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The Open Society and Its Enemies - Volume 1: The Spell of Plato (The Open Society and its Enemies #1)

4.12  ·  Rating Details ·  1,616 Ratings  ·  73 Reviews
Popper was born in 1902 to a Viennese family of Jewish origin. He taught in Austria until 1937, when he emigrated to New Zealand in anticipation of the Nazi annexation of Austria the following year, and he settled in England in 1949. Before the annexation, Popper had written mainly about the philosophy of science, but from 1938 until the end of the Second World War he focu ...more
Paperback, 376 pages
Published February 21st 1971 by Princeton University Press (first published 1945)
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Matthew Harbowy
Aug 30, 2016 Matthew Harbowy rated it it was ok
Popper's Open Society and its Enemies is devoted to a crushing polemic against Platonism. Plato's Republic is described as a detailed defense of what Popper calls "Closed Society", which is taken to be totalitarian in all its forms.

Platonism is hard to summarize concisely, but roughly amounts to an ontology (that is, the study of reality) which is grounded in the concept of the "form", that of an idealized and unchanging entity which is the pure, unadulterated essence of all objects in reality.
Dec 26, 2015 Clif rated it it was amazing
Have you wondered what Plato was all about or had trouble reading through his lengthy works? Get this wonderful book where an outstanding author does the hard work for you, then lays out the gist of Plato's thoughts in clear, easily and quickly readable prose.

Behind our societies lie influential ideas, philosophies about the best way to organize humanity. In a few cases, the general public might be able to associate a person with an idea - Marx and communism, Jefferson and American democracy - b
Randal Samstag
Jan 12, 2013 Randal Samstag rated it did not like it
Popper's anti-Platonist tract is slander from start to finish; the book that inspired Ronald Levinson to write a 645 page rebuttal (In Defense of Plato). In much of Popper's writing he is a fitting follower of Sextus Empiricus, but here, in a perhaps-understandable post-Hitler and post-Stalin rage, he descends to dogmatic fiction. For example, on the very first page Popper counter-poses two quotes, one from Pericles that "Although only a few may originate a policy, we are all able to judge it" t ...more
محمد  النعمه
ينتقد كارل بوبر في كتابه " المجتمع المفتوح وأعداؤه - الجزء الأول ) نظريات الفيلسوف أفلاطون السياسية ، حيث يوضح موقف أفلاطون من الديموقراطية .. ورغم نقد أفلاطون للإستبداد السياسي إلا أن بوبر وصف برنامج أفلاطون السياسي بالأستبداد الخالص ..

ويقول بوبر " غالباً ما تدعي النزعة الإستبدادية حبها للحرية " الحقة " ، وثناء أفلاطون على الحرية كمقابل للطغيان يحمل تماماً نبرة ذلك الحب المزعوم " ..

Steve Evans
Apr 01, 2012 Steve Evans rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
This is one of the most important books written in the 20th century, taken with its second volume - a searching analysis of the modes of thinking of "development" that takes in Plato, Hegel, and Marx. The best edition is this one, that keeps more detailed analysis in wee tiny print in appendices - but be sure to get the full Monty as much of this is fascinating.

People have tried to defend Plato against Popper's savage attack on his political theories, but it's pretty hard really. Plato was polit
Kyle van Oosterum
Feb 22, 2016 Kyle van Oosterum rated it it was amazing
Shelves: philosophy
An incredible work on Plato yielding one of the most important interpretations of his philosophy of all time. We tend to idealize the great Athenian philosopher but Karl Popper, a philosopher of science, sets the record straight with this scathing indictment of his philosophy and its cruel implications. Plato, necessarily was an enemy of democracy due to his best friend and tutor Socrates having been democratically elected to be executed. He fought through his philosophy to restrain such a syste ...more
Mar 21, 2016 hayatem rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: أخرى
"إن حضارتنا إذا ما أريد لها أن تبقى وتستمر، فينبغي أن تقلع عن عادة الدفاع الأعمى عن أولئك المفكرين العظماء. فهؤلاء الرجال العظماء ليسوا معصومين من الخطأ."
-كارل بوبر

يعد هذا الكتاب مدخلاً نقدياً لفلسفة السياسة والتاريخ.، وهو فحص لمبادىء إعادة البناء الاجتماعي من أفلاطون بوصفه "الفيلسوف المقدس" . ووصولاً إلى الذين يشعلون الحروب، مروراً بالماركسية والهيغلية وغيرها من الفلسفات الشمولية المغلقة.

