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The End of History and the Last Man

3.46 of 5 stars 3.46  ·  rating details  ·  2,666 ratings  ·  165 reviews
Fukuyama considers whether or not there is a direction to the history of mankind. He identifies two powerful forces guiding our actions: the logic of desire (the rational economic process); and the desire for recognition, which he describes as the very motor of history.
Hardcover, 418 pages
Published January 1st 1992 by Free Press
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Fukuyama has been an ideological whipping boy since 2001 for his supposed remarks on the 'end of history' being interpreted as triumphal praise for the United States for winning the cold war. Much of this criticism is largely misplaced. He does start off with the bold assertion that liberal-capitalist-democracy is the end point of history, but uses the rest of his chapters to back off from this assertion into a more tepid series of observations.

He does not support liberal-capitalist-democracy f
K.D. Absolutely
Apr 06, 2014 K.D. Absolutely rated it 3 of 5 stars  ·  review of another edition
Recommended to K.D. by: 501 Must Read Books
Shelves: 501, history, non-fiction
Intelligently written history book that is included in the 501 Must-Read Books. Published in 1992 and based in the authors earlier essay, The End of History, this book says that since the end of Cold War in 1989, history also ceases because there is no balance of power and so liberal democracy will prevail unopposed. The essay came out of course after 9/11 when the landscape of the world was changed especially because of the economic crisis that followed the attack.

Fukuyama expounds on the earli
Fukuyama has been much ridiculed since the publication of this book, and the piling-on only increased in intensity after the towering cataclysm of September 11th seemed to herald the exact opposite of what Fukuyama allegedly proclaimed. I say allegedly because Fukuyama himself backed away from the logical implications of his own theory long before the final page—in a review of Trust, another Goodreads member accused Fukuyama of incessant hedging, an imputation with which I concur. This is the wa ...more
محمد إلهامي
نظرية متهافتة وتافهة، كتبها تحت تأثير "الوهم المُسْكِر" بنهاية التاريخ بعد سقوط الاتحاد السوفيتي.

ليست المأساة فقط في أن قصة "نهاية التاريخ" هي قصة متكررة في الفلسفة الغربية، كلما وجد القوم فكرة أعجبتهم وحققت بعض النجاح سارعوا إلى القول بأن هذا نهاية التاريخ.. إنما المأساة في أن الكاتب لم يجتهد لضبط نظريته الفكرية بل انساق وراء أحلامه وصار يحشد المعلومات لتحقق فكرته المسبقة حشدا غير منطقي ولا متماسك.

المهم في هذا الكتاب هو نظرته -كغربي- إلينا كمسلمين، أو كما يسمينا عالم ما قبل التاريخ.. هذه النظرة
نهاية التاريخ لا تعني نهاية الحياة وحركتها بالنسبة للكاتب وانما وانما نهاية مرحلة تاريخية وسابقة وبداية مرحلة اخرى ومن الذين نظروا لنهاية التاريخ
هيجل حيث راى أن التاريخ انتهى عام 1860م، لأنه رأى في دحر نابليون للملكية البروسية في معركة (يينا) انتصاراً لمُثل الثورة الفرنسية
ثم ماركس الذي قال ان التاريخ سيحقق نهايته بانتشار الشيوعيه
ثم فيبر الذي راى الرأسمالية نهاية للتاريخ
وبعد سقوط الاتحاد السوفياتي وانتصار امريكا على الدول الشيوعية جاء فوكوياما وقال ان الليبرالية الديمقراطية هي نهاية التاريخ

I normally dont get down with political philosophy books, but this one really explores some serious ideas while putting them in the context of history. Fukuyama bases almost all of his ideology off of Hegel and Kojeve, a modern Hegel scholar from Czech Republic. I love history yet have found Hegel incomprehensible and too dense to even consider buying one of his tomes - for people who are interested in history or the idea of dialectics, read this book. Fukuyama explains Hegel while placing him i ...more
“But it is not necessarily the case that liberal democracy is the political system best suited to resolving social conflicts per se. A democracy's ability to peacefully resolve conflicts is greatest when those conflicts arise between socalled "interest groups" that share a larger, pre-existing consensus on the basic values or rules of the game, and when the conflicts are primarily economic in nature. But there are other kinds of non-economic conflicts that are far more intractable, having to d
Though I disagree with the assumptions that Fukuyama makes in this book, I applaud his ability to define such a coherent theory on social evolution. I read this book together with Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations". The pair of books suggest that academia is perhaps less about identifying truth than about presenting well-structured arguments.

