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ما هو الفن

3.65  ·  Rating Details  ·  1,121 Ratings  ·  91 Reviews
During the decades of his world fame as sage & preacher as well as author of War & Peace & Anna Karenin, Tolstoy wrote prolifically in a series of essays & polemics on issues of morality, social justice & religion. These culminated in What is Art?, published in 1898. Altho Tolstoy perceived the question of art to be a religious one, he considered & ...more
Paperback, 1st edition, 264 pages
Published 1991 by دار الحصاد للنشر والتوزيع (first published 1897)
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Glenn Russell
Apr 04, 2015 Glenn Russell rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: favorite-books

Unlike many works of aesthetics which tend to be overly abstract and dense, using technical terms from philosophy and a layering of sophisticated concepts, Leo Tolstoy’s book is clear-cut, employing language and ideas anybody interested in the subject can understand.

Tolstoy is passionate about art and art's place within human experience. For many years, he tells us, he has been observing art and reading about art. And what he sees and reads is not pretty. For instance, he goes to a rehearsal of
...more
Kevin Richey
I’m so conflicted with Tolstoy. I agree with him about half the time, and the other half, I just wish he’d stop being so damn Puritanical. I don’t disagree with Tolstoy’s basic thesis, that art is defined by the following features: a person (the artist) feels a certain emotion, and captures that emotion in his work (a book, poem, concert, whatever) so that the viewer is infected with that same emotion. That works for me. I agree also with Tolstoy that emotional resonance is more important than t ...more
د. حمدان
Sep 01, 2015 د. حمدان rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: literature
ما هو الفن ؟ ليو تولستوي

هذا هو الكتاب الخامس لي مع تولستوي.. وكان لي معه قبلها؛ الحرب والسلام، أنا كارنينا، موت إيفان إيلييتش، حكم النبي محمد. قبل أن أبدأ قراءتي للكتاب كنتُ أتوقع أن يكون كتاباً للفائدة العامة لا أكثر.. ولم أتوقع أن يكون صادماً ومؤثراً لهذه الدرجة.

كان تسلسل تولستوي في الكتاب منطقياً.. فلا بد لمن يشاء أن يضع تعريفاً ما للفن أن يخوض في الأسباب التي تدعو لتعريف الفن.. ومدى أهميته.. ثم المرور على كل التعاريف التي وضعها كل من سبقوه.. ورغم موسوعية هذا الكتاب في كل ذلك إلا أنه بدا في م
...more
خُزامَى
Nov 15, 2015 خُزامَى rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
اﻵن أستطيع تسمية تولستوي "نبي" بحق...، هذا الإنسان يكتب للجميع، واثق بأنه يكتب حقيقة مشاعره..تردد في الكتابة خمسة عشر عاما..ﻷنه لم يتم كل المعاني التي في عقله و روحه، من الصفحة اﻷولى بل السطر اﻷول تعلم أنه مليء باﻹنسانية، يضع نفسه مكان العامل و رئيس العمل و مكان المتلقي و مكان الفنان..اﻷجمل أنه ما ترك شيء في مجالات الفن في أهم اﻷزمنة إلا ما تحدث عنه، و عن فنانو و كتاب كل مجال، و تحدث برأي العامة و رأيه بكل صدق و نظر بمقياس الجمال و ﻷهم و أصدق محلليه، أيضا اقتباسات لبعض النصوص. .و مقارنتها ﻹظهار ...more
Thomas Rogers
Sep 04, 2012 Thomas Rogers rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
I recently read this book on holiday in Austria.

Fascinating!

I am a Fine Art student attending Falmouth University Cornwall, going into my final year, and a devout follower of Jesus.
Throughout the course of my degree I have constantly struggled to reconcile my beliefs, with fine art.
Most of the time art seemed pretty pointless to me, it seemed completely self-indulgent, and a total waste of my time along with everybody else's - when considering the state of this world and the majority of it's in
...more
الخنساء
تحدث تولستوي عن الفن والأخلاق رابطاً فيما بين الفن والأخلاق.
أيضا علق كثيراً على فترة معينة في تاريخ أوروبا احتكرت فيها الطبقات الغنية الفن، وهو مستاء من ذلك وكثيراً ماكرر نقده لذلك في مواضع متعددة من الكتاب، بالنسبة لتولستوي فالفن والدين مرتبطين، ويجب إخضاع الفن للدين ليتم اخراج فنون عظيمة، الدين يجيب على الأسئلة المتعلقة بالغاية من الحياة وغيرها من الأسئلة الوجودية، فيهذب الإحساس ويربيه ويخضعه لغايات كبرى، بالتالي يولد القدرة على انتاج فن عظيم، أما بالنسبة للطبقات العليا الغنية فتولستوي يحكم عل
...more
هالةْ أمين
Jan 16, 2015 هالةْ أمين rated it it was amazing