وبتصنيف بوبر لتاريخ التطور الثقافي للإنسان إلى مرحلة قبلية هي مرحلة ما قبل الإغريق، والمرحلة الحضارية مع الإ
Mar 19, 2012 Tom rated it really liked it
This is a thorough repudiation of Plato's political and moral philosophy. Although I am definitely not any sort of historian or authority on the nature of Plato's philosophy, Popper is convincing enough to make me really question the "idealization" of Plato he so often mentions.

My criticisms are not of Popper's treatment of Plato, but of some of his other contentions on the subject of individualism/collectivism and ethics. Popper himself creates a table in which individualism is opposed to colle
John Gurney
Mar 26, 2015 John Gurney rated it it was amazing
Popper brilliantly shows how Plato was no friend of democracy or freedom (the "open society"). This highly influential work is fascinating, yet, highly readable.
Maria Borland
Jan 15, 2010 Maria Borland rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
Popper begins 150 pages of endnotes with an apology for those books he was unable to consult due to wartime (WWII) conditions. This sense of humility and thoroughness pervades Poppers work. Any satisfying soundbites - 'what we want is to moralize politics and not to politicize morals' - are invariably preceded by pages of meticulous argument and textual reference. A careful avoidance of polemic and generalisation enhances Popper's case against hitoricism and essentialism as they appear not only ...more
Mar 29, 2016 Ogan rated it really liked it
An essential book for the person who is looking for the roots of hatred of individualism, human intellect and human creativity. Plato was the first in line to openly and intellectually declare war on the individual, his poisonous ideas in time fueled many dangerous ideologies including mainstream religions and K.Popper, being the knight defender of egalitarianism, freedom of thought and expression and individualism shows us, NO reveals us how Plato, so called hero of philosophy was actually a mo ...more
This is brilliant. It's a radical re-reading of Plato which argues that, in his authoritarian vision of the perfect state, he is the forerunner of totalitarianism oppression (Nazism, Stalinism) and the enemy of true political freedom. Perhaps the most unsettling claim, for philosophers anyway, is that Plato's use of the character of Socrates in his dialogues is a complete distortion of what the real Socrates stood for - the opposite, in fact. The book is well-argued, clear, and - apart from some ...more
May 23, 2009 Rebecca rated it really liked it
"If we dream of a return to our childhood, if we are tempted to rely on others and so be happy, if we shrink from the task of carrying our cross, the cross of humaneness, of reason, of responsibility, if we lose courage and flinch from the strain, then we must try to fortify ourselves with a clear understanding of the simple decision before us. We can return to the beasts. But if we wish to remain human, then there is only one way, the way into the open society. We must go into the unknown, the ...more
Mahmoud EL Agamey
أعداء المجتمع المفتوح هي الأفكار الشمولية التي تتضمن شموليتها انغلاقها فهي تقدم تصورا متكاملا منتهيا لتكون وتطور المجتمع التاريخي ومن هنا فهي تؤدي بالضرورة إلى الوقوف في وجه الأفكار المخالفة بل وقمعها ومن هنا ترافقت ، على مدار التاريخ البشري ، المذاهب الشمولية والقمع والديكتاتورية والاستبداد. الشيوعية وستالين النازية وهتلر الأديان والملوك في القرون الوسطى. كانت هذه متلازمة تثبت باستمرار خطر الأفكار الشمولية. المجتمع المفتوح هو المجتمع الديموقراطي الذي لا يحكمه تصور نهائي مثالي محدد بل يسير بخطوا ...more
Dec 05, 2009 David rated it it was amazing
Popper was perhaps unfashionable for loathing Plato, but I can see where he's coming from. Plato's Republic would have been a dehumanising hell on earth if ever it was instigated. But I feel Plato in his talking about the different classes of society being strictly controlled had in mind the warring factions of the psyche rather than an actual society, so he's off the hook as far as I am concerned. I liked his discussions of Hegel's historicism, however, and of the ways in which historicism with ...more
Mahmoud Omar
Jul 19, 2012 Mahmoud Omar rated it it was amazing