In "The History of Man", Fukuyama walks through the development of democratic society based on Christian principles and claims it as the final stage of p
Arun Divakar
When I was done with this book, all I had in my head was a faint buzzing. I took it initially to be a sign of incomprehension but later figured it out to be one of weariness. The weariness stemmed from the theories that the author postulates in the book. A quick look at the reviews tells me that I am not the only one with the same ideas. According to Fukuyama, we reach the end of history when we achieve the liberal-capitalist democratic form of government. He is quick to tell us that this does n ...more
The main thesis of this book is that the combination of free market capitalism and liberal democracy (based on human rights) represents 'the end of history'. To wit, all countries and peoples in the world will eventually attain this supposedly homogeneous state of government, and it will be stable and self-sustaining. The justification for this thesis is based predominantly in philosophy, although also in history. It is interesting to note that far longer is spent on justifying the long-term sus ...more
Mohamed Ateaa
كالمرة الاولي ايضا لم اقتنع بما حاول ان يقنعني به ف 300 صفحة
Sarah Shahid
لن أدخل في التأملات والأفكار الفلسفية التي خاض بها فوكوياما والتي حرفته عن الموضوع الأساسي وذلك بعرضه لأفكار هيجل المنشورة في كتاب موطننا لالكسندر كوجييف، لكنني سأنعت مقاله هذا كما نعت معاصرو كوجييف إطلاقته في نهاية التاريخ بأنها نوع من أنواع الشذوذ والعمى المثقفاتي

من المؤكد أننا لم نصل إلى نهاية التاريخ وهذا ما تؤكده أزمة الركود التضخمي لعام 2008 والتي لم يُعثر لها على حل حتى الآن، حيث سيكون لهذه الأزمة أبلغ الآثر على مستقبل العلاقات الدولية لما يُتوقع من انهيار المنظومة الرأسمالية أو على الأقل
Ray Hartley
Francis Fukuyama must hold the title for Most Misunderstood Intellectual. He is derided for having predicted in this seminal work written after the fall of the Berlin wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union that history had "ended". Of course history didn't end and that was not what Fukuyama was suggesting. He was positing that that there would be no "higher stage of development" which would follow capitalism and liberal democracy. Instead, there would be a continuous refinement and adjustment ...more
Jason Williams
Is this guy friggin serious? Leave it to a neocon to write such an ahistorical history. I'm reminded of a Frederic Jameson line: "this whole global, yet American, postmodern culture is the internal and superstructural expression of a whole new wave of American military and economic domination throughout the world: in this sense, as throughout class history, the underside of culture is blood, torture, death, and terror."
The only interesting thing about this book is how it was so dominant when it came out, with everybody cheering for the conversion of the former "communist" nations to "democracy", and how irrelevant it is now.

This guy is kind of an asshole, and his sole accomplishment is that we can gauge which way the ideology of hegemony is pointing by the relative popularity of his cheerleading efforts.
Shalan al shammary
هذا الكتاب هو فعلا كتاب مرحلة
فاللحظة التاريخية لظهوره كانت عامل مهم في صياغته
نحن الأن على بعد سنة عن تاريخ صدوره،فهل انهارت فكرة نهاية التاريخ؟
وهل فشل ثورات الربيع العربي في الوصول لحكم ديموقراطي عادل يعود للأسباب التي ذكرها فوكوياما؟
كتاب يجب أن يقرأ سواء اتفقنا معه أم اختلفنا
we are at the end of history, apparently, with so-called liberal capitalism. marx was right about method, apparently, but not about result. (cf. Spectres of Marx!)
Joseph Stieb
The question to ask with a controversial book like the end of history is not whether he's too Western-centric, whether he overlooks race and gender issues, or whether he is politically incorrect at times. The question we should ask is simple: Is he right? After reading this challenging and original work, I have to say that Fukuyama is basically right about the course of history. He is right not in a teleological sense, but in an empirically observable and philosophically supportable way.

This is
Steve Greenleaf
At the Jaipur Literature Festival, I looked forward to hearing a program on “History Strikes Back & the End of Globalism”. It was dialogue between John Ralston Saul & Hubert Vedrine (a former French foreign minister). I hadn’t read either author, although Saul’s Voltaire’s Bastards is packed with my other books back in Iowa City). I wasn’t sure what to expect. The Glamorous Nomad and C joined me. We were in for a surprise.

Saul opened the session by singling out “some guy called Francis
Starts off supposedly as an attempt to map out a sort-of Hegelian Universal History, but ultimately, Fukuyama does little to create one, this side of suggesting that Thymotic Desires have something to do with it, and quickly devolves into a baseless, hackneyed lamentation of modern liberal ideologies and democratic viewpoints as an End of History, and the Nietzschean Last Man, without ever truly explaining definitively what is so terrible about either. Sure, he explains the supposedly boring, me ...more
Ryan Milbrath
Francis Fukuyama: the eternal political optimist. A second generation Japanese-American, Fukuyama grew up in Chicago: the eternal haven for free-market capitalism and gangsters. Upon receiving a degree in classics from Cornell and a doctorate in government from Harvard he wrote, among other things, “The End of history and the Last Man.” Fukuyama has written several other works of political science and has advised the likes of the Reagan administration. Despite these controversial moves, I do not ...more
Titus Hjelm
Prophecy is a tricky business. In the 20+ years since the publication of The End of History, liberalism has managed to become (or more accurately, has finally been revealed as) very different from Fukuyama's celebrated idea. Discontent with the current system--increasingly managed with police and military violence--is very visible and starting to have a small effect. History has not ended. Indeed, Fukuyama's 'history' is anyway a classic example of history with one eye shut. CIA provocations in ...more
Someone says Fukuyama is an arshole and he probably right. His writing was purely speculative and befitting the circumstances when it was written. The demised of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall.Now that much water has flowed under the bridge, coupled with the 9/11, the scenario of the world geo-political picture has changed. The Russian embracing crude capitalism with the oil and gas will eventually squeezing the Western Europe, the rising of China and India as Asian superpower and ...more
John Doe
Apr 12, 2013 John Doe marked it as to-read  ·  review of another edition
It is weird to think of History as moving toward a goal, the realization of liberal democracy with a well educated public and a reasonably free press.