كتاب استغرق من صاحبه خمسة عشر عاما من البحث والدراسة والتقصي حتى يكتب ويجيب عن هذا السؤال بإلمام تام وبصورة تنم عن شبه رضا عما كتب وألف
لهو جدير بأن يكون كتابا جيدًا وجدير بأن ينال التقييم العالي

من الصعب أن أوجز أهم محاور الكتاب وأن أجيب عن سؤاله ماهو الفن في أسطرٍ قليلة
لكن يكفيك أن تعلم مدى إخلاص هذا الرجل اتجاه قضيته التي تبناها ومدى حبه لما يعمل

لقد اضطر أن يثقف ويعلم نفسه على مدى تلك السنين فيما يتعلق بأمور الفن من موسيقى وغناء ورسم ونحت وتمثيل وتأليف
حتى يدرك جميع الوجوه وجميع المدارس ويلم أقص
...more
Ben
May 25, 2015 Ben rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Good works of art to Tolstoy: the works of Victor Hugo, the novels of Charles Dickens, some of the tales of Gogol and Pushkin, the writings of Maupassant, the comedies of Molière (whom Tolstoy refers to as "the most excellent artist of modern times," according to this translation by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky), the writings of Dostoevsky, Schiller's Robbers, Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, Adam Bede by George Eliot, Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote, a handful of paintings ...more
Todd
Nov 16, 2008 Todd rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Recommended to Todd by: H.O. Mounce
Tolstoy's work in aesthetics, What is Art? deals with two main issues: (1) Is there a moral justification for the lives, money, and resources spent in the artworld, and (2) What is the nature of art? Tolstoy claims that the nature of genuine art is to transfer feelings from the artist to others, thereby uniting the artist and audience; thus, art is a means of communion. And Tolstoy argues that there is no justification for most of what passes as art in the contemporary world. Most of it, he says ...more
Ráid
May 28, 2014 Ráid rated it it was amazing
Shelves: favorites
. اتخيل نفسي وأنا طفل واقف أمام نافذة تكثُف عليها البخار و تولستوي يمسح بكمّ قميصه على الزجاج حتى أستطيع أن أرى من خلاله مايراه هو بوضوح.

اقرأوه يارفاق. أمّا أنا فقد وصلني إحساس ما أشعر بأني أعرفه جيداً داخلي عن الفن من قبل أن أتعلم القراءة.

* يوجد نسخة إلكترونية من الكتاب، لكن اعتقد أنها ناقصة بعض الصفحات عند النهاية.
Pavel
- What has started as a religious and folk art, turned into art for rich estates. Art for rich people is what gives them some sort of pleasure (different kinds of beauty)
- Religious art was pushed aside and all money, critics, art schools were concentrated in art for rich estates.
- True art has to express some feeling that was experienced by an artist him/herself, while art for rich estates demands beauty and grace, each time more and more sophisticated.
- That art for rich estates, which nowdays
...more
Kennedy Ifeh
Jul 29, 2014 Kennedy Ifeh rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
What is Art by Leo Tolstoy presents Tolstoy’s views on the question of what a good work of art should entail. The book attacks the foundation of modern art. It gives flesh to my own critical impressions about contemporary literature, which has become synonymous with poetry, style, beauty and all sort of nonsense.