في رفض العودة والسكون، في درء النظريّات، التاريخانيّة واليوتيوبيا والشموليّة، وفي الدفع نحو مجتمع مفتوح: مثابرة في المجهول، واللايقيني، وغير الآمن، "مستعينين بما قد يخططه لنا العقل بقدر إمكاننا من أجل الأمان والحريّة معًا".
Rui Coelho
Aug 11, 2015 Rui Coelho rated it it was ok
A good enough critique of Plato's political philosophy, but the theoretical framework is vague and unclear. Terms as Historicism and Open/Closed Society are so broad that their meaning seems to change according to the author's convinience.
Straightforward and coldly logical criticism of sociological historicism as seen first in Plato, and later by Hegel and Marx (Vol. 2). Lucid and thorough.
Abdulla Alali
Aug 08, 2014 Abdulla Alali rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
الثورة على الحرية
Luke Echo
I should probably re-read Plato's Republic after this.
Sep 14, 2016 Torsten rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Shelves: philosophy
ეს გერმანული გამოცემა , რომელიც XX ასევე მნიშვნელოვანმა ავსტრიელმა ფილოსოფოსმა - ფეიარბენდმა თარგმნა , იმანუელ კანტს ეძღვნება - " ფილოსოფოსს თავისუფლებისა და ადამიანურობისა", რაც შემთხვევითი არაა. თავად ცნება ღია საზოგადოებისა, უფრო სწორედ, ღია - დემოკრატიული საზოგადოების საფუძვლების დაფუძნებაში კანტს დიდი წვლილი მიუძღვის. სწორედ კანტი, რომელსაც პოპერი უკანასკნელ განმანათლებლად მოიხსენიებს, აფუძნებს ადამიანის ღირსებასა და თავისუფლებას გონსა და ზნეობაზე. ადამიანმა საკუთარ თავზე, საკუთარ ქმედებაზ ...more
Feb 18, 2013 J-Man rated it liked it  ·  review of another edition
Užasi Drugog Svetskog Rata, zlo do kojeg su doveli totalitarni režimi, kako nacional-socijalizam tako i komunizam u Rusiji, naveli su mnoge autore da se duboko zapitaju kako je do tako poražavajućih ishoda moglo da dođe, odnosno da preispitaju celokupnu istoriju zapadne civilizacije, pre svega istoriju ideja koje su intelektualci zastupali. Danas je opšte prihvaćeno mišljenje da takvi zločinački režimi nisu nikakvi izuzeci od toka evropske misli već da upravo iz nje proizilaze, odnosno da su nje ...more
Sep 12, 2016 blakeR rated it really liked it
I'm still in some shock from the utter thrashing that Popper perpetrates upon Plato, maybe the most venerated philosopher in the history of the world. For that alone the book is exceedingly welcome, although I'm admittedly no expert on ancient Greek philosophy, so it's not prudent to accept everything Popper says on just his word. Indeed, one of the problems I had with the book is that, despite his various reminders that he means nothing personal, and that he still holds Plato in the highest est ...more
Elliott Bignell
Apr 12, 2015 Elliott Bignell rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
Writing close to the time of the Anschluss in his native Austria, Popper had reason to see the threat to open society as pressing. It is all the more interesting, then, that he devotes an entire volume to the Platonic roots of authoritarian statism and social conservatism. Fascism is a slippery beast and not easily pigeon-holed, but Popper reminds us with drive and clarity that the threat to open society and the drive towards statism in his time was as much a creature of the socially conservativ ...more
Lisa (Harmonybites)
Sep 27, 2012 Lisa (Harmonybites) rated it it was amazing
Recommends it for: Those Interested in Political Philosophy
This book about one of the fundamental thinkers of Western Civilization was written in the shadow of the fascist threat to that civilization, from Popper's first conception of the book in 1938 to its publication in 1943. A blurb on its back cover describes the book as "a survey of Greek philosophy... a history of the rise and fall of Athens, a formal philosophical critique of idealism... and a defense of clarity, scientific method, and democratic procedure." I'm not sure if this should be read b ...more
Aaron Crofut
This is an absolutely devastating critique of Plato, which is made all the more impressive by the author and the reader openly acknowledging Plato's incredible intellectual powers. Plato spotted one of the greatest problems in both politics and individual human life, that of our lack of permanence and lack of truly objective guideposts to direct our actions, and came up with an amazingly elegant solution to the problem. Unfortunately, that solution is totalitarianism.