But, if the goals are like directions to help guide our choices than we can make reforms that bring us closer to a functioning democracy. We can even call that progress.

I don't think I want to read this anytime soon, though. It is not obvious to me why liberal democracy is our goal, it certainly isn't everyone's goal. So, I don't think I will agre
Mohammad Aboomar
I am mesmerized by how clear and convincing this book was. Ideas like the directional interpretation of history, the master/slave relationship, the struggle for recognition and thymos were new to me. Now I have to read Hegel, Nietzsche and Koheve to get more into the author's frame of mind.

I agree with Fukuyama about many points, above all his portrayal of liberal democracy as the end of history according the Hegelian approach. My main disagreement with him is that he puts the US and Europe in t
Anna Michalčáková
Bavilo mě to hodně. Musela jsem se hodně rozpomenout na hodiny ZSV na gymplu, aby mi to místy dávalo smysl. Nehodnotím správnost nebo chyby v obsahu knihy, Fukuyama má rozhodně větší znalosti mezinárodního systému než já. Napsané to má ale výborně, je to čtivé a hodně na zamyšlení. Skvělá kniha. Teď se pustím do Střetu civilizací.
محمود أغيورلي
مقتطفات من كتاب نهاية التاريخ للكاتب فرنسيس فوكوياما
ان نهاية التاريخ لا تعني ان تنتهي الدورة الطبيعية من الولادة والحياة والموت وان الاحداث الهامة سيتوقف وقوعها وان الصحف التي تنشرخا ستحتجب عن الصدور .. وانما يعني هذا انه لن يكون ثمة مجال لمزيد من التقدم في مجال المبادىء والانظمة الاساسية وذك لان كافة المسائل الكبيرة حقاً ستكون قد حلت
ان ما يرضي البشر حقاً ليس الوضع المادي بقدر ما يرضيهم الاعتراف بوضعهم وكرامتهم
ان لدى الولايات المتحدة وبريطانيا العظمى والاتحاد ا
Derek Munyon
Oct 02, 2014 Derek Munyon rated it 3 of 5 stars  ·  review of another edition
Recommends it for: People interested in recent history, people who appreciate global politics
I must say, I did enjoy this book. Fukuyama does an excellent job of outlining how ancient history has played a role in modern history and really gets into why any form of government outside of liberal democracy has failed so far. If you love history, you'll appreciate its historical leanings.

I started reading this book for two reasons. One, I had heard about it in an earlier political science class (a subject that I'm fascinated by and minoring in), and I was interested in reading it. Two, I wa
Gabe S
great book. intelligent and cogent analysis of the worlds political and social evolution. neo con's are idiots for basing their disastrous foreign policies on this book by completely missing the point of the whole friggin book.
I honestly couldn't argue against his conclusions when I read this years ago it was so well done but having read the reviews of his latest installment, I do find it hilarious he's now carefully praising the Chinese model of society as the most efficient and possibly benef
Basically, I was reading this as background for some research on Peter Sloterdijk, and, despite its obvious political bias and some really questionable methods (the stats around the "success" of liberal democracy), I was surprised to find a much more thoughtful synthesis of Hegel/Nietzsche/Kojeve than's still some weird apologetics for neoliberalism, but not entirely without merits at points, albeit in a crazy right-wing Nietzschean way.
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Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born 27 October 1952) is an American philosopher, political economist, and author.
Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese-American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church and received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago. His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fu
More about Francis Fukuyama...
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“It was the slave's continuing desire for recognition that was the motor which propelled history forward, not the idle complacency and unchanging self-identity of the master” 19 likes
“For Hegel, freedom was not just a psychological phenomenon,
but the essence of what was distinctively human. In this sense,
freedom and nature are diametrically opposed. Freedom does not mean the freedom to live in nature o r according to nature; rather, freedom begins only where nature ends. Human freedom emerges only when man is able to transcend his natural, animal existence, and to create a new self for himself The emblematic starting point for this process of self-creation is the struggle to the death for pure prestige.”
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