes into a lot of detail. There is clearly a lot of background research that has gone into the book, and it's a really thorough read. H ...more
Milk Badger
The principal theme of this book is how the imposition (usually by governments or other authoritarian actors) of formal, abstract rules upon complex natural, social and technological systems is prone to disastrous outcomes. Uniform weights and measures, common currency, surnames, cadastral surveys and language standardization are all cited by Scott as early modern examples of this type of imposition. These innovations were imposed by empires and states (and frequently resisted by commoners) in o ...more
Michael Lewyn
This book tries to explain large-scale bureaucratic error. The concept “seeing like a state” refers to the desire by large-scale institutions (usually government) to make a situation “legible” – that is, easily understandable and controllable. For example, a government will wish to know who and where its citizens are in order to collect taxes from them and enforce other laws. As a result, post-medieval European governments conducted censuses, mapped cities, and forced citizens to take surnames.

This book is an incredible critique of the accidental and not so accidental authoritarianism of the past 200+ years in which high modernist planning used scientific knowledge and oversimplification to attempt to improve the world. Through social and environmental engineering, James C. Scott documents the ways revolutionaries have attempted to simplify the world so that it is more legible and controllable, assuming scientific expertise would make society more efficient and productive. Most of the ...more
Sarah Inman
One of the best books I've read....

Why do human beings suffer under the weight of the State, particularly a State that is set up to protect? In the introduction of Seeing Like a State, James Scott introduces the problem of understanding why large-scale social engineering schemes intended for utopia have largely failed. Because the state of all institutions has the greatest ability of “treating people according to its schemata” (82), it is the “vexed institution that is the ground of both our fr
This is a book of impressive scope. While there are some examples of specific regimes, countries, and social systems, this work takes a greater look at how high-modern, authoritarian regimes operate and fail in general. It is much more about the thematic, imaginative theory behind modern statecraft than a chronological look at any particular course of development--though there are some moments of this. Some of his larger arguments include:

Natural and social (human) systems are comprable. Just a
Mirza  Sultan-Galiev
Very illuminating history on a wide variaty of issues (last names as a means of tax collection, the similarity between Soviet and American "scientific" farming etc), however the failure (despite statements in the intro to the contrary) to integrate the critique of the modernizing state with a critique of the logic of generalized commodity production, leaves this book a little too close to the Austrian school.
Carl Ollivier
Scott makes an effective indictment of a what he calls 'Authoritarian High Modernism', the belief that technical and scientific forms of knowledge, imposed from above through the force of the state on an unruly and ignorant populace, would liberate the people from their benighted condition. Scott characterises Authoritarian High Modernism as an aesthetic more than an ideology, appealing to left and right alike, but reaching its apex in the schemes of the revolutionary Communist dictatorships of ...more
Ihor Hrubyak
Good, but disappointing.

The message is clear, concise and initially highly thought provoking. The problem is Scott's repetitiveness as the same hypothesis and even the same examples sometimes are continually repeated or brought back in. By the end I had enough, and skimmed parts. Yes Professor Scott it's clear that human knowledge is limited, and we need to careful about what we try to implement this is highly evident now. Scott's main examples are interesting, but in a way disappointing as his
An interesting read overall, but the argument, that social projects are bound to be modified by the environment into which they are established, felt a bit streched out throughout all the exemples. Like the main argument, the concepts introduced around it were explained to boredom and after - which is not to say they weren't interesting in themselves, just undermined in their descriptions by their link with the concepts and argument.
The concept of métis for exemple, which is given to represent
For some time I had been struggling with a question concerning modern society. Was there some kind of mentality above the classic political spectrum or perhaps one in the shadows that influenced all? Something that could unite people of the most wide spectrum possible? This book answered my question and the answer was yes. James C. Scott's book "seeing like a state" could be seen as one big revelation or accusation depending on the reader.

But what is this all about? James Scott highlights what
William Leight
"Seeing Like a State" is about that most modern of phenomena -- indeed, Scott refers to it as "high modernism" -- rule by expert. Divine right having largely been discarded as a justification for authoritarian rule, science is now pressed into service instead: the ruler's decisions cannot be questioned because they are not political or debatable, being the product of the expert's neutral, technical knowledge. "Seeing Like a State" is essentially a refutation of this assertion: Scott instead demo ...more
Alper Çugun
I need to think about it more but this book is every bit as seminal as everybody says it is. Compulsory reading for everybody who thinks about complex issues.
Scott's comprehensive critique of high modernism, and of planning hubris more generally, should be a required read for any student of public policy, urban planning, development, and other fields that involve centralized planning.

I'd be interested in reading more psychology-based work on the high modernist planner. Scott went into it a bit with Le Corbusier and Lenin, about the influence of clean, efficient, 20th-century-ideal aesthetics on the way they thought about planning. I'm curious how th
Seeing like a State scrutinizes the organizational approach of state governments and other large institutions from the Renaissance era onward. In essence ,James C. Scott demonstrates how reductionist top down attempts at understanding and planning tend to be. In attempting to render comprehensible complex systems – whether those systems are forests, cities, or national economies – vital information is lost. Scott argues that the greatest value of aggressive organization is to increase the power ...more
The book didn't quite live up to my expectations. The author claims that ambitious state planning efforts often go wrong in a similar way: The government opts for inefficient organizations or approaches that are easy to monitor bureaucratically, at the expense of efficiency, resilience, or popular desire. This is presented as a startling observation, but I think it's conventional wisdom.

To demonstrate the claim, the describes a number of ambitious state planning efforts that went badly, and the
Scott's dissection of the hubris & folly of scientific agriculture, of monoculture and reckless disregard of local environments, of planned cities in which -- at urban scales -- the peas are not allowed to touch the carrots, adds up to sharp condemnation of reductionist simplification and abstraction applied to governance, agriculture, and industry. At an engineer's scale, such simplification is the very substance of technology, from simple plows to grid computing. But as Scott demonstrates, ...more
Adam Wiggins

Dense and academic, but some truly poignant insights buried among all those big words.

Starting a few hundred years ago, states (that is, national governments) found many new informational tools at their disposal: population censuses, for example. Top-down management of national populations became possible like never before, offering governments greater ability to extract taxation and conscription from their populations, thereby increasing the power of the state.

"Administrative legibility" is a t
This book is an excellent exploration of why the modern state behaves the way it does and why it has trouble undertaking large scale, well-intended projects, like city planning and especially agricultural reform.

It starts with a look at early state attempts to make commerce 'legible,' with the example of efforts to standardize weights and measures in France, which was much more complicated and involved a lot of push back by the aristocracy. Then he looks at the invention of last names and the de
Shaun Evans
Shaun Evans marked it as to-read
Aug 27, 2015
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received his bachelor's degree from Williams College and his MA and PhD (1967) from Yale. He taught at the University of Wisconsin–Madison until 1976, when he returned to Yale. Now Scott is the Sterling Professor of Political Science and Professor of Anthropology and is Director of the Agrarian Studies Program. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, has held grants from the N ...more
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“Designed or planned social order is necessarily schematic; it always ignores essential features of any real, functioning social order. This truth is best illustrated in a work-to-rule strike, which turns on the fact that any production process depends on a host of informal practices and improvisations that could never be codified. By merely following the rules meticiously, the workforce can virtually halt production. In the same fashion, the simplified rules animating plans for, say, a city, a village or a collective farm were inadequate as a set of instructions for creating a functional social order, The formal scheme was parasitic on informal processes that, alone, it could not create or maintain.” 6 likes
“We must never assume that local practice conforms with state theory.” 4 likes
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