I've read most of Plato's w
Jun 24, 2015 Tiago rated it really liked it  ·  review of another edition
A sociedade Aberta é uma crítica violenta e radical ao Totalitarismo, que, segundo Karl Popper se baseia no "historicismo" e no naturalismo ético propalados por Platão. Apesar de já ter lido uma crítica muito veemente do estimado Bertrand Russell, Popper dá-lhe uma sistematização e profundidade que, por vezes, parecem fantásticos.

Faz o retrato de um Palão traiçoeiro, autoritário, antidemocrático e intelectualmente desonesto que avança o seu projeto coletivista organicista e totalitário de uma fo
Dec 24, 2013 Sam rated it it was amazing

A fantastically written and powerfully relevant book. Popper lays the groundwork for a larger critique of historicism, an idea prevalent in the social sciences that claims history follows some set of logical or scientific laws that allow us to predict the future or make knowledge claims about how we ought to achieve societal and political change. Popper has in mind a critique primarily of Marx and Hegel and their theories of history, but in this volume, he opts for an in depth look at Plato's Re

ديـــــنا العثامين
قراءتي الاولى لكارل بوبر وسأوجز ما فهمته من هذا الكتاب المهم والصعب
يركز بوبر على نقد لسلطه اين كانت ، ومن ضمنها سلطة افلاطون التي جعلته اسطورة الاخلاق والمبادئ الفاضله من حيث انه يتناول كلامه في "المدينه الفاضله " ويقوم بنقده ..
يتدرج بداية بعرض مفهوم التاريخانيه وهي امكانيه التنبؤ بالمستقبل البشري نتيجه الاعتقاد ان الحياه تسير على قوانين ثابته ، فالكون وفق هيراقليطس هو مجموع التغيرات التي تحدث فلا شيء ثابت لكن هذه الجقيقه كانت صعبة التقبل فاتبعها بقانون الثبات الذي ينص على ان كل شيء سيتغير وهذا
Dec 25, 2011 Marvin rated it it was amazing  ·  review of another edition
A brilliant continuation of Poppers theory of science into the political realm: political systems need to be corroborated just like scientific theories. Utopian ideals will probably never work as envisioned and trying to rebuild a society to fit them might do more harm than good. A better way is to find the worst flaw of the current system and fix that ... repeat until no flaws left.
Apart from proposing this simple and attractive program of developing our society, Popper paints an interesting an
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Sir Karl Raimund Popper was born in Vienna on 28 July 1902. His rise from a modest background as an assistant cabinet maker and school teacher to one of the most influential theorists and leading philosophers was characteristically Austrian. Popper commanded international audiences and conversation with him was an intellectual adventure - even if a little rough -, animated by a myriad of philosoph ...more
More about Karl R. Popper...

Other Books in the Series

The Open Society and its Enemies (4 books)
  • The Open Society and Its Enemies
  • The Open Society and Its Enemies - Volume Two: Hegel and Marx
  • After the Open Society: Selected Social and Political Writings

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“But the secret of intellectual excellence is the spirit of criticism ; it is intellectual independence. And this leads to difficulties which must prove insurmountable for any kind of authoritarianism. The authoritarian will in general select those who obey, who believe, who respond to his influence. But in doing so, he is bound to select mediocrities. For he excludes those who revolt, who doubt, who dare to resist his influence. Never can an authority admit that the intellectually courageous, i.e. those who dare to defy his authority, may be the most valuable type. Of course, the authorities will always remain convinced of their ability to detect initiative. But what they mean by this is only a quick grasp of their intentions, and they will remain for ever incapable of seeing the difference.” 33 likes
“Nature consists of facts and of regularities, and is in itself neither moral nor immoral. It is we who impose our standards upon nature, and who in this way introduce morals into the natural world, in spite the fact that we are part of this world. We are products of nature, but nature has made us together with our power of altering the world, of foreseeing and of planning for the future, and of making far-reaching decisions for which we are morally responsible. Yet, responsibility, decisions, enter the world of nature only with us” 21 likes
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