True to Tolstoy, the book starts with details of his own experience. He attends a rehearsal of one of the ordinary new operas of his days. He recounts that the event made no impression i
...more
Miguel
Aug 20, 2013 Miguel rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: resenha-sqf
O que é e quais são os requisitos mínimos para que algo produzido por alguém ou pela natureza, seja um quadro, uma música, um livro, seja designado como obra de arte? Como distinguir a arte sublime da cópia ou da falsa arte? Qual o valor da arte? Respostas a estas e outras perguntas sobre Arte, que estetas e pensadores ao longo dos séculos tentaram encontrar uma solução, são abordadas numa obra de carácter ensaístico sobre um tema que «me é próximo — a arte», diz Tolstói, o autor do livro O Que ...more
Ryan
Apr 03, 2015 Ryan rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Art is an infection of feeling and experience. Despite the title and author, this is a down to earth layman's discussion on the definition of art. You don't need to have any particular passion for the arts to enjoy this book. It's more about art's impact on societal issues. You will never go to a museum or art gallery and see things the same afterwards.
Brian
Jul 15, 2008 Brian rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Just read it. If you come up with a better definition than old Leo's, let me know.
Dorothy Dunn
It raised some interesting points, but it is a little outdated, and Tolstoy's increasingly impassioned views upon Christianity tend to cloud the last few chapters on what art should be; he is shamelessly unimpressed with art depicting any "voluptuous" or "erotic" scenes, seeing lust as a vice to be rallied against, his staunch stand against this means any art depicting the naked figure is written off as counterfeit art. Just one example of his personal beliefs clouding the universal view of how, ...more
John
May 14, 2013 John rated it it was ok  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: philosophy
WHAT IS ART? starts out all nice and reasonable, so it's a bit of a surprise just how bizarre it gets in later chapters. Tolstoy took an awful long time to write this, and it sort of feels as though he went senile about halfway through. Perhaps needless to say, Tolstoy is an incredibly tough critic to please. Almost nothing passes muster with him, and, being an insufferable grump, he certainly wouldn't have been the type of guy I'd have liked to catch a movie with.
Another problem with the book
...more
Aya
The first time I read Tolstoy I wanted to throw up. We have a collection of his "Short Fictions" and there were a few passages about women that made me feel uniquely uncomfortable. There's a lot of anxious power behind his words (reading him in the original must feel like falling down a staircase) This is an extremely well written book at times but also, ridiculous. The vivisection of Wagner and Beethoven leave us..miffed. Yes at times he is right (should Wagner be included in the canon? I am no ...more
Jeff
Mar 26, 2015 Jeff rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Recommends it for: my fellow art snobs
Recommended to Jeff by: Anna Karenina
I'm gonna break from tradition and actually write about what i liked rather than just trying (and failing) to express how, where, and why i was amused while reading & thinking about this book.

First of all, i was very amused at many points. Tolstoy's ideas about art amuse me when he gets all, "This is Good and that is Bad." Cracks me up, but i also feel like i understand why he felt that way. And i appreciate his ideals.

I can't imagine anybody else would ever make this comparison, but David S
...more
Jonathan
Jan 31, 2010 Jonathan rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
I can't remember another instance when I disagreed so frequently with an author's argumentation in support of a premise with which I thoroughly agreed.
Tolstoy's answer to his tract's title's question -- Art is ephemeral liberation from the self ("thinking of the key, each confirms his prison" says Eliot towards the end of the piece that was a key, for me at least), it's communion, something like a brief transmission from the interior, a window opening into the heart of what it feels like to be a
...more
Najla
Apr 29, 2012 Najla rated it liked it
بدأ تولستوي في بحث ونقاش موضوع كتابة قبل 15 عاماً من تبلور الفكرة في شكلها النهائي وإصدار الكتاب.
أسس تولستوي فكرته حول كون الفن يجب ان يكون قريبا من البشرية قابلا للفهم ومفيدا بحيث يعطي مشاعر إيجابية للمتلقى ومؤثرا على الانسان البسيط كما هو الحال على المثقف.
لكن ما اختلف فيه مع الكتاب بانه حصر الفن بحالتين فقط، الاولى " الفن الذي ينقل الأحاسيس النابعة من الوعي الديني" وهو بذلك يحدد الدين المسيحي فقط، والثانية "الفن الذي ينقل ابسط الأحاسيس الحياتية التي يفهمها كل الناس وفي كل العالم" لكنه ربط ذلك
...more
Jared Holt
Save yourself some time and just read the back. I get it, he was important and did a lot for something, but this book of essays spends about 100 pages repeating itself. Furthermore, the ideas that he's repeating are dumb. If my friend handed me this book and told me that he had written it, I would stop being his friend because I don't want to be friends with a whiny, arrogant jerk. I guess I sort of feel accomplished since I trudged through this rhetoric, but if you're just trying to expand your ...more
Stacie
Mar 07, 2011 Stacie rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
I liked how this book was organized, and I liked that Tolstoy gave the various definitions of art and beauty were/are...how these definitions have changed over the course of many years. For such a short book, I felt it had a great amount of information and was clear to understand.

Sometimes, Leo even made me chuckle with his opinions of some of the artists (poets, painters and musicians) he discussed.

Does Tolstoy definitively answer the question, What is Art? I am not going to tell you. You have
...more
Benjamin Torres
This book is a great read, in the sense that it will make you question your beliefs not only on art, but on society, religion, science and morality. That being said, I found myself disagreeing with most of what he wrote in the later chapters.
In the first chapters of the book, Tolstoy gives a very good explanation of what many writers, philosophers , and societies though of art and the role it played in their lives, and then argues that the art in europe at that time, was not "real" art but a cou
...more
Srikanth
May 03, 2014 Srikanth rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
A singular work at once conservative and radical, a re-evaluation of the Western tradition that, unlike Nietzsche's rejection of the Christian origin of the modern Western culture, seeks to return to some Church-less version of 'pure' Christianity.

Despite its modest title, the book also serves as an early work of critical theory that not only puts the all-pervasive class conflict under the microscope, but also traces it to a distinctly modern malaise having its origins in the Renaissance.

The n
...more
Grzegorz Albrecht
Feb 01, 2015 Grzegorz Albrecht rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Tolstoy views art as a means of transmitting feelings from an author to readers in an infectious way.

Good art doesn't need interpretation. It is self-explanatory on the level of feelings. Moreover, it should deliver universal Christian values of brotherhood and love to other people. I must say I really like this concept.

I think it's still vivid - the way how Tolstoy ridicules some forms of sophisticated art that are neither simple nor transmit any positive values:

"No matter what insanities appe
...more
Anastasia
I've actually never read anything by Tolstoy, but I bought the book because of his reputation as a great author. Defining art is always a tricky business. I think every artist has a different reason for pursuing their line of work and a different goal they hope to accomplish with their work. I have to admit that I was generally unimpressed with Tolstoy's view of art. I was happy that he made a point of calling Wagner's Ring Cycle ridiculous. I was surprised when he dismissed the ancient Greeks ( ...more
Keith crawford
Definitely one of the most in depth books i've read about art and the task of defining it. Tolstoy has a very strict discernment of what is art and what is not art. Its kinda funny that im criticizing his work though because in the book he explains that critics are one of the three conditions that contribute to counterfeit art. So with that being said, it was awesome!
Ann M
Aug 28, 2007 Ann M rated it liked it  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: nonfiction
A communist, yet still bourgeois view of artists as egocentric and parasitic. He raises good questions, such as how to recognize art, but seems to think that the inability to answer them is the fault of art and artists. I did like his definition of art as spiritual union. But what does that say about people who love reality TV?
Mark B.
Aug 01, 2009 Mark B. rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: museum-books
Read this way back in the day as an undergraduate for a seminar on Contemporary Art Issues. It indeed had an impact on forming my perception of art as an infection of feelings from artist to audience. 20 years later, it's probably worth a re-read...
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Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: Лев Николаевич Толстой; commonly Leo Tolstoy in Anglophone countries) was a Russian writer who primarily wrote novels and short stories. Later in life, he also wrote plays and essays. His two most famous works, the novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina, are acknowledged as two of the greatest novels of all time and a pinnacle of realist fiction. Many consider To ...more
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“The business of art lies just in this, -- to make that understood and felt which, in the form of an argument, might be incomprehensible and inaccessible.” 87 likes
“Art is not, as the metaphysicians say, the manifestation of some mysterious idea of beauty or God; it is not, as the aesthetical physiologists say, a game in which man lets off his excess of stored-up energy; it is not the expression of man's emotions by external signs; it is not the production of pleasing objects; and, above all, it is not pleasure; but it is a means of union among men, joining them together in the same feelings, and indispensable for the life and progress toward well-being of individuals and of humanity.” 25 likes